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Aufzug, 4. Szene und 5. Aufzug, Gurnemanz Aufzug, 6. Aufzug, 3. Satz: Finale- op. Satz: Lustiges Zusammensein der Leute- op. Satz: Hirtengesang- op. Akt- Puccini Giacomo Sinfonie Nr. Akt, Nr. Satz- Mahler Gustav Sinfonie Nr. Akt, 1. Szene: Introduktion und Chor, 2. Satz- Mahler Gustav Cinderella Ballett Teil, 6. Der Gang zum Richtplatz- op.

Sanctus- op. Satz: Beim Hexensabbat- op. Introduction: Allegro fugato- op. Teil, 3. The original soprano volume of the G. Schirmer Opera Anthology presented a rich selection of predominantly lyric arias. This subsequent additional collection in the series affords an exploration of coloratura and lyric coloratura repertoire in a spectrum of national and historical styles, from Handel to twentieth-century American opera.

We are especially pleased to include several arias which appear for the first time in a modern, clean edition. Non Creda Partagez-vous Mes Fleurs! Was nun weiter? Chor: Hier die Buden, dort die Schenke. The AudioPro Home Recording Course was created to familiarise musicians with the fundamentals of studio recording using explanations and examples that are easy to understand. The text is complemented by hundreds of illustrations and two CDs containing information and audio examples.

Digital Recording Analog Recording Analog vs. Synchronizing Synchronizing Basics Why Bother? Choose Your Weapons Carefully. The present anthology comprises ten anonymous pieces of folk origin and one authentic song originally set for four parts, Riu, riu, chiu, ascribed to composer Mateo Flecha the Elder - It comes from Villamcicos de diversos autores, known today as Cancionero de Uppsala, published in Venice in Its contemporary name is due to the place where the only preserved copy was found. As far as traditional carols are concerned, the most popular ones in Spain are songs from Andalusia and a carol from Catalonia, Fum, fum, fum.

The attractiveness and originality of this music is due to its unconventional melodics, varying rhythmics, containing many syncopations and triplets, asymmetric construction of phrases, interestinlgy used progressions and sound-imitating effects. The present set is the first collection of Spanish Christmas carols offered to Polish choirs. It contains works of low and intermediate difficulty, elaborated for moderately advanced mixed choirs.

Bach's choral-preludes have been handed down to us partly in form of collections put up by the master's own hand, partly in single autographs and contemporary copies. The "Little Organ-Book", has been reproduced in accordance with the edition of Griepenkerl and Roitzsch in the preceding volume.

All the preludes still left have been gathered up in the two following volumes vol VI and VII , with the only exception of some pieces, which have been discovered only recently. Brahms, as appears from his correspondence with Joachim,": was particularly anxious not to include the music of Wagner in his condemnation of the modern tendencies, and it must not be forgotten that the friends did not take the initiative in the matter, but were bound to traverse the im- plied statement that all the eminent musicians of Germany were on the one side.

While we know that the classical forms seemed to him sacred, yet on occasion he found it expedient to modify them in various ways, not from any poverty of his own ideas, but as it were to encour- age the natural development of a living organism. The " new school," for whose thoughts the older forms were ' i. It is idle to guess what might have been the state of musical parties in Germany at the present day if the Weimar school had confined themselves to the accurate statement that a large number of musicians had embraced their principles ; but it is hardly probable that any degree of personal or artistic intimacy could ever have endured between men whose constitutional modesty made them hate all that was tawdry, and those to whom the adulation of a large public was as the breath of their nostrils, and who cared little for the real merits of their music as long as it was likely to surprise or tickle the ears of their audiences.

Liszt's admirable breadth of view, his boundless generosity towards musicians of every kind, and his sur- passing genius as an executant, must have counted for very much in his own day ; but there is no gainsaying the fact that adoption of his methods of composition and ot artistic ideals based upon his, has brought German music into a most singular state at the present time. The extraordinary warmth of feeling exhibited by the new school after the " Declaration " and after the memorable letter written by Joachim to Liszt ' has been, no doubt rightly, ascribed to the great influence wielded by Joachim, and in a lesser degree by Brahms.

Had the " New School " realized how many and how influential were the names that would have appeared below the " Declaration " if its appearance had not been forestalled, it is at least possible that their resentment would not have been so exclusively against Brahms and Joachim ; and it is even possible that Wagner's famous Judenthum in der Musik, the pamphlet which rendered any idea of reconcilia- tion for ever impossible, might never have been written.

The names of those who had promised to support the " Declaration " are referred to in the letters between Joachim and Brahms, but it does not appear that they were made in any way public before the issue of the correspondence in At Hamburg Brahms was busily and congenially occu- pied as conductor of a choir of ladies, on whose behalf he wrote the various sacred and secular works for female voices which are so numerous among his early opus- numbers. Many more were written, but were burnt by the composer, all but a single part second soprano , in which Kalbeck discovered the germs of several mature works.

