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Journal of School Psychology, 46, — Murphy, P. Hall, P. Soler Eds. London: SAGE publications. International Journal of Educational Development, 24 , Teaching large classes: The international evidence and a discussion of some good practice in Ugandan primary schools. International Journal of Educational Development , 26 1 , Ormrod, J.
Educational psychology — Developing learners. Pearson: Boston. Education for All Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Vavrus, F. International Journal of Educational Development , 29 3 , Bartlett Eds. Rotterdam: Sense. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centered pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Westbrook, J. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. Department for International Development.
Policies that support professional development in an era of reform
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Classroom techniques. How to improve teaching practice? Experimental comparison of centralized training and in-classroom coaching. Classroom observation sub-study, evidence from India. Other elements for the analysis would be the national reports to the United Nations treaty bodies, as well as reports produced within the framework of the Decade at national and international levels.
Stage 2 : Setting priorities and developing a national implementation strategy. A national implementation strategy for human rights education in the primary and secondary school system that identifies objectives and priorities and foresees at least some implementation activities for the period Stage 3 : Implementing and monitoring. Member States are encouraged to undertake as minimum action during the first phase of the World Programme the following:. Main responsibility for the implementation of this plan of action rests with the ministries of education through their relevant agencies dealing with such concerns as:.
The implementation of this plan of action needs the close collaboration of other institutions, namely:. It also needs the support of other stakeholders such as:.
School Leadership: Publications
Having this in mind, funding for human rights education can be made available also within the context of resources allocated to the national education system in general, and in particular by:. Main responsibility for the implementation of the plan of action shall rest with the ministry of education in each country.
The ministry should assign or strengthen a relevant department or unit responsible for coordinating the elaboration, implementation and monitoring of the national implementation strategy. III, paras. In this regard, it could facilitate the establishment of a human rights education coalition of those actors.
The coordinating department or unit would be called upon to provide updated and detailed information on national progress made in this area to the United Nations inter-agency coordinating committee see para. Moreover, the coordinating department or unit would work in close cooperation with relevant national agencies responsible for the elaboration of country reports to the United Nations treaty bodies, in order to ensure that progress in human rights education is included in those reports.
Member States are also encouraged to identify and support a resource centre for collecting and disseminating initiatives and information good practices from diverse contexts and countries, educational materials, events on human rights education at national level. The committee will meet regularly to follow up on the implementation of this plan of action, mobilize resources and support actions at country level. In this regard, it may invite to its meetings, on an ad hoc basis, other relevant international and regional institutions, experts and actors, such as members of the United Nations treaty bodies, the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the right to education and others.
The United Nations treaty bodies, when examining reports of States parties, will be called upon to place emphasis on the obligation of States parties to implement human rights education in the school systems and to reflect that emphasis in their concluding observations. Furthermore, all relevant thematic and country mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights including the Special Rapporteurs and representatives, in particular the Special Rapporteur on the right to education, as well as working groups will be called upon to include systematically in their reports progress in human rights education in the school system, as relevant to their mandate.
The committee may consider seeking assistance of regional and subregional institutions and organizations with a view to monitor more effectively the implementation of this plan of action. International cooperation and support. International cooperation and support towards the implementation of this plan of action will be provided by:. It is indispensable that those actors collaborate closely in order to maximize resources, avoid duplication and ensure coherence for the implementation of this plan of action.
The objective of international cooperation and support will be the strengthening of national and local capacities for human rights education in the primary and secondary school systems within the framework of the national implementation strategy dealt with in section III of this plan of action. The above-mentioned organizations and institutions may consider undertaking, inter alia, the following actions:. In order to mobilize resources to support the implementation of this plan of action, international and regional financial institutions, as well as bilateral funding agencies will be called upon to explore ways of linking their funding programmes on education to this plan of action and to human rights education in general.
At the conclusion of the first phase of the World Programme, each country will undertake an evaluation of actions implemented under this plan of action. The evaluation will take into consideration progress made in a number of areas, such as legal frameworks and policies, curricula, teaching and learning processes and tools, revision of textbooks, teacher training, improvement of the school environment, etc. The Member States will be called upon to provide their final national evaluation report to the United Nations inter-agency coordinating committee.
To this end, international and regional organizations will provide assistance to build or strengthen national capacities for evaluation. The inter-agency coordinating committee will prepare a final evaluation report based on national evaluation reports, in cooperation with relevant international, regional and non-governmental organizations. The report will be submitted to the General Assembly at its sixty-third session However, beyond the ensuing diversity, common trends and approaches can be identified for developing human rights education.
