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Louise de Kéralio-Robert, pionnière du républicanisme sexiste

After this we find nothing further till 1 , when William chronicles the marriage of Peter Fector to his niece Mary, daughter of John Minet, the rector of Eythorne ; and this is the last entry ever made.

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The further history of the book is chiefly founded on surmise. It must have returned to Dover, and remained there in the possession of the Fectors when, in , Hughes Minet retired from the partnership, leaving the Dover business to be carried on by Peter Fector ; nor does it seem to have been returned to the Minets when, in , the partner- ship was resumed. Peter Fector, who lived till 18 14, could not have been unaware of its existence, for, as we have seen, he had taken it to London in ; still, he cannot have known its interest, for in he made out a sort of pedigree now in my possession , in which he makes no sort of allusion to the book, and falls into errors which reference to it would have prevented.

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He speaks, too, of giving a copy of his notes to his brother-in-law, Hughes Minet, who would hardly have wished for them had he been aware of the existence of the fuller record. The succeeding generations never speak of or notice its existence, and this positive fact remains— that since William's last entry, in 1 75 1, no one has added a single line.

We may, then, safely infer that it returned to Dover some time after 1 75 1 , and remained there, unnoticed and forgotten, till In the Bank, desirous, on a change of premises, of looking through and destroying as far as possible this accumulation, requested Mr. Boyton, one of the former clerks of the Fectors, to look through the papers, destroying or preserving as he might see fit ; it was while doing this that he came across the book, and, recognising its real nature, called the attention of the Bank managers to it, who at once handed it to James Lewis Minet, the then representative of the family.

Thus, at the close of more than a century of oblivion, these memories of the past have been awakened for us, the descendants of old Isaac ; and while the main interest of the manuscript centres in the story of the escape from Calais, linked with this are incident and detail, sometimes graphic, often insignificant, but all and each helping to restore the picture of a past humble in its shortcomings, steadfast in its well-doing ; of a life, in short, of piety and integrity, which, in many of its aspects, and under altered conditions, it may still be ours to win from the present.

The fulness of detail with which Isaac Minet has told us of his escape to England, and the care with which he has recorded the history of his own children, make us regret all the more the slenderness of the inform- ation he gives us respecting his parents and his own early life in France. Twice only in 7 and in he enters a few short notes on the families of his father and mother. These it will be best to give first, adding to them what little information it has been possible to collect from other sources.

The notes of 1 7 1 7 are as follow : — Memorandum by me Isaac Minet ; a relation of the familly of my father Mr Ambroise Minet. My father Mr Ambroise Minet was borne at Clermon in Boul- lenois, he had a brother Jacques Minet who was post mast r at franc near Montreuille in Boulenois whose son James suceeded him in same imploy and whose grandson is now actually postmasf there in , he is also James and hath a brother. S d Jacques brother to my father had a son Ambroise who was kild, being cornet of horse in y e french service and 4 daughters Mary, Anne, Suson, and Ester, who all four dyed in England.

My father and mother lived at Calais and keept shopp ot grocery druggs liuors etc ra — my father was buryed at Calais out of y e town being a protestant in y e year aged 70 years. S d James Minet y e first had 4 daughters who all came to England for y e sake of y e prottestant Religion. Several sources of information enable us to add to, and in some particulars correct, the information supplied by Isaac. First among these must be placed the ' Transcript of the Registers of the Protestant Church at Gutnes from to ,' recently published by the Huguenot Society of London,' which enables us to fix the date of Ambroise's birth in 16 13, and to correct the date of his death from , as given by his son, to Lymington, Cormont 2 and Frencq are two small villages, lying close together, about ten and eight miles respectively from Montreuil.

At the former Ambroise was born, and at the latter Martha lived, and James was postmaster. The office was not hereditary, but was obtained by purchase, and was often continued from father to son on payment of a fine to the State ; its duties were the supplying of horses for the king's use, as also for that of ordinary travellers. James had four daughters, who all came to England, where the only trace I can find of them is the admission of a Susanne Minet in , and of an Ester Minet in 1, as members of the Threadneedle Street Church, both 'par tesmoignage de Calais.