Brahms played the organ at the ceremony, and Gradener composed a motet for female voices, the effect of which was so good, that " yi. English translation, p. The details of the society, with various reminiscences of members, etc. Meier, writes a series oi Brahms-Erinnerungen, These are largely quoted by Kalbeck, who gives a full account of the society in his Life. Hamburger Courant. Dero- halben sollen sie wie fremdes Eigenthum von den ehr- und tugendsamen Jungfrauen und Frauen in rechter Lieb und aller Hubschheit gehalten werden, auch in keinerlei Weise ausserhalb der Societdt werden.

Will heissen : Zuhorer werden geduldet indessen aber pro ordinario beachtet, was Gestalt sonsten die rechte Nutzbarkeit der Exerdtia nicht beschaf- fet werden mochte. In the first place, it is to be noticed that the members of the Ladies' Choir are to be there. That is to say : they shall undertake to attend regularly the meetings and practices of the Society. If any one shall not obsprve this condition, and if the case should happen which Heaven forfend! On the one hand, it has been suggested that it refers as a phrase usual in Hamburg houses to the periodical " spring cleaning," but it is more probable considering the legal character of the whole document that the " Bank " referred to is the " lange Bank," or shelf, on which deeds were placed in rows, those not immediately wanted being pushed along it, so that "to shove anything along the long shelf " means to postpone it indefinitely.

Conversely, in the above, " I should have swept it out from under the shelf" may bear the meaning suggested in the text, but the general gist of the para- graph is clearly to confine the choral practices to the spring and summer. In the second place, it is to be noticed, that the members of the Ladies' Choir are to be there. That is to say, they shall be punctual to the appointed time.

If any one so transgresses as to be a whole quarter of an hour too late in paying his due respect and attendance to the Society, he shall be fined 2 shillings Hamburg currency. On account of her great merit in regard to the choir, and in respect of her probably highly faulty and unfortu- nate [delicacy of] constitution, a subscription shall be got up for the never-enough-to-be-favoured-and-adored Demoi- selle Laura Garbe, so that she need not pay every time [that she is absent or late], but that a reduced account shall be presented to her at the end of the quarter.

In the third place, the money so collected may be given to the poor, and it is hoped that none of them will be sur- feited therewith. In the fourth place, it is to be noticed, that the music is for the most part confided to the discretion of the ladies. Therefore the honourable and virtuous ladies, married or single, shall preserve it neatly and fairly, like the property of some one else, and it is by no means to go outside the society. In the fifth place : Whatsoever cannot sing with us, we regard as of the neuter gender. That is to say. Listeners are tolerated, only so far as they do nothing that could interfere with the practical utility of the practices.

The above permission is definitely made by the present document, and shall be observed by each and all of the public, until the Ladies' Choir shall come to an end.

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To whom our decisions are submitted [? That lady, who was one of those who signed the document as being a member of the Ladies' Choir, pointed out that in such a document as this her name would be handed down to posterity. It all seems a little childish, and the whole business of the rules has, of course, lost a good deal of what point it ever had, but it seems worth preserving for its quaint phraseology.

Frau Schumann's presence in Hamburg at the date of the docu- ment is denied by Miss May,' but Kalbeck says that she played on 20 April, ten days before the above date, at a concert of Otten's Musical Society, at which Brahms repeated the solo part in his ill-fated concerto. It was awkwardly placed in the programme, and the reception of the first movement was so unfavourable that the composer got up and whispered to Otten, the conductor, that he must decline to go on with the work.

Happily Otten persuaded him to finish it. The episode has nothing in itself remarkable, but in regard to the failure of this work here and in Leipzig, we are in danger of forgetting that ' Life, i. It may or may not have had to do with the composer's slowly formed determination to go and live in Vienna, which he visited in , apparently meaning to remain only a short time. The migration from Hamburg and the ultimate adop- tion of Vienna as a home, is generally and conveniently held to mark the principal division in the outward career of Brahms.

An appointment to the conductorship of the Vienna Singakademie was perhaps the immediate cause of the change of abode, and although the office was only retained for a year or two, yet, by the time Brahms gave it up, Vienna had become so attractive to him that he made it his head-quarters for the rest of his life. The conception and completion of his great Deutsches Requiem occupied him chiefly for the next five years or so. Not that his labours in other fields were unimportant, for the com- positions of the early Viennese period include his two most exacting pianoforte solos, the " Handel " and " Paganini " variations, the two quartets for piano and strings, 0pp.

It is, happily, unnecessary for the ordinary lover of Brahms's Requiem to settle definitely whether it was intended to enshrine the memory of the composer's mother a theory supported by the disposition of the fifth section, the famous soprano solo and chorus, and by the direct testimony of Joachim and other friends , or whether it was, as strenuously argued by Herr Kalbeck, suggested by the tragedy of Schumann's end. Possibly both are in a measure true ; the composer may have been first led to meditate on death and its problems by the death of Schumann — the first deep per- 24 BRAHMS sonal sorrow he can have known — but we know that in chronological sequence its composition followed his own private loss.

Frau Brahms died in , and the Requiem was completed in by the addition of the number already referred to. Before the performance of the first three numbers , the widower had married again, and there are few things more beautiful in Brahms's life than his conduct to his stepmother, over whose interests, and those of her son by a former marriage, Fritz Schnack, he watched with rare loyalty. His father died in , Frau Caroline Brahms surviving her illustrious stepson by five years. About the period of the Requiem, or rather later, came several other works in which a chorus takes part, such as Rinaldo, for male voices, and three of the noblest choral compositions in existence : the Rhapsodie, for con- tralto solo, male choir, and orchestra ; the Schicksalslied and Triumphlied, the last, in eight parts, with solo for bass, in commemoration of the German victories in the war of For three seasons, , Brahms was con- ductor of the concerts of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, and the programmes of the period given in Miss May's Life are enough to fill us with envy.

During this time his music was continually advancing in popularity, and the great public of Vienna was conquered by the remarkable performance of the Requiem there on 28 February, This new attitude of the public gave the cue to the rest of the world, and during a tour in Holland in even the D minor concerto roused enthusiasm when the composer played it at Utrecht. The " Haydn " variations for orchestra were given in various musical centres, always with great success, but it was the first symphony, in C minor, that stamped Brahms as the legitimate representative of the great dynasty of German composers.

As such the work in C minor could hardly be universally accepted at once ; if it had not stirred up opposition and discussion, its real importance might well have been questioned, but by this time Brahms himself most probably cared but little for the opinions of friendly or adverse critics, although his warm heart was always appreciative of the enthusiasm of his intimate friends ; and the verdict of such people as Joachim and Frau von Herzogenberg was always eagerly awaited by him. In many cases their criticisms were followed, and alterations made in deference to them.

The first symphony is one of the great landmarks in the history of Brahms's popularity in England ; for when it was quite new the University of Cambridge offered to the composer and to Joachim the honorary degree of Mus. Joachim would in any case be in England, and Brahms hesitated for some time whether to accept the invitation, but finally refused it in consequence of the publication of a premature announcement concerning his appearance at the Crystal Palace.

He acknowledged the compliment of the University by allowing the first English performance of the new symphony to take place at a concert given by the Cambridge University Musical Society on 8 March, 1 , and it was conducted by Joachim, who contributed his own Elegiac Overture, conducting it himself, and playing the solo part of Beethoven's concerto.

Autograph letter from Brahms to a correspondent unknown but not impossibly Sir George Grove , relating to the death of C. Pohl, the biographer of Haydn, who died in Vienna in April, Facsimile included by kind permission of the Brahms-Gesellschaft, and of W. Barclay Squire, Esq. Translation "Dear and Much Honoured Sir, — " Please accept at this time my thanks and friendly greetings. Things have not altered vsrith us much of late [literally, In our case the recently or quickly passed time has not signified much].

We still deplore our friend most sincerely. I am as grateful as I was before for your expressions of feeling. In the course of the winter I have seen our sick friend often, never without his remembering you affectionately. He never lacked sympathy and loving care, and the excellent people with whom he lived are highly to be commended in that respect. A few days before his death, I went to Italy, and only found your letter when I returned to Thun. My thanks come from the heart, as they must when I think of our friend, the best and most affectionate fellow on earth.

With hearty greetings, "Your devoted, "J. The composer played his new pianoforte concerto with that body in , and an odd result of the friendship with the Duke was the undertaking set on foot by Biilow of taking the Meiningen orchestra to Leipzig, to show how certain works of Brahms should be performed.

The C minor symphony was in the programme, as well as the first pianoforte concerto, which Biilow played, the band accompanying without a conductor. The third symphony Vienna Philharmonic, under Richter, 2 December, and the fourth Meiningen, 25 October, put the crown on the master's orchestral achievements. For about ten years Brahms had now enjoyed the reward of his lifelong work and happy labours. As in the early part of his career his works had been held to be obscure, unintelligible, and ugly, so now a new style of attack on his music was led by Hugo Wolf, when hard up and disappointed, and therefore the more easily to be for- given, although his animadversions were bitterly resented at the time.

In England we are not unfamiliar with the sort of invective which, consciously or unconsciously, has been based upon Wolfs diatribes. With the exception of such irritating experiences — and what great man was ever free from them for long? Surrounded by intelligent and devoted friends who understood all his little idiosyncrasies and humoured him in every way, the routine of his life, with the regular journeys to Ischl or some such resort in the summer, and to Italy in the spring until , must have been tranquil and fruitful in musical suggestion.

For the record of the latest period of his career is really contained in a few casual reminiscences by his intimate friends, and above all in the beautiful works which glorified the last decade of his life. These were partly inspired by the death of Frau Schumann on 20 May, , which was a terrible shock to Brahms ; mentally, he was grievously afflicted by it, and physically he never completely recovered from a chill caught at her funeral. Between this time and his own death the only work he accomplished was the arrangement of a set of eleven chorale-preludes for the organ, written at various dates, though not published till after his death.

In September, , he went to Carlsbad for a cure; he suffered very greatly during the winter, but managed to attend several concerts, such as those given by the Joachim Quartet in Vienna in January when his G major quintet was played with great success , the Philharmonic Concert of 7 March; when his fourth symphony and Dvofdk's violoncello concerto a piece for which he had unbounded admiration were played, and he went twice to the opera. He passed away — the cause of death being degeneration of the liver — in the presence of his kind housekeeper, Frau Celestine Truxa, on 3 April, , s-t the lodging, 4, Carlsgasse, where he had lived quietly for a quarter of a century.

