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Additional Authors Klinger, Kevin R. Kolarevic, Branko, Notes Associative Design in Fabrication -- Material Experiments in Design and Build -- OMAterial -- Material Collaborations -- Sensibilities and Sensitivities.
There, the bolts were removed and the segments permanently riveted together, using a total of 2,, rivets. Another feature making the Eiffel Tower especially interesting is the multi-level optimization approach. The wide bottom part and the light tapering upper part of the structure reduce the wind load, a major problem for high-raised buildings.
Some of them employ rectangular cross-sections; some have I-sections, while the rest rely on other cross-sectional shapes. The tower became a monument to IR achievement that represented the capability of new technologies. Its meter height had remained unprecedented until the s. However, the structure of the Eiffel Tower was too complicated. Thousands of different elements that had to be drawn and fabricated in a certain way made the approach inappropriate for mass-production.
This issue stayed unsolved until , when Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov demonstrated his method of designing metal structures. Eiffel Tower Figure 4. First drawing of the Eiffel Tower Figure 5. Fractal structure of the tower Figure 6. The Russian school of engineering Having started in Great Britain, the process of industrialization soon came to the Russian Empire. However, although the exchange of technological achievements, the inflow of foreign investment and the influx of foreign specialists had a strong impact on the Russian industry, a widespread transformation of technology did not take place until the s.
Compared to the countries in Western Europe, the process of industrialization unfolded in a different order in Russia. In contrast to Europe, where the transition from the workhouse started with the manufacturing industry, eventually pervading the transport infrastructure and communication facilities, in Russia industrialization started within the railway infrastructure; thus, in Russia, the development of the heavy industry preceded the progress of the light industry.
In response to such a course of industrial development, a strong school of engineering had soon formed in Russia. Bridge above Enisei river, Figure 8. Like Eiffel, Shukhov realized the commercial nature of the construction industry and the power of optimization as aiding competitive advantage in the growing building industry. Shukhov worked as a chief engineer in the Bari office, which specialized in industrial metal constructions.
For Shukhov, design processes had always been associated with extensive analysis and research. He perceived a construction as one organism consisting of hidden interconnections. He never sought standard solutions in any of his projects. Book of tasks on the stretching and compression theory, V. In addition to mathematical calculations, Shukhov relied on physical models. He believed that even the smallest paper model was able to reveal hidden forces that could be missed during the analysis stage.
He used rolled metal with varied section profiles and tried to keep clear of any details and elements that could complicate the structure. In addition to avoiding different-type elements in a construction, Shukhov aimed to standardize their size within the structure. In an attempt to optimize the on-site building process and reduce faults, Shukhov limited the number of working drawings and tried to combine all the necessary information on a few sheets, developing detailed assembly process instructions for each specific task. Some of them will be discussed in the following chapters.
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Lattice hyperboloi d water tower from Nijnii Novgorod exhibition Figure Lattice vaulted structure Figure 12, Diagonally intersecting straight elements were fixed with bolts or rivets and formed a grid with diamond-shaped cells. The advantages of a grid-shell covering compared to a regular covering structure included: a significant reduction in weight; the uniaxial stress in working elements tension or compression ; high load-bearing ability of a grid-shell surface, also in case of concentrated strains; a remarkable simplification of production and assembly due to the use of identical straight constructive elements.
The answer to this riddle was the spatial lattice structure, where trusses and purlins were the same, and the distances between trusses and purlins were equal. In Shukhov got a patent for the invention see Appendix I. The new structures were first presented to the general public at the All-Russian Industrial Art Exhibition in Nizhniy Novgorod in , where Shukhov designed a number of objects using three types of lattice structures: suspension, vaulted and rigid spatial shell.
Suspension lattice structures were based on tension, the most advantageous type of stress for metal constructions. The grid surface comprised of overlapping tensile elements: rolled metal 33 Graefe et al. Thus, they worked as one continuous resilient truss. The most interesting example of a vaulted lattice shell was the covering for the Viksa Works built in — It was made of intercrossing rods and combined the function of trusses the main floor structural system and purlins. The density of the grid made it possible to put it on the shell without additional structures.