This we know from Isaac's note, and it is confirmed by a document of , discovered by M. Vaillant suggests that the date of this document should be read ; but from internal evidence it is clear that the date , given in the text, is correct. See p. There is evidence, to be adduced later, 1 that William, son of Isaac Minet, continued his father's interest in this French branch of the family, and kept up some communication with it, as late as ; but there is nothing to enable us to connect the Peter of that date with the earlier James, or to bridge over the interval between and Born at Cormont in 16 13, he removed to Calais, where he gradually built up a considerable business, the nature and extent of which can be best gathered from the notes given above, as well as from further remarks of Isaac which we shall have occasion to quote in the next chapter.

The date of his marriage is not known, but Thomas, the eldest of his ten children, was born in His son Isaac gives the names of nine children only ; but in the Guines Registers 3 is the entry of the baptism, in March, , of ' Pierre, fils d' Ambroise Minet et de Susanne Affringhue, baptise le 3 e. Parrain, Pierre Sauchelle. Marraine, Judith d'Hoye. Naissance a Calais le 19 s Feurier dernier.

Of Ambroise as a man of business and as a citizen of Calais we know practically nothing ; of his connexion with the religion to which his children remained so faithful, it is possible to speak with somewhat more of detail. Guines, some six miles from Calais, was the religious centre of the Huguenots in this district of France. Here stood their church ; and with this church, the only one tolerated under the pro- visions of the Edict, Ambroise was closely connected.

Of the church itself, and of its beginning and of its end, I have dealt fully in the preface to the Transcript of its Registers ; of its organisation, and of the nature of its services, I may perhaps be permitted to say some- thing here. He was a Catholic, and I cannot connect him in any way with the family.

In the archives of the town of Boulogne-sur-Mer No. Vaillant informs me, a Robert Minet, probably the same, is entered as presented to the Chapellerie de la Madelaine et de l'hopital in Landrin, of Guines, is called ' Registre de la Recette et Depense faitte pour les pauvres du Temple de Guisnes, depuis jusqu'en ,' and contains at the beginning a list of the officers of the church; among them is Ambroise Minet, described as ' diacre assistant.

Of the services, which Ambroise must have often attended, we have the account of one who was himself present at them in the Diary of White Kennet, preserved among the Lansdowne Manuscripts in the British Museum. Tuesday October 3 rd. Went to Dover in compliance with an invitation to France. Embarked in Barretts boat for Calais 10 o'clock, night tide.

Arrived at Calais at 3 in the afternoon ; the im- position for each person landing 3 d.

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Sunday, October 8 th. Went up by boat to Guins. A custom for the protestants formerly at 1 mile distance from Calais to sing psalms in the severall boats till they came to Gaine, but of late forbidden by authority. The freight for each person i d. The town of Gane formerly walled and well fortified and a distinct town of itself. The protestant church in the form of a trapeze with double galleries round. Bayley, F. It is No. The sacrament adminis- tered after sermon, the table placed under the pulpit, fenced off with seats for persons of better rank.

The bread divided in a dish, and the wine poured out into 2 large cups ; the ministers assisting, the one consecrates the bread and administers to himself and then to the other, and the same with the wine. Then the communicants are admitted singly by order, and at the entrance of each the minister distributes to each a piece of bread. When the table is filled round, at the pronouncing of a prescribed benediction they all eat ; and soon after the minister that consecrated the wine takes the 2 cups and delivers them to 2 persons in the middle, so they pass round without any genuflexion.

After which with another short benediction they depart, and give room to new successive sets till all have received. That Sunday on which the sacrament is administered no sermon in the afternoon. Returned to Calais on horseback, called to drink at a publique house on the road, and room next to highway filled with severall companies at cards. The Diary continues until October 23, when the writer returned to Dover.

Its entries until that date are of great interest, but, with one exception to be quoted later, contain nothing more bearing on the Huguenots, and therefore need not be further reproduced here. This, then, is all we know definitely of Ambroise. He married Susanne de Haffrengue, a daughter of a distinguished Protestant family, and his ten children were born between The sixty- six years of his life were spent in the management of his business, the education of his family, and the performance of his duties as a citizen of Calais and a churchwarden of the church at Guines.