The five components set out in the present appendix in a generic fashion are based on existing worldwide successful experiences as well as studies and research, including consultations carried out in preparation of the present plan of action and the midterm and final evaluations of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, The components compile good practice, which the main actors of this plan of action are invited to strive towards gradually and progressively.
The components are indicative and not prescriptive. They propose options and recommend possible courses of action, and should serve as a reference tool. They will need to be adapted to each context and national education system in line with the national implementation strategy of this plan of action. Education policies are understood as clear and coherent statements of commitments.
Prepared at the relevant government level, mainly national, but also regional and municipal, and in cooperation with all stakeholders, they include principles, definitions and objectives and serve as a normative reference throughout the education system and for all educational actors. Human rights education, which promotes a rights-based approach to education, is to be stated explicitly in objectives of educational policy development and reform, as well as in quality standards of education. The rights-based approach to education implies that the school system becomes conscious of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Human rights are infused and implemented in the whole education system and in all learning environments. Human rights are included both as an educational aim and as quality criteria of education within key reference texts such as the constitution, educational policy frameworks, educational legislation, and national curricula and programmes.
To this end, the following measures correspond to key features of policy-making for human rights education within the school system:. Effective educational policy development and reform requires both explicit policy statements and a consistent implementation strategy, including clearly defined measures, mechanisms, responsibilities and resources. Such an implementation strategy is a means of ensuring coherence, monitoring and accountability of policies.
It helps avoid a gap between policy and practice, rhetoric and reality, as well as situations where practices are happening, if at all, in a dispersed or inconsistent way, or on an ad hoc or voluntary basis. Human rights education implies changes in the whole education system. But policy statements and commitments per se are not enough to ensure such educational change. Planning policy implementation is a key feature of effective human rights education. The implementation of human rights education policies needs to be in line with current trends in educational governance towards devolution of powers, democratic governance, school autonomy, and sharing of rights and responsibilities within the education system.
The responsibility for the education system cannot or should not lie with the Ministry of Education only, given the multiplicity of stakeholders such as the local government and the school district; head teachers, teachers and other educational staff, their organizations and unions; students and parents; research bodies and training institutions; non-governmental organizations, other sectors of civil society and communities. In addition, the ownership of educational goals and the development of teaching and learning practices by teachers and other educational staff, parents and students needs to be ensured.
In this context, the following aspects are indicative of good practice for the organization of policy implementation and for key implementation measures by national authorities:. The learning environment [b]. Human rights education goes beyond cognitive learning and includes the social and emotional development of all those involved in the learning and teaching process. It aims at developing a culture of human rights, where human rights are practised and lived within the school community and through interaction with the wider surrounding community. To this end, it is essential to ensure that human rights teaching and learning happen in a human rights-based learning environment.
It is essential to ensure that educational objectives, practices and the organization of the schools are consistent with human rights values and principles. Likewise, it is important that the culture and the community within and beyond the school are also embedding those principles. A rights-based school is characterized by mutual understanding, respect and responsibility. It fosters equal opportunities, a sense of belonging, autonomy, dignity and self-esteem for all members of the school community. A rights-based school is the responsibility of all members of the school community, with the school leadership having the primary responsibility to create favourable and enabling conditions to reach these aims.
A rights-based school will ensure the existence and effectiveness of the following elements:. Within the school system, teaching and learning are the key processes of human rights education. The legal and political basis for what these processes entail and how they are to be organized in primary and secondary education need to be provided by the human rights education policies and through the education and professional development of teachers and other educational staff. Introducing or improving human rights education in the school system requires adopting a holistic approach to teaching and learning, by integrating programme objectives and content, resources, methodologies, assessment and evaluation; by looking beyond the classroom; and by building partnerships between different members of the school community.
The following aspects are necessary for achieving quality human rights teaching and learning. They are addressed to policy makers at national and school levels, teachers and other school personnel:. Education and professional development of teachers and other educational personnel. Introducing human rights education in primary and secondary education implies that the school becomes a model of human rights learning and practice. Within the school community, teachers, as the main depositories of the curriculum, play a key role in reaching this aim. It does not include other aspects of the learning environment, such as school supplies, sanitation, health, clean water, food, etc.
The first phase : a plan of action for human rights education in the primary and secondary school systems 9—22 5 A.