Due to the rational distribution of material along the shape, the grids were 2 to 3 times lighter than roofs with conventional frames. The final and most unusual of the grid-shell structures presented at the All-Russian exhibition was the meter-tall lattice hyperboloid water tower. According to Elizabeth Cooper, the idea of such a new structure came directly from imaginary geometry, or hyperboloid geometry, which was invented by the Russian mathematician Lobachevski in Yet apparently the moment of truth occurred when he saw an upside-down wicker paper basket with a ficus on top at the office; Shukhov claimed that was when he clearly understood the hyperboloid structure with its curved surface generated by straight rods.
It was formed with angle rods and horizontal hoops embracing the structure. The dense intersections between elements and wide cross-sections granted the tower stability. Aiming to optimize the design process, soon after building the tower, Shukhov presented the standardized elements of the tower structure in a table format.
After the exhibition Shukhov continued developing hyperboloid towers, trying to increase their height. The tallest hyperboloid structure made by Shukhov was the ComIntern Radio Tower on Shabolovskaya Street in Moscow, a construction built to celebrate the international collaboration of Communist parties. It consists of several blocks and is m tall. The exhibition received international recognition, as testified by gold medals at the Paris World Fair.
These structures express a significant progress, as the core lattice of the then-traditional spatial trusses leaning on basic auxiliary elements is replaced with a net of equal structural elements. Indeed, Shukhov-style forms can be seen in the projects by some of the most important Russian avant-garde architects. Figure Tatlin Figure Melnikov Figure Melnikov worked with Shukhov in , when Shukhov advised Melnikov on roofing solutions for the Bakhmetevsky Bus Garage. In his proposal for Narkomtiazhprom The Heavy Industry Commission Leonidov presented the first inhabited hyperboloid tower.
Sun city by Leonidov Unfortunately, Leonidov did not get the chance to put his ideas into practice. His most active creative period occurred when Constructivism was already in decline; eventually Stalin's totalitarian Neo-Renaissance, modernism and standardized buildings completely replaced Constructivism. The most famous example is a structure called the Biosphere that Buckminster Fuller presented at the Montreal Expo in The construction was made with tubular steel elements, was 60 m tall and had a diameter of 75 m.
However, Fuller was not the original inventor of this structure; he simply managed to put it to use on a greater scale than his architectural predecessors, making the US pavilion stand out at the Expo. Fuller valued grid-shell structures for their lightness. He believed that the weight of a building reflected the extent of industrialization development, as well as of mankind.
Due to its spherical initial form, it encloses the most space within the least surface, whereas its tetrahedron qualities ensure high resistance against external pressure. A geodesic structure is based on the shortest line between two points on a mathematically 49 defined surface. Because a dome is a symmetric structure, it is constructed using standardized prefabricated elements. This ensures an efficient construction process.
The Biosphere was not the only lightweight grid structure at the Montreal Expo as Frei Otto presented his grid construction, the German pavilion. In contrast to Fuller, who focused on the potential of compressed lattice structures, Otto was interested in the various types of grid surface, especially in tensile structures. The method was based on the idea of a shape created naturally, by gravitation forces, its own weight, air pressure and so on. In designing his grid-shell structures, Otto relied on chain models.
A hanging chain mesh takes the most optimal shape itself, according to the scope of external forces and internal interrelations. Otto based his tensile membrane structures on models made using soap lye, a membrane-forming liquid. Soap lye models contracted to the smallest surface possible; appropriately enlarged, they provided a precise shape for tent construction.
Following extensive experiments, Otto reinforced the tent structure with ropes, that way covering considerably larger spans. Such a structure was presented at the Montreal Expo in The height of the final structure was between 14 m to 36 m with an overall area of 8, sqm.
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The net was made up of steel ropes 12 mm thick with a mesh width of 50 cm, which was prefabricated in 15 m wide strips in Konstanz and shipped to Montreal in rolls. In interconnection sites, ropes were fixed with rope nodes as clamps; reusing ropes was practical. The pavilion was designed and built in 13 months. Both Shukhov and Otto were concerned with the issue of material consumption, and tried to simplify manufacture and installation processes.
Elena Shukhova mentions that Otto visited Moscow in mids. Shukhov primarily relied on analytical investigation and calculations, using models merely to prove ideas, whereas for Otto, models were fundamental for finding forms and their parameters. Otto was an advocate of architecture of self-formation and self-optimization processing. Therefore, since , whilst not rejecting the striking physical models, all constructions built by Otto had been computer-generated. Its highly complicated shape is a Otto was invited to design the shell as a specialist in membrane structures.
Of all lightweight constructions, the lattice shell structure was considered the most appropriate because it offered the required shape and complied with local building regulations. Otto made a chain model of the structure and revealed the desired shape for the shell. These lightweight structures can be prefabricated, are easy to transport to the construction site due to the relatively small size of the elements, and are easy to assemble.
Since engineers and architects have started using computer technologies in the designing stage, the search of new architectural forms has become ever so active. Conventional constructions are rigid, which means that usually they dictate the shape of the building, whereas grid structures allow forming more complex shapes. Rooted in geometry, grid structures are easily transferred 51 Shukhova, Vladimir Grigorevich Shukhov: the first engineer of Russia, Finding Forms: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal, Diploma , MIT, One answer is to use meshes.
Rather, first and foremost, they aim to articulate an internal generative logic, which, often in an automated fashion, then generates a range of possibilities for further development. The former project is a relatively simple steel structure with a cladding surface. The latter project is a meter-long roof structure at London Waterloo train station.
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Instead of modelling each arch separately, computational engineers generated a parametric model based on the correlation between the size of the span and the curvature of the individual arches. Initially, the parametric design method was a new, integrated rational approach that helped architects and engineers in the design and construction process. With the rapid development of computational technologies and their extensive implementation in the design sphere, the impact of parametric design on architecture had significantly increased. In Animate Form, Lynn reveals parametric design as a new paradigm of thinking; sets out its core principles and introduces some new terms to the architectural vocabulary, including blobs, bodies, hypersurfaces and polysurfaces.
Blob forms. Embriological Housing by Greg Lynn In addition, using his animation hypothesis, Lynn flags up the disadvantages of designing architectural projects on the flat plane of a drawing desk, and stresses the necessity of simulating a particular environment in virtual space, where hidden forces, which affect the construction, can be predicted and calculated. In other design fields, however, design space is conceived as an environment of force and motion rather than as a neutral vacuum.
According to its mathematical definition, topology is a study of inherent, qualitative properties of geometric forms that are not affected by changes in size or shape and remain equal through continuous one-to-one transformations or elastic deformations, such a stretching or twisting.
This theory of form relationships and interdependences fits in with the computational form-finding logic, where modelling one simple object can generate numerous transformations. In parametric design, construction lines become key elements that are linked to particular data as well as to each other. Together they form a mesh network system of geometric relations and dependencies, where each point influences the position and orientation of others.
Klein bottle 60 Lynn, Greg. Animate form , Polygons can have different shapes: triangle, quadrilateral, or hexagon; however, usually one type dominates.
All seemingly smooth surfaces in animation or architecture visualizations are smoothly rendered meshes. The main advantage of using a mesh surface is the potential of controlling and modelling a shape at any level of complexity. Because architecture is invested with form-finding and because grid-shells are complex structures, meshes are currently extensively utilized in parametric design. As a result, most major architectural offices have been establishing internal groups of computational specialists, who mostly work separately from the design teams.
The computational specialists act as internal consultants integrated with the design process to varying degrees, depending on the needs of the project. Scripting cultures: architectural design and programming, The parametric approach is based on generated design principles that lead to a transformation from a method to a style. Beko Masterplan by Zaha Hadid Architects Striving to understand the current situation in more depth, in the next chapter I will compare the computer-generated grid structure design process with the most effective design and construction methods from the pre-computational era.