He lived in a house still standing on the north side of the Place d'Armes at Calais, of which an engraving is given on the opposite page. Such, at least, has been the abiding tradition of his race, and the stone ' minet ' which still looks down from the centre gable of this house would seem to give it considerable support. It stands on the brow of the sharp hill which rises above the village of Wimille, and about six miles out of Boulogne, close to the high-road leading to Calais.

The centre, a plain and massive stone construction, now grey with age, is flanked at each end by large semicircular towers ; the interior has been almost completely modernised, and only a portion of the ceiling and the fireplace of the kitchen can claim any antiquity. It now forms part of a group of modern farm-buildings ; but the sixteenth-century portion is used as a summer residence by the present owner, M. Bourdet, of Paris, himself a connexion by marriage of a de Haffrengue. London, La decouverte toute recente Juillet, S d'un nombre considerable de squelettes permet d'en determiner l'emplacement.

Ce cimetiere fut supprime" en Un e"tat de recettes de provenant des fermes des terres nouvelle- ment reunies a la ville de Calais, comprend entre autres locations celle de cinq mesures de terre au lieu dit le Cimetiire des Huguenots pres le pont Thierry' C. Landrin, quoting E. Brulle ; Notes pour servir a Phistoire de Calais, p. Martin's-in-the-Fields ; it does not, however, agree with what her son states in the note quoted above p. Arras, , ii.

Louise de Kéralio-Robert, pionnière du républicanisme sexiste

The wife of the present farmer, M. Neuchatel-en-Boulonnais is the present headquarters of the family. It is with the latter that we are alone concerned ; but seeing the position held by the former as ' chefs des Huguenots,' and the connexion existing between the two branches, I may perhaps be pardoned if I turn aside for a moment to speak of the Converserie branch. A peu de distance de St. Etienne, dans les dunes, s'abrite le hameau de la Converserie, qui etait un fief a Jehan de Haffrenghes avant ,' says M. Landrin ; a later Jehan must have been of the New Faith, for in we find ' Jehan de Haffrengues, Sieur de la Converserie,' witness to an inventory of the goods of Simon Coquet, farmer and brewer of Guines, who bequeathed livres Tournois to the poor of the Reformed Faith.

We must suppose that at the time of the Revocation Philippe to some extent con- formed ; for on February 4, , ' Philippe de Haffrengues, sieur de la Converserie, et Anne de la Croix sa femme obtiennent concession des biens de feu Pierre de la Croix et d'Anne Flahault sa femme fugitive. Among the names of Huguenots of the parish of St. Etienne, in Boulogne, in which parish La Converserie was situated, occur, ' Le S r Haffrengue, chef des Huguenots, de la Converserie : sa femme, fille de la Croix ; a 5 enfans dont les deux plus vieux de 12 ans et de io.

Landrin, Tableties Historiques du Calaisis, iii. Calais, S. Boulogne-sur- Mer, See above, page 9. Nous Pierre Framery chanoine theologal et vicaire general, avons recu a la grille du chceur des religieuses Ursulines l'abjuration d'heresie, faite en presence de temoins par dame Hafrengue. This Pierre was Susanne's father, and she 1 Lanne"e Boulonnaise, p. Ernest Deseille. Boulogne-sur-Mer, Jean, Suson, Jacques, b.

Haffrengue , gives a list of Haffrengue ancestors, some clearly wrong, and others not to be depended on. The date of her father's death is not known ; but as in a curious and interesting deed of , 1 which I owe to the research and courtesy of M. Landrin, Daniel and Pierre, her brothers, are spoken of as landlords of La Tresorerie, at Wimille, then leased to one Pierre Coze, it would seem clear that at that date the father was no longer alive.

What the connexion between the two branches was I am unable exactly to make out, although the existence of the relationship is clear from two sources. In one of the endorsements on the deed just men- tioned, dated October 26, , the tenant of the Tresorerie is credited with a payment of fifty livres ' bailie a notre aquy a la Converserie,' a payment clearly made to Daniel and Pierre, Susanne's brothers, who had succeeded to their father's property.

Again, Daniel of the Tresorerie had married a Jeanne Latteur, 2 and Philippe and Madelaine of the Converserie appear on several occasions in the Guines Registers as parrain and marraine in the baptisms of Latteur children. Further, we may again call attention to the list of Protestants in quoted above, where a Susanne Latteux, a common variation of Latteur, appeared as a ' servante opiniatre ' of Philippe de Haffrengue ; this, added to the fact that relations were always, if possible, chosen as godparents, makes it highly probable that the de Haffrengues of La Converserie were related to the Latteurs, as the latter were, we know, connected by marriage with the Tresorerie branch.

Ambroise Minet of Cormont and Susanne de Haffrengue of La Tresorerie 3 are, then, so far as we can discover, the root from which our family sprang. Apart from any question of genealogical interest, one would wish to be able to penetrate yet further into the past, if only to learn how and when the two families came to be adherents of the New Faith. But we must be content to come upon them when we do.

Among the abjurations at Ardres we find that of his son, ' 11 Decembre Daniel Hafre- ingue, 22 ans, ne et eleve' dans la religion Calviniste par defunts Daniel Hafringue et Jeanne Latteux, ses pere et mere ' Ern. Ranson, Histoirc it Ardres, St. Omer, p.

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The only instance of the name I have been able to find in England is the admission, on December 18, , as a member of the Church at Dover, of 'Jean Haffrengue aagi de quinze ans ou enuiron fils de Pierre Haffrenghe et d'Elisabeth Desbionuille de l'eglise de Calais recuillis a Guisnes auant cette dure persecution.

And so the ancestor and all his heires, Though they in number passe the starres of heaven, Are still but one ; his forfeitures are theirs, And vnto them are his aduancements given. The events of must have burnt themselves deeply into Isaac's memory, but it was not until that, so far as we know, he attempted any record of them. In that year he writes the first of the two narratives which form the substance of this chapter. It occurs on folio 3 of the book whose history has been already given, and would seem to have been meant for little more than a memorandum ; it has no title, follows without a break on an entry of the cost of a corpora- tion gown, and, together with some notes on his father and mother and brothers and sisters, occupies only five folios.

In , Isaac would seem to have re-read this sketch. Struck, perhaps, by the last sentence he had penned, fifteen years earlier, ' To write all y e particu- lars, and especially of our whole familly, would make a great volum,' he determined to attempt a much fuller and more formal account.


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This second narrative stands by itself in the book, being separated by blank leaves from other notes, and has the title, ' A Relation of our familly ' ; it begins on folio 17, and is more than three times as long as the first, occupying seventeen folios. In plan and arrangement it follows the first so exactly that it is clear the writer must have had the previous record in his mind when writing it, though, curious to state, he nowhere refers to it.

There is little or no contradiction of statement between the two, but a few incidents which occur in the first are left out in the second. Wherever possible, this test has been applied, and the results are given in the notes appended to the narrative. Both accounts are written in English, though we know that the writer was equally at home in French ; witness his account of the French Church at Dover, written in , of which a transcript is given Chap. Of the policy which culminated in the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and of the means by which that policy was carried out, this is not the place to speak ; the main facts must be sought in the history of France, of which they form so sad a chapter ; but some slight account of the application of the decree in the ' Calaisis ' will not, perhaps, be an unfitting introduction to Isaac's own narrative.

In 1 68 1, Claude le Tonnelier de Breteuil was appointed Bishop of Boulogne, and to his zeal was due the severity of the persecution in this district. The first part of this ' Avertissement,' which was addressed to ' Nos freres toujours egarez et comme perduz dans l'affreuse solitude de l'erreur,' was an exhortation to repent them and return to the true fold, but its conclusion was somewhat threatening : — ' Si vous refusez de reconnoistre votre erreur devant Dieu apres de si pressantes exhortations de notre part, et si vous ne voulez ni vous laisser vaincre par nos prieres, ni gagner par nos tendresses, ni vous rendre a nos avertissements, sachez que les Anges de paix en pleureront amerement.

Et parceque cette derniere erreur sera plus criminelle en vous que toutes les autres, vous devez vous attendre a des malheurs incomparablement plus epouvantables et plus funestes que tous ceux que vous ont attirez jusqu'a present votre revoke et votre schisme. He had not long to wait : on October 1 7 was signed the Revocation, the first article of which runs : — ' Voulons et nous plait que tous les Temples situez dans notre royaume pais terres et seigneuries de notre obeissance soient in- cessament demolies.

Par le traite' de NeVac [] les Calvinistes qui avoient un temple a Marcq, le transfcrent, comme je l'ay avance", a Guines a cause de la situation du lieu plus commode et plus e"tendue que Marcq. On October 27 we find him at Calais, and on the next day he himself baptizes the child of Jonas Duriez and Marie Cassel, ' faisans profession de la R. I Isaac Minet was borne at Calais the 15th September , and was brought up at my fathers house till I was 14 years of age, and then I was sent over to Dover to learn the English language, and there lived 21 months at y e house of Mr William Richards at y c greenhouse in y e room of Elizabeth his daughter who was at my fathers house, and afterwards Patience her sister.

Most of my Brothers and sisters got out of france, I was left alone at Calais w th my mother ; in June my mother went to galeries ou se mettoient le sexe, il pouvait contenir plus de trois mille personnes ; la maison du ministre qui existe encore etait contre ce temple, convertie actuellement en grange et cour de ferme, et dont les materiaux ont servis a la reparation et a l'augmentation de l'eglise parroissiale de ce bourg.

He is also mistaken in stating that the church at Guines had been closed in ; it was, as we have seen, not closed till THE HUGUENOT FAMILY OF MI NET arders where she had a sister in law who was sick and dyed, and because she did not receive y e Sacrament of y e Romish Church her dead body was caryed to prison and her estate confiscated, 1 and three days after she was dragged by y e feett by horses about the streett, y e mobb stoning y e body in such a maner y l her head was broke in pieces of from her body, and was so drag d out of y e town and stakt on a crossway.

The next day we heard by beat of drum a publication made about y e towne of a reward of Livers to such as would inform where we were and of Livrers fine for whoever should conceal us. We did continue in s d house from Wednesday till y e Satterday following and finding y' my mother nor I could neither eate drink nor sleep because of y great uneasyness and fear we were in, we fearing to fall sick, resolved to venture in trying to gett out of towne.

Y e Satterday many country peeple coming and going out of towne 1 thought was a fitt day, I sent for a man y' keept a sluce out of town towards y e seaside, and agreed with him to harbor us at his house, for w ch he 1 Susanne Minet had a brother Daniel living at Ardres, and his wife was Jeanne Latteur. Vaillant, at page 63 of the work cited above, mentions as having been treated in this cruel fashion a Madame Valla, who must be the person referred to in Isaac's narrative, and for this reason :— there is in the Guines Registers p.

Vaillant informs me that the name he reads ' Valla' may well be ' Vatta. Soon after I putt on an old fur capp, a leathern apron, a rule under my arm, my face blakend and my shoes in slipers. Ab l 4 afternoone I was much surprizd to see a sergant, 6 soldiers and 2 of y e govern 3 gards coming to y e house w ch was out of any road and remote from any other houses ; I soon concluded I was betrayd, I buryd myself in hay and heard a great noise below, and at last they came up and said ' trust y r swords in y e hay its noe matter if ye kill y' heretick ' I layd wist till they moved some hay and found me.

They caryed me to Calais where I was sent to prison. Y e nexte day the president came and examined me and said if I did not sign to be a Roman Catho k I should be burnt. To write all y e particulars, and especially of our whole familly would make a great volum — I write this. I, Isaac Minet, was born at Calais y e 15 Septemb : Such is the zeal of persons in time of percecution more fervent. Upon the Revocation of the Edict this active prelate took instant steps to enforce its provisions.

He went at once to Guines, where he baptised a Huguenot child on October 23 ; and on October 28 he performed the same office at Calais for a son of Jacques Cassel and Sara Pilart, ' de la religion pretendue reformee. Jean Hays, son of Claude Hays, who married Marie de la Croix in , was probably his brother see p. Adrien Lernoult was a ' diacre receveur ' of the church at Guines, and had married Madelaine Pilart. Louis de le Becque, a Calais merchant married : first, Jