Thus, their s are available from at least one source: guidestar. The first school has four individuals identified as principal, while the II has two. Yet, the total number of students is less than ? And with scores in the 20 percentile? So what is all this money buying? Please note that Mr. His highest compensated employees were also handsomely rewarded e. This is very dangerous to students.
These policies are based on statistical manipulation. There needs to be more honesty. I think it would be interesting to eventually interview graduates, and to get feedback from parents whose children have been in the school, randomly selected. There is a lot of nepotism, many staff get management position just for being liked and part of the on crowd, many employee rights are mismanaged resulting in mistreated staff. Many people are set up, insurance fraud equipment is stolen, hcz claims stolen equipment with insurance, meanwhile higher up plan and scam to loot.
When confronted everyone acts like it was a clerical error. Hahahah I have seen to much. Louis Twin Cities Other Countries. Gary Rubinstein's Blog Has Moved! Here are seven consecutive years of enrollment statistics I got from there: So the 62 graduates in had been the 97 6th graders in Emily Becker. BTW, this same metric is applied to public school systems. Live by the sword…. Cosmic Tinkerer. Steve M. Michael Paul Goldenberg. That is not what this blog is about. Will Fitzhugh. Waiting for Superman to Tell the Truth? Judith Grodin. The Subscribe to this blog feed Sign Up.
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Intensely possessive feeling for money makes Americans to practise their work ethic to materialize their dreams. As American Dream was the throat-cutting rivalry with others as well as with self, in a way of individual upward progress. It was quite natural that many low-determining souls and day-dreamers failed to attain the pace of the world around them leaping towards the success.
They became victims of frustration and it was the high time to encourage them for instilling the air of confidence in them. Orison Swett Marden, famous advisor and the editor of Success magazine wrote more than forty books on the theme of success. His book, Pushing to the Front: or, Success Under Difficulties, was the practical treatise of success. Marden himself had experienced both upward and downward mobility in the life. He justifies his advice by appealing people to memorize the following lines of Ella Wheeler Wilcox. The deep conviction in the words Marden believes, definitely, uplifts the morale.
I am success. Though hungry, cold, ill-clad, I wander for awhile, I smile and say: It is but for a time- I shall be glad Tomorrow, for good fortune comes my way. God is my father, he has wealth untold; His wealth is mine, health, happiness and gold Huber In his means to success, infinite mind plays the major role. To him healthful and hopeful joyous, optimistic and uplifting mind longing for success helps to bring the dreams come true.
Cultivating thoughts of higher degree by using divine power of the mind, one can fulfil the desires of upward mobility. Norman Peale associates health of mind with the doubtless worship of the Creator. It is the tireless endeavour to attain the long cherished idea of success and upward mobility. The uniqueness of cultural legacy, deep religious conviction and virtuous character ethic made the idea of success household of every American. Regarding this incident the conversation between the author,James Adams and his editor, Ellery Sedgwick is quite remarkable.
It focuses the American mentality about American Dream. This American psyche and passion for unique American Dream is the genuine driving force for every American towards success to fulfill the dream. During the period of expansion and prosperity, particularly upto late nineteenth century and pre-Depression years, American Dream seemed to be the national virtue which provided factual base to the wide spread belief that it can be attained with sufficient vitality and devotion.
Obviously, the religious, political and socio-economic platform created and sustained for long, was distinctly favorable for the fulfillment of American Dream. Charles R. Hearn, in his work The American Dream in the Great Depression, registers his conclusion : … our belief in rugged individualism, equality of opportunity, laissez-faire capitalism, social classlessness, the gospel of work, self-reliance, material acquisitiveness and ambition is no where more clearly illustrated in story of American Success- the story of poor boy to raises himself to prominence through hard work, preservances and honesty 4.
American Dream is the story of obscurity to wealth. The concept of American Dream captivated the curiosity of the world. Leavis, in his treatise, Determinations elaborately focuses on literary criticism. Undoubtedly, American Dream is the everlasting movement influencing American civilization, social order and social health; it is quite natural to trace the reflection of American Dream as a story of success as one of the predominant features of American literature.
Throughout the history, American Dream of success has had extremely important influence on the values of ordinary Americans. Every sort of literary genre was devoted to American Dream, singing the story of success and its irreplaceable position in American way of life. The values and the principles cherished in these literary forms, nourish glory of traditional myth of success. During the progressive era, before the Great Depression particularly, in twenties, it was formula of literature that the fictional hero must achieve material success before he can win the love of his dream girl.
As in twenties, idea of success, resulted through perfect co- ordination between principles and performance, was at its highest prosperity. It was true that, worship of success and prosperity made America as prosperous Utopia, where the opportunities for self-made man were limitless. The literary practitioners of myth of success are quite careful, perceptive and imaginative observers of the social and human reality reflected in American way of life.
While referring the literary specimen of the age, it seems that the primary purpose was to focus on American Dream as cultural phenomenon. The literary figures of America and the critics as well focused on American Dream as an inevitable aspect of American society. So far, the study of literary works contains the social approach towards the myth of success treating as social and cultural phenomenon.
Mere content interpretation was not the ultimate objective of the critics of American literature but along with content interpretation, the role of the myth of success is explored and analyzed by many of the writers. The self-success of self-made man and his religious obligation towards the service of society is the safer way marching towards the salvation.
He uses the magic language of myth of success which transforms Jesus as the inspirer character. The heading of the chapters, the social man, the outdoor man, his advertisement, the founder of modern business etc. He equates Lord Christ with a successful businessman. Barton frequently uses the Emersonian concept that there is in everybody dwells the divine power. This potential divine power must be practically performed by ambitious men to attain the material success. The character-ethic as well as the work-ethic both are equally developed and emphasized by Barton in his philosophy.
In his final chapter of The Man Nobody knows, he glorifies the protestant ethic that the business is the religion. To him there is no difference between business activities undertaken and religious services. To be, wholeheartedly indulge in business activities is not selfishness rather it is a will of God, sacred task and part of humble worship. It is the work of almighty God which He cannot complete without the help of men.
The puritan ideal of work-ethic is reaffirmed in many of the literary works with the common morale that lasting success can come only if one practices conventional virtues, industriousness, aggressiveness and ambition. The puritan ideal, persistently elaborated through religious literature, instills the idea that hard work and success are the virtues. Success and successful man is at the very center of the religious as well as the historical novels. The historical novels like, Captain from Castle by Samuel Shellabarger and The Black Rose by Thomas Costain exemplify the theme of importance of quest of success in life, the success which can be attained by adventurous deeds.
In a renowned historical novel The Money Man of Thomas Costain, the protagonist, Jacques Coeur is an absolute entrepreneur, he wants to extend his business because he believes in the expansion of commerce and trade can only uplift the standard of living and the better standard of living is only way to world peace. If the material needs are satisfied, the hunger is fulfilled; half of the reasons of the wars and disputes can be settled.
Most of the historical novels, predominantly deal with idealization of entrepreneurial dream of fabulous success which captures the attention of American people and enroots the thirst for success among them. Generally, the portrayals of the heroes depicted, if not shown completely isolated at least, we can see them having weaker emotional ties with others, in comparison with their commitment and dedication towards their task producing material prosperity.
At the end, always, the career- dominated isolated individuals are consoled by the reward of success and when one is successful, he is successful by all means. The magnet of his success makes people to gather around him to honor and appreciate. If they are not willingly coming to him, using his monetary power he compels them to come by him. So, individual isolation in the process of upward mobility can neither be a sacrifice nor a compromise. The social structure, in which the heroes and even conflict-ridden women live to strive hard for the achievement is the general backdrop at success literature.
Where the success aspirers are at the center of the focus ready to live and die for the dreams. In nineteenth century writers like, Fenimore Cooper, Hawthorne and Mark Twain visualized harmonious relationship in the society, along with the glorification of the harmony they have boldly criticized the inadequacies of the fractured social structure.
The society fragmented and alienated, competitive and individualistic, is the world of Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Upton Sinclair and Fitzgerald to focus on the disillusions and degeneration of the dream. Naturally, their respective novels like Sister Carrie, An American Tragedy and The Great Gatsby comment on the success theme and its tragic consequences. So to say, the American fiction and other literary genres closely concentrate on social questions and boldly tackle the realities of the age, interfering the attainment of success rather the realities making the creative writers to redefine the concept of American Dream proving disillusion to many optimistic souls.
In the history of American literature for considerable long time, there was no space for drama and theatre. The novelist and poets were winning the fame by making their literary creation public but the drama was not getting enough exposer, nourish and the response. Ibsen used drama as the effective tool to expose social changes and social oddities.
Many enthusiastic playwrights realized the significance of drama to raise the voice against social questions. The impact of Ibsenian influence proved as stimulus for many early playwrights. James A. Herne, in his play, Mary Fleming, dealt with the problems faced by prostitute heroine in a realistic manner. To him, human action is always emerged from the earnest eager for self-recognition and self-identity.
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The conflict between reality and dream or illusion is the dominant subject of his plays. Unlike other American dramatists like Odets, Miller, Tennessee William, Albee who interpret human effort undertaken in order to fulfill the wills and aspiration based on false values bring inescapable sorrows in the life.
Earnest interest of Americans in day today concrete problems always demanded and supported the plays written as the theme of the success. Sense of alienation and loveliness are other dominant features of the drama closely associated with and resulted through American Dream can be traced as the recurring themes in plays written by many of the playwrights. Broadly speaking, American quest for fulfillment of success, the illusion, the dream and delusion were the prominent features of the American drama.
He expresses his anxiety and pessimism about the success of American experiments : I am going on the theory that the United States, instead of being the most successful country in the world, it the greatest failure…. It is greatest failure because it was given everything, more than any other country. Its main idea is that everlasting game of trying to possess your own soul by the possession of something outside of it; thereby losing your own soul and thing outside of it, too Hearn He holds mobility as the responsible factor for the failure which does not allow dreamers to enroot themselves.
It causes the selfishness and materialistic betrayal. The excessive selfish nature of dream and intense quest for material profit at the cost of spiritual gain and own self, underlines the futility of the dream. To him, truth, reality and the success are the elements of illusion of protective sanctuary. It is an individual ambiguous nature of truth and reality and even human life is beyond any dream.
If life itself is like a dream and faith in the meaning of the life is merely an illusion, then that other dream — the American Dream of success and fulfilment — can have no meaning. Life can be endured by the aid of pipe dreams and liquor but beyond these there is nothing else but death. Sense of alienation and dire frustration is an output of delusion and broken dreams. The dreams and quest for fulfillment, once in progressive era was the driving force which further in the period of depression and post-depression era proved token of failure and frustration. A kind of hollowness and spiritual poverty was the bitter fruits generated by American Dream created illusion and self-deception.
Most of representative playwrights of the thirties and post depression era viewed and depicted American Dream as junk heap of delusions and bitter fantasies. It was the decade of the Depression wherein American valley of democracy turned into the valley of shadow of death. The land of promises suddenly changed into broken promises and shattered aspirations. Self-made man of America who believed in long leap from rags-to-riches, by achieving prosperity and fulfilling the dream of success, shocked by this abrupt shifting to devastating economic downfall.
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The prosperity of America, till twenties, came to an abrupt break in October On Oct. The Wall Street made investors to sell their securities. The farmers lost their lands mortgaged, the businessmen went bankrupt. It was the most devastating incident that the nation ever suffered from. The result of this blow dominated every aspect of American life.
Desperate economical conditions challenged the traditional myth of success as it had never been challenged. With stock market crash and collapse of business and banks, diversification of the picture of rags-to- riches was apparent as riches-to-rags. In fact, the results seemed to destroy the faith in work-ethic and its association with material attainment.
The consequences of the Depression seemed to reject their assumption that enthusiastic and studious young Americans had about success. Certainly, the Depression shows significant disillusionment of many of the ideals associated with the dream of success. Demoralizing discrepancy between expectations and fulfillment rose doubt among thousands of Americans about their religious convictions.
The bitter realities of the age of the Depression made Americans questioning, rethinking, or rejecting the values they cherished for centuries. The grim realities of the Depression touched personally to large number of people belonging to all the classes. The unemployment rose to high range. Now, the problem for Americans was, somehow, to survive themselves from starvation and to provide jobs to their quiet hands. The farmers lost their lands mortgaged, the businessmen went bankrupt, and the investors lost their savings.
The stagnant income and falling wages affected abilities to cope with financial emergencies of middle class and poor sector of the society. It was also observed by the economists that the financial gap was increased between the whites and ignored marginal such as blacks, Jews and up to certain extent women, too. It generated bitterness among the blacks and affected the social structure where already the minorities were marginalized. The economic downfall pushed majority of the population to persistent poverty. The Great Depression was mental, psychological and above all economical blow for the generations lived in a period of adverse transition; from prosperity to Depression.