He was buried in the Central Friedhof on 6 April, and many were the memorial concerts given in his honour all the world over. By a strange mischance, a will about which he consulted his old friends Dr. Ultimately a compromise was arrived at, with the result that "the blood relations have been recognised as heirs to all but the library, which is now in the possession of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde ; that Frau Truxa's legacy has been paid, and that certain sums accepted by the societies [the Liszt Pensionverein of Hamburg, the Czerny Verein, and the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde], by which they will ultimately benefit, have been invested, and the income arising from them secured for the payment of the life-annuity to Herr Schnack"' [the son of Frau Caroline Brahms, who died in ].

The first monument to the master's memory was that executed by Hildebrandt, which was uncovered at Meiningen on 7 October, On the seventieth anniversary of the master's birth, 7 May, , a monument, designed by Fraulein Use Conrat, was erected at the grave. Five years later, on the same anniversary, another monument was inaugurated at Vienna, the work of Rudolf Weyr ; and on the " birthday " in a monument by Max Klinger was unveiled at Hamburg, near the entrance to the new Musikhalle, and a com- memorative tablet was placed on the house where Brahms stayed at Diisseldorf.

Houses in which he lived at Vienna, Ischl, and Thun have been decorated in the same way. A Brahms Museum, planned so as to conform exactly to the dimensions of Brahms's rooms at Ischl, and to contain the furniture from those rooms, has been founded at Gmiinden by Dr. Victor von Miller zu Aichholz, who has collected many autographs and personal relics of all kinds.

It would be diflGcult to name any famous man who had so great an objection as Brahms had to the habit of wearing his heart upon his sleeve. He carried his ' Miss May's Life, ii. There are already many hundreds of stories, some of them no doubt true, which show a certain mischievous disposition, especially towards people whom he suspected of a wish to " lionize " him ; but his quiet acts of kindness more than counterbalance these superficial eccentricities, which after all seem more like the small transgressions of a vigorous child.

There were number- less points in which he remained a child throughout his life, as though he trailed his clouds of glory longer than most men. That he should have been devoted to his tin soldiers as a child is of course nothing at all remarkable, but it is rather significant that he should have carefully kept them in his possession until he was twenty-eight years old, and have shown them to his friend Dietrich, saying that he could not bear to part with them. It is undoubtedly true that he was careless in the matter of dress, and that he hated anything like ceremonial customs or stiff behaviour ; on the platform his manner of bowing in was, according to Joachim, like the action of a swimmer who comes to the surface and shakes the water from his hair.

Much was formerly heard of his bluff ways, which no doubt did often cause pain to many sensitive souls ; but the publication of his correspondence with such ' Recollections, by Dietrich and Widmann, trans. Grimm, Joachim, and, above all, Madame Schumann, shows how delicate was his tact in the real things of life, how ready he was to show his practical sympathy with other people, though his friends may have had to humour his little idiosyncrasies in the matter of his personal habits and comforts, and how truly generous was his nature.

Once, when leaving his parents' home after a visit to them when his own means had become comparatively ample for his needs , he put a number of bank-notes between the pages of his copy of Handel's Saul, and said to his father when taking leave, "Dear father, if things go badly with you, the best consolation is always in music. Read carefully in my old Saul and you'll find what you want. He appreciated the pleasures of life and was not afraid to let his enjoyment be seen ; yet he was no voluptuary, careless of the ultimate destiny of the race or of the individual.

Even if we had nothing to go by but the words of his choral works, we should know that the problems of human destiny, of life, death, and immortality, engrossed him throughout his life. The Schicksalslied, Rhapsodie, Requiem, the two motets. While shrinking from the dogmas of the Churches, and very shy of owning the beliefs he held, he yet shows his deep conviction of the immortality of the soul and a sure and 32 BRAHMS certain hope of its future happiness.

Brahms ‐ Op 85 No 6‐ Im Waldeseinsamkeit

In letters to Frau von Herzogenberg,! Though the landmarks of religions might be removed, though doctrines that guided the lives of his ancestors might be assailed and discredited, though the higher criticism might seem to demolish the credibility of the Scripture records, yet a great and merciful system is dimly apprehended, and upon this he relies for comfort and guidance. This may be a convenient place to attempt a summary of the Brahms literature, including the Lives and the published correspondence, the issue of which makes the biographer's task especially easy in the present day.

The first authoritative life of the master, by Dr. Hermann Deiters, appeared in the Sammlung musikalischer Vortrdge in ; it was translated into English by Rosa Newmarch, and published, with additions, in ij reissued after the master's death, in Vogel's Johannes Brahms, sein Lebensgang, appeared in Heinrich Reimann's Johannes Brahms was published, without date, by the Berlin Harmonic, as one of a useful series of illustrated monographs on great composers. It appeared soon after the composer's death, with a slip inserted at the beginning giving the date of that death as !

The first volume appeared in , carrying the narrative of his life only as far as 1 ; the second, completed in in two half- volumes , goes down to A remarkably good and complete biography was written by Miss Florence May, and published in two volumes in The author had previously contributed some " Personal Recollections of Brahms " to a short-lived periodical, The Musical Gazette published by Joseph Williams in Colles's Brahms John Lane, contains a wonderful amount of valuable information in a small space. The letters of the eminent surgeon Dr. Theodor Billroth, one of the most intimate friends of Brahms, himself an enthusiastic musician and writer on the art, contain many interesting details of the master, Joachim's oration at the unveiling of the Meiningen monument in 1 was published as Zum Geddchtniss des Meisters Johannes Brahms.

A picture of the monument itself is inserted facing page A special Brahms number of the periodical called Die Musik, issued May, , contains various articles and illustrations. The Brahms-Gesellschaft, founded after the master's death, has done excellent work in publish- ing his correspondence, as well as in other ways. Six volumes have already appeared, containing the master's own letters and those of his correspondents. I, and II. The husband and wife were in some ways the most intimate friends of Brahms, with the exception of Joachim and Madame Schumann.

Both the Herzogenbergs were accomplished musicians, the husband a composer of some distinction, the wife skilled in interpretation, and possessed of a remarkable insight and critical faculty. Both allowed themselves to criticize each new work of Brahms with perfect freedom, and it is interesting to see how often he took their hints and acted upon them. These volumes are especially interesting to students of the details in Brahms's workmanship, though very often the reader is struck by his disregard of some important question put to him by Frau von Herzogenberg, or by his habit of dismissing what she says with a curt word or two that falls oddly on English ears accustomed to the conventional courtesies of daily life.

The letters deal with the composition and the first performance of the Requiem, and are of the highest value to students of that work. Reinthaler organized the quasi- complete performance of the Requiem in Bremen Cathedral on 10 April, ; and the correspondence about that work, as well as about later compositions of the master, is most interesting. The letters range from until Rein thaler's death in The next division of the book contains six letters of Brahms to Max Bruch, with nine from Bruch to Brahms, which deal principally with Bruch's works rather than with those of Brahms, although there are passages concerning the Requiem to be found in them.

A few short communications from Brahms to Reinecke, of no great importance, lead to the correspondence with Professor Rudorff, a section of great interest, spread over the years to There are two facsimiles of the corrections under- taken by Brahms and Rudorff respectively of a corrupt passage in the score of a flute concerto of Mozart; and some details concerned with the edition of Chopin's complete works are given. The last section of the volume contains letters to and from Bernhard Scholz and his wife, who were among the closer friends of the composer ; it will be remembered that Scholz was one of the four signatories of the famous protest The 36 BRAHMS correspondence dates from to , or rather those dates cover all the letters that have been preserved.

Julius Otto Grimm, the remaining signatory of the protest, whose correspondence with Brahms occupies the fourth volume of the series, edited by Richard Barth, was the master's friend from , and outlived him by six years, although he was six years older. The volume gives us a representative picture of all the different sides of Brahms's nature, for there are plenty of boyish jokes enshrined in it, as well as discussions on music, and many references to the lady, Agathe von Siebold, upon whom Brahms's affections were fixed at the time of his tenure of the post at the court of Lippe-Detmold, and who lived at Gottingen, where Grimm was director of the Musical Academy.

The fifth and sixth volumes of the letters, edited by Andreas Moser, take us into the inmost shrine of Brahms's life, for they contain the correspondence with Joachim, and show us the faithful picture of the wonderful friendship which produced such rich fruit in the history of music. With these, and the letters to and from Madame Schumann, published in the third volume of her Life by Litzmann , the reader is admitted into the close intimacy of the master.

The Brahms-Gesellschaft also printed the extract-book or commonplace-book in which Brahms put down passages that struck him in the literature of many countries. He called it Desjungen Kreislers Schatzkdstlein — and this title is kept by the editor, Carl Krebs, who issued it in in a cover in imitation of the original paper-bound book. It contains over six hundred aphorisms and quotations from all manner of sources, as well as a number of weighty sentences by Joachim, marked " F.

Hadow, second series, Erb's Brahms is a summary published in Dent's Master Musicians, 1 90 5. In French some very interesting books were written by the late Hugues Imbert, who did a great work in obtaining a hearing for Brahms in France. His chief book on the subject is Johannes Brahms, sa vie et son aeuvre, Paris, The later editions of the dictionaries of Grove and Riemann contain extensive articles.

The first is, of course, far less important than the rest, for composers are most rarely dowered with the critical faculty, and the only value we can set upon the opinions even of a Brahms is for the sake of the light they throw upon his own nature. The fact, for example, that Carmen was one of the composer's favourite operas does not affect our estimate of that work one way or another.

It is unlikely that any of the Brahms enthusiasts think more highly of it because he admired it, and we may do his professed detractors the justice to suppose that none of them has gone so far as to slight Bizet's masterpiece because Brahms praised it. It is of far greater importance to make clear the attitude of Brahms towards the work of Wagner, an attitude concerning which so many misstatements have been industriously circulated, that too much stress can hardly be laid upon the actual facts of the case.

In German musical circles there has for many years been a habit of making sharp divisions between the admirers of any two great contemporaries. The harm it did in the case of Mendelssohn and Schumann is well known to every student of musical history ; and while the musical world of Germany continues to find a great part of its artistic enjoyment in the diversion of splitting itself into opposing camps, no observer can wonder that Brahms should have been set up, entirely against his will, as the chief bulwark against the music of the new school.

About the year i the materials for a new arrangement of parties were just preparing, and the main difficulty in the way of a comfortable split was the personality and the art of Schumann himself. He had founded the Neue Zeit- schrift, and in many ways had shown himself in the advanced ranks of his time, so that the " new " party could by no means dispense with his name ; on the other hand, he had declared himself, with what might be almost called his last words to the world, a champion of the music of Brahms, who, a few years before, had definitely severed himself from the "new" party.

These latter, having celebrated the 2Sth anniversary of the foundation of Schumann's periodical by a festival of four days in , arranged a festival in Schumann's special honour, at his birthplace, Zwickau, in June, i A general invitation was issued to all music-lovers to attend the festival ; but beyond this, neither Madame Schumann, Joachim, nor Brahms received any further communication 40 BRAHMS with regard to the celebration. It may not have been intentionally done in order to slight those who stood nearest to Schumann in life, but the net result to the " new " party was that the marked absence of these intimates on such an occasion could be conveniently turned to the uses of the combatants, as it was of course implied that they had stayed away out of jealousy.

From this time forth, the " new " school was never tired of trying to make out that Schumann's friends wanted to keep his music and his fame as a kind of private property of their own, and even that the true traditions of Schumann's music were not to be found among those who knew him best. This assumption of the Liszt party may even now be occasionally observed in criticism, but of course there was not the slightest foundation for supposing that the " classical " party ever thought of making themselves into a kind of sect.

They were ultimately forced into completely breaking with the "new" party, but it was the new party with which lay the responsibility for the cleavage. With regard to Liszt's most representative works, the symphonic poems, Brahms shared with Wagner and Joachim the unfavourable opinions which Wagner could not very well express, as the others were perfectly free to do ; but for the art of Wagner himself Brahms had nothing but admira- tion. In the correspondence with Joachim at the time of the unfortunate protest against the Weimar fabrications, Brahms is careful to make it clear that he does not include Wagner among the men whose influence he wishes to counteract.!

It is perhaps necessary to recall the manners and customs of the early Wagnerians in order that we may realize how much that was repulsive would have had to be endured by a clean-minded, earnest and catholic musician who should join their ranks. None of the professed Wagnerians knew, and very few loved, the music-dramas better than Brahms did, and it is on record that he very rarely missed a performance of Wagner's later works in Vienna. The unfortunate episode concerning the autograph of Wagner's "new Venusberg music " from Tannhduser could not but spoil the relations between the two composers it had been committed by Wagner to the charge of Peter Cornelius, and he, imagining it had been a gift, gave it to Brahms, who valued it highly; the letters which passed between the composers on the occasion were of a kind it is difficult to forget ; but even if the misunderstanding had not occurred, the natures of the two men were too unlike to have allowed any real intercourse between them.

We cannot picture Brahms arraying himself in gorgeous stuffs when he wished to compose, or surrounding himself with a court of flatterers who should keep from him the least ' See the Herzogenierg Correspondence, i. Also Litzmann's Clara Schumann, iii. But, apart from constitu- tional diversity, Brahms understood and sympathized with Wagner's music at a time when the Wagner cause was still to be won. The exact opposite of this is true in regard to the relations of Brahms with Tchaikovsky.

The account of their meeting at Hamburg in shows that "the per- sonality of Brahms, his purity and loftiness of aim, and earnestness of purpose, won Tchaikovsky's sympathy.

Wagner's personality and views were, on the contrary, antipathetic to him ; but his music awoke his enthusiasm, while the works of Brahms left him unmoved to the end of his life. It may be suggested that there was a reason for this quite apart from the polemics which have so much to do with music on the Continent. Brahms, as we shall see, had a special liking for themes built on the successive notes of a chord ; it is one of Tchaikovsky's most obvious characteristics that in his most beautiful and individual subjects, the movement is what is called " conjunct " ; that is, the suc- cessive notes are those of a scale, not of a chord.

Almost every theme in the " Pathetic " symphony, to take the best-known instance, is formed in this way, and a careful study of the Russian's themes from this point of view of structure will show a surprising preponderance of those which are built on successive notes of the scale. The difference is perhaps not one that would be obvious at once, least of all to the composers themselves, for it is probable that neither was conscious of his own predilec- tions in the formation of themes ; but for this very reason complete sympathy would be the less easy to establish ' Groves Dictionary and ed.

Remembering, too, that one was pre- eminently a colourist, the other pre-eminently a draughts- man, the wonder would have been if they had appreciated one another's music. The same cause might, it is true, be supposed to interfere with Brahms's admiration of Wagner, since Wagner was the greatest pioneer of orchestral colouring in modern music ; but the works of the great music-dramatist stand so obviously apart from the rest of music, and in particular from the classical models, that they could be thoroughly enjoyed as complete art-products in their own way, even by a champion of the classical tradition.

The figure of Rubinstein loomed large on the world in his lifetime, and it is of some interest to see what he and Brahms thought of each other. Unfortunately, we have no ' i. Petersburg in At his later historical pianoforte recitals not a note of Brahms was played, although he conducted choral works of his on various occasions.

Although there is no record of Brahms being present at the performance of Verdi's operas in his Italian journeys, his admiration for the Italian master's Requiem was hearty, immediate, and sincere. One of Hans von Billow's not infrequent alterations of opinion was in regard to this composition, against which he spoke at first with characteristic lack of moderation.

Some time after Brahms had expressed his delight in it, Billow changed his mind, as he did with fine generosity in respect to the music of Brahms himself. German writers have spent much time in debating why Brahms wrote no opera, and one of them, Alfred Kiihn by name, went so far as to invent an interview with the composer on the subject.

The upshot of the story, quoted from the Strassburger Post of 13 April, , may be read in J. He discussed many subjects with Widmann, but, as all the world knows, the cantata Rinaldo remains the only example of how he might have treated opera had ' Kalbeck, ii. Looking at his completed work as a whole, it is easy to see that his subtle way of dealing with deep emotions, which comes out in so many of the songs, must have been lost on the stage or abandoned for a more superficial style which would not have been truly con- genial or characteristic.

It is curious to learn from the same source ' that Brahms considered the ideal conditions of opera to consist in a combination of spoken dialogue or recitativo secco, with set-pieces for the lyrical climaxes. It would have been difficult even for Brahms to obtain the approval of the world at large for a method of operatic writing which must be considered a little reactionary in the present day ; and while the method of continuous music had the weighty support of Wagner and all the typically modern composers of all nations, it would have been a miracle if an opera composed on the other system, even by a great master, had really succeeded.

On the whole we need not regret that Brahms left the operatic stage to others. The kindly interest he took in the career of Hermann Goetz was no doubt largely due to com- passion for his state of health ; he greatly admired The Taming of the Shrew, but regretted the posthumous pro- duction of Francesca da Rimini, though he had aided with his counsel those who undertook to complete the work ; but the two men were so widely different in character and disposition that they never could have become intimate, even if Brahms had not unintentionally wounded Goetz's supersensitive nature by asking him, " Do you also amuse yourself with such things?

Of course Goetz was wrong to be annoyed, and his solemn reply, " That is the holiest thing I possess! The offhand manner of hiding deep feelings under a jest is a kind of shyness more common with Englishmen than with Germans, but we cannot quite excuse Brahms for the many occasions on which his manner gave offence to harmless people. The stories concerning this peculiarity of his are very numerous, and there are many more which can be ascribed to nothing but sheer love of mischief.

Once, at Baden- Baden, while he was taking his ease under a tree in his garden, a stranger advanced towards him and delivered a little complimentary speech, evidently prepared before- hand, of course expressing boundless admiration for Brahms's music. The stock-in-trade of the interviewer was a little too plainly displayed, and Brahms yielded to his love of mischief, and stopped the speech with the words, " Stop, my dear sir, there must be some mistake here.

I have no doubt you are looking for my brother, the composer ; I'm sorry to say he has just gone out for a walk, but if you make haste and run along that path, through the wood, and up another hill, you may possibly still catch him up. The composer took the girl aside and explained to her that at one point two leaves were to be turned over at once, the portion between them being omitted, and that at another the leaf was to be turned before the bottom of the page was reached ; various other directions were given, to which the young lady paid, as was natural, the most careful attention.

Many were the graceful things he said in congenial company, even when the hated " lionizing " pro- cess seemed to be within sight. The landlord of a certain restaurant at Vienna was asked to produce his best wine for some friends whom Brahms took to dine there, and remarked, " Here is a wine that surpasses all others, as much as the music of Brahms does that of other com- posers.

As a rule he was seen at his best in the company of Madame Schumann or of Joachim, both of whom stood in the closest relations to his artist soul. Nothing can be more charming than the letter in which he pressed Madame Schumann to visit him at Hamburg in ,1 or more delicate than the way in which he tried to persuade her to accept a sum of money at a time when her funds were low and his above his needs.

Still he was very apt to tease the poor lady, who never failed to be vexed at what was only meant in fun. Many instances from her point of view, showing how she felt his beha- viour, occur in the third volume of her Life. In the ' Litzmann, Clara Schumann, iii. A difference of opinion arose between Madame Schumann and Brahms, partly from a misunderstanding in regard to the complete edition of Schumann's works undertaken by his widow, and from the letters in Litzmann's life it is clear that she suffered much from the temporary coolness, which before long yielded to the old familiarity and affection.

They and their circle would have thought it deceitful to assume a graciousness of demeanour they did not feel, and there are many instances in the lives of both of them which show that the amenities of ordinary social intercourse were rather neglected by them and their friends. Joachim may have learnt some of his wonderful unself-consciousness and simple courtesy by his intercourse with the world outside music ; but beyond this there was in him an inherent instinct of thoughtfulness for the feelings of others, and a power of ordinary human sympathy which Brahms could, perhaps, hardly have acquired.

The friend- ship between these two men is one of the most beautiful ' i. For some years he and Joachim were in the habit of exchanging compositions and sketches for each other's criticism. The correspond- ence between the two shows that they stood on terms of absolute equality ; throughout it is clear that Brahms had an enormously high opinion of Joachim's compo- sitions,2 and we need hardly refer to the loyalty with which the illustrious violinist made himself the champion of the music of Brahms.

If, during the years of this profitable mutual criticism, either of the friends omitted to provide a composition at any of their meetings, a fine of a thaler was imposed, which the other spent in books for himself The compositions exchanged were for the most part in contrapuntal style, and some of the canons. Of Joachim's influence on the music of Brahms there are many traces, even before the date of the A minor string quartet, Op. They were taken as a motto by Joachim, and are understood to stand for " Frei, aber einsam" Free, but alone.

Every note that Brahms wrote for the violin, whether in chamber or orchestral music, was such as it would have been congenial to Joachim to play ; and in the violin concerto. T7, and the concerto for violin and violoncello. As regards the world in general, it was Joachim, more than any one else, who started Brahms on his career by means of the memorable introduction to Schumann. It has been hinted before that Schumann's warm heralding of the new great master was not an unmixed benefit to him, as it neces- sarily prejudiced the German public against a man whose music was not yet generally accessible, and started the polemics which made so much noise in German musical circles.

It is quite clear that Brahms appreciated Liszt's playing, and even his character, although he could not quite swallow the symphonic poems ; but of course with the Weimar school it must be all or nothing, and they ruled that no notice was henceforth to be taken of Brahms or his music.

Hyperion Records

Even in the other camp it was long before his position was assessed at anything like its true greatness. Nothing in this need surprise us, although of course it is common for those who know the completed work of a man to reproach with blindness those to whom only his earliest efforts were accessible. A most interesting set of articles by Richard Pohl, in the Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik lor ,' shows the hesitation felt by the writer, who was anxious to see from Schumann's point of view, yet who felt unable fully to endorse his opinion.

It is obviously impossible for the most enlightened and broad- minded critic to appreciate at once a new creation in art. His idioms must be accepted, his vocabulary must become more or less familiar, before we can possibly reach the clear thought that underlies them. In music, prob- ably more than in any other art, that which is imme- diately accepted is for that very reason open to suspicion, for some of its component parts are probably of no great freshness, and will in the course of time be condemned as commonplace by the very men who hailed them most eagerly on a first acquaintance.

For there is naturally an obscurity which pro- ceeds from lack of skill or inspiration, just as certainly as there is an obscurity caused by thought so weighty and original that it cannot be expressed in language of infan- tile simplicity. All that can be hoped for on behalf of a great new work of art is an attitude like that of the famous critic of Beethoven's C minor symphony : " I felt ' i. To us, in the present day, it is hardly conceivable that a man like Raff can ever have been seriously considered as comparable to him in any way ; yet at one time that prolific writer was spoken of as Brahms's rival, and at another Rubinstein's compositions were considered by a section of the public as having equal merits with his.

There were persons in London, during the few years when Goetz's music was most in vogue in England, who were accustomed to point to the two com- posers' settings of Schiller's Ndnie, and to express the opinion that Goetz's setting was so much the better of the two, that if he had only reached the natural term of human life he would have surpassed Brahms. For some time such important centres as Leipzig and Vienna made it a point of honour to contradict each other's verdicts on the new compositions as they appeared, one receiving with special favour what the other had most distinctly condemned.

As we saw in the summary of the master's biography, the period of the Requiem was the time when his greatness was first generally realized, and after that the game of pitting this or that writer against him seems to have lost some of its charm. Bruckner, the projector of colossal symphonies, was another who was more recently set up in competition with Brahms ; but the occasional performances of his works in London are quite enough to check any desire to exalt him to an equal place in the musical hierarchy.

To Bulow belongs the credit of first performing a piece by Brahms in public ; he played the first allegro of the C major sonata in Hamburg on i March, The distinction of giving the first public performance of one of his concerted works belongs to America, for William Mason introduced the trio in B, Op. Chappell, the director of the institution, taking good care to protect himself from the stigma of bringing forward anything so revolutionary, by mentioning in a note in the programme that it was produced by request of Joachim.

The last-named artist conducted the memorable first English performance of the Requiem on 7 July, 1 87 1, at the house of Sir Henry Thompson, when Lady Thompson and Cipriani Potter played the accom- ' It was repeated twice in with great success. See Joachim Correspimdence, ii. By that time a couple of duets from Op.

Notes and Editorial Reviews

James's Hall. The students of the Royal Academy of Music, fired, no doubt, by the veteran Cipriani Potter, seem to have given a performance of the Requiem under Hullah, before its production by the Philharmonic Society on 2 April, , under Cusins. Villiers Stanford, in The latter pianist also brought forward the " Hungarian " variations from Op.

The G minor quartet was played possibly not for the first time in England at the Popular Concerts Madame Neruda playing the first violin in , and the quintet in F minor was played at the same concerts with Joachim as ' See Miss May's Life, ii. The year brought a performance of the Serenade in A for small orchestra at the Philharmonic Society under Cusins, and the two sets of Liebeslieder Walzer were heard for the first time in England in , the earlier set, Op. These last surprised the amateurs considerably, particu- larly those who had been under the impression that Brahms's music was always severe, " intellectual," and obscure.