The Radio Tower and 30St Mary Axe are examples of manual and digital metal grid- shell tower design respectively. The Great Court and Viksa Works are metal grid-shell roof structures with complex double-curved surface. At the outset of this discussion, I would like to note some differences between the buildings compared. The Radio Tower on Shabolovskaya Street is a utilitarian structure for storing radio equipment, whereas 30St Mary Axe is an inhabited office building. The grid-shell of the Great Court is part of a sophisticated restoration process of a historical monument, while Viksa Works was a newly-built industrial building.
These differences should be taken into account in the course of the analysis, which is focused on four aspects: grid-shell structure, design process, fabrication and assembling. It is m tall and consists of 33 floors, with the external diameter of The building has an aerodynamic egg shape that reduces the wind load, the main challenge for high-rise buildings. In addition, the reduced diameter at street level leaves more open public space around the building, which improves its social sustainability. The interconnection between the diagrid shell and the core alleviates loads on floor beams, which has made it possible to reduce their section size and keep the occupied internal area free from columns.
Parametric early design study Figure Computer modeling of the air movement Figure Concept sketch 71 Architectural Record, , p It consists of six hyperboloid blocks, 25—30 m tall each. The block-stacking approach has made it possible to build a tower as tall as m. The proposal had to be altered because due to the difficult post-Revolution situation, the Soviet Union suffered a metal shortage. Unlike the elliptical shape of the 30St Mary Axe tower, the hyperboloid shape is less suitable for offices and residential buildings due to its low space efficiency.
Its minimal surface and open lattice structure reduce the wind load, while the wide base makes the tower stable. Stability and safety were particularly important because of the lack of experience in building high-rise buildings at the time. Original Figure Shabolovskaya Tower. Each frame consists of two tubular diagonal columns bolted with a node.
Nodes play a crucial role in the overall structure of the construction. They connect the diagrid shell to the radial beams of the central core and govern the curvature of the building. Arup designers formed the complex diagrid shape merely with two column types: mm columns with the wall thickness of 40 mm used between Ground level and level 2 and mm columns with the wall thickness of Instead of manufacturing individual end frames, designers decided to use separate node pieces.
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Each of the two-meter-height nodes consists of three steel plates welded together at varying angles to address the curvature of the tower. Since correct node connections are fundamental to the success of any grid scheme,75 the Arup team designed them in detail during the computer modelling stage. As a result, node connections were prefabricated to the exact size, and the bearing surface was milled to a tolerance of 0.
Steel central core Figure Nodes installation Figure Assembling A-frame Figure These rings have a truss structure comprising of two L-section rods, mm x mm x 10 mm, that are tied to each other. Such a structure simplifies pylon connections and makes it possible to fix rods securely. Intermediate U-section rolled metal holding rings fix the rods between the main structural rings. In the process of connecting the diagonal U-section rods to the rings, the rods were slightly twisted along the whole length.
Due to high material flexibility and because the rod section was relatively small, it was easy to twist the rods during the assembling process. That granted additional structural stiffness to the construction. The number of the rods in the six tower sections varies. In order to stabilize the construction, the top hyperboloid pylon has almost twice as few rods as the bottom one.
All the elements were riveted. In the patent document for lattice structures Shukhov mentions circular section tubes instead of rods. However, when he attempted to replace rolled L-section metal rods with tubes in one of his hyperboloid water towers, Shukhov found them economically unfeasible. He had hoped to save even more material and lighten the structure, but circular section tube fabrication and assembling process was too expensive and complicated. Therefore, he never used them again. Shukhov had devised the method for assessing hyperboloid spatial systems in the process of designing his water towers, a new type of construction with high redundancy levels.
He would take it upon himself to conduct any structural analysis on new constructions. The logic of his calculations was based on exploring structural interdependences and embracing the most important parameters in generative formulas. Lattice construction Figure Rods are a bit twisted Figure Assembling Figure Connection the diagonal rods to the rings Figure