It was difficult for many American Dream seekers to accept the bleak realities which they never have dreamt and predicted. Devine, a fellow of University of Texas, observes the effect of the Great Depression as : It is difficult to measure the human cost of the Depression.
The material hardships were bad enough. Men and women lived in lean-tos made up of scrap wood and metal, the families went without meat and fresh vegetables for months, existing on a diet of soup and beans. The psychological burden was even greater. Americans suffered through year after year of grinding poverty with not let up in sight. The unemployed stood in line for hours waiting for a relief check, veterans sold apples or pencils on street corners, their manhood — once prized so highly by the nation-now in question.
People left the city for the countryside but they found no salvation on farm, crops rotted in fields because prices were too low to make harvesting worthwhile The economic blow caused difficulties to socio-political run of America. Demoralized Americans were looking forward with anticipation towards the government. Naturally, The Great Depression presented enormous challenges for American leadership. Inability of Republicans availed of opportunity for Democrats to regain the power. Herbert Hoover, then president of America, was the prominent political victim of the Great Depression.
To meet challenges of the Depression, his nationwide appeal of voluntary co-operation failed to regain the trust among the desperate Americans. His call for charities could not do much for suffering citizens. Franklin Roosevelt took an advantage of the opportunity affected by the Depression. On March 4th, took the oath of an office when economy of the nation was on the bank of total collapse. As the philosophy of Franklin instilled value of character-ethic among dream seeker Americans; the words of Roosevelt proved the ray of hope to tackle against the Depression.
New deal programme broadly influenced quality of life and reached into areas hitherto untouched and reached to an apex in Consequently, Americans showed their overwhelming confidence in him and his policies. Of course, emergence of Roosevelt on the horizon of American leadership consoled American Dream seekers. Apart from this, the Depression era made Americans to introspect and reassess their faith in American Dream. American Dream of success when collided with grim realities of economic crisis their attitude towards the dream became endlessly complex, confusing and contradictory.
It was an era of uncertainty and ambivalence. The cynicism and idealism clashed one another. Altogether, it was the age of reaffirmation of old faiths and search for new ones. In fact America was entrapped between glorious past and doubtful future as the consequences of bleak present of the Depression.
The idea of American Dream of success almost tended to American Disillusion. American Dream, promising better life and equal opportunities and the way towards prosperity was deliberately denied to Negros. Carl T. Many states had laws forbidding the education of Negros. The advocates of slavery and white supremacy believed, correctly, that to keep a man in bondage you must denied him the liberating force of knowledge America, the land of opportunity and equal rights, for considerable long time denied civil rights to Negros.
They were deprived of economic, social as well as political power. Even after the civil war, Negros were free on paper but they were still slaves and had not been permitted general requisites for survival in competitive society. There were separate schools and hotels for Negros. The conception of white superiority was advocated and sustained by the progressives as the most conservative element of the society. So, it is quite natural for every Negro to adopt the yardstick to identify his place in American society, asking the question. Even though the blacks were offered the rights, the Ku Klux Klan threatened them to practise the rights.
These conservatives demonstrated their hatred against blacks, aliens, Jews and Catholics. Their violent activities made life of blacks more bleak and miserable. Alongwith Negros collective protest the Harlem Renaissance consoled status of Negros but altogether American Dream for Negros was the dire disillusion and nightmare. Forcibly they were kept aside of the progressive path of American Dream. They were thrown by the bank of main stream, marching towards the success.
In all adversities and difficulties, American Negros were first to be squeezed in the hands of cruel discriminatory policies. The racial discrimination and inadequate education made blacks to suffer a lot. It was, in fact, the fight for existence and identity. The hope and determination of Negros enabled them to sustain consistency and conformity in their fight. But it is quite contradictory to observe that the marginalized Negros had to fight for their fundamental rights and their social identity. As the white institutions failed to fulfill the promises, the black leadership thought of their own institutions to uplift their conditions.
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Their self-help institutions functioned to survive better and console their miserable state. Through these institutions they fulfiled their desire to get education and freedom of religion. Black schools, like churches became community centers. They published newspapers, provided training in trade and farming and promoted political participation.
These tasks undertaken by the black self-help institutions set a certain platform to blacks to rise from the oppressed and the ignored state. The activists of anti-Negro movements targeted such self-help institutions. In the year , in the city of Tennessee alone, 37 black schools were burnt to the ground. Yet, the consistent cry and protest provided energy to blacks to survive and struggle. Keeping the blacks aside, on the one hand, America was working to fulfil the unique movement of American Dream whereas the Negros were struggling for existence.
It was their parallel movement marching slowly but confidently towards their objectives. By the end of the twentieth century, Jews in America were well-established and strongly protesting class. Unlike Negros, the consequences of the general social treatment and their ignored states never made them pessimistic. But it was true that there was certain gulf between American Dream and social realities. It was the problem with the Jews to accommodate the past with the present. The present, making them to dream for the decent life; and the past making them to recall the harsh social realities.
The conflict led them to wander between the extremes of past and present. Consequently, it raised an issue of belonging and individual identity. In America there were six million Jews comprising of approximately 2. In the decade of , fifty thousand immigrants came to America. Major bulk of Jewish immigrants came from Russia, during to , to escape from discrimination and to build a better life. Generally, the hatred of Americans for Jews was basically based on religious indifferences. During the penultimate years of the nineteenth century, the Jews faced discrimination ranging from street-violence to open condemnation through news papers and other media.
In fact, it was systematic and deliberately organized scheme against them. The media openly appealed to non-Jew Americans to exclude Jews from education and employment opportunities. As we have already traced that the education and employment opportunities were the handy equipments to attain the material prosperity and fulfil the American Dream.
An exclusion from education and job opportunities for Jews, was in fact, absolute denial of the platform where they can stand by with the hope of prosperity. Anti-Jewish or anti-foreigners movements of Nativists targeted Jews violently and ruthlessly.
These movements prohibited Jews from joining social clubs, visiting resorts and hotels and even living in certain neighborhood. On April 19 th , in the city of Oklahoma a serious violent act executed against Jew community by the Hate Group. In an incident Jews were killed and were injured. This was an act of sheer Semitism, a religious prejudice against Jews.
In the period of the economic dislocation and socio-political unrest, particularly after World War I, the activities of the Klan movement expanded into the urban areas where Jew population density was thicker. As the alien outsiders, the Jews suffered lot in the hands of Klan activists.
Consistently repeated violent acts of Klans and Hate Groups created the atmosphere of threat and insecurity among the marginalized Jews. At the same time, they had to fight on many fronts. Apart from all the adversities they had to work hard to attain and sustain the American Dream. The wide spread Semitism always kept Jews to struggle for their survival. The struggle against the Semitism subdued their objective of attainment of success. The migrant Jews who came with the golden dreams in their eyes suffered lot by the discriminatory powers. The feeling of insecurity, inaudibility, invisibility and facelessness were the true problems for the Jews.
In fact their alien status kept them struggling for the fulfillment of their objectives and made them to search their identity in the course of American Dream and its realization. Despite many oddities, their view and efforts towards fulfilment were quite positive and optimistic but unfortunately it was ever ignored by the natives.
So the dream appears for many of the Jews, a disillusion and degeneration of their hopes. In American literature, specifically in American drama association of American Dream and Jews is diversely presented. In colonial America, as elsewhere in the world, civil law did not recognize the equality of men and women. This very reason excluded women from socio-political equality. In the course of the time, suffragists worked to provide respectable status to women.
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The consequences of the changing condition of nineteenth century life altered the status of women. Hitherto, the women were even considered as inferior and subordinate to male which denied them access to the way of progress. In the s and s, women, blacks and other minorities continued there struggle for the treatment of equality and common opportunities. But the gender biased orthodox male mentality was of the view that enough is done for them. This perception slowed the pace and share of contribution of women to economic sector.
Yet, later on the affirmative reactions made jobs for women more accessible. In fact, it was the result of shifting of rural or agrarian culture to urban culture. The vital social and economic institutions began to breakdown under the impact of economical and social change. Though, in the beginning, most women workers got the low paying jobs and the fields ranging from stenographers to maids, they had to work in the stereotyped fields as teaching and nursing.
As men were principal bread winners, women were to cook, clean and rear the children. Even though the opportunities availed in the traditional and stereotyped fields, it was a kind of consolation to their prolonged secondary status. The feminist movement and the movement for women emancipation played vital role in generating an awareness about equality and opportunity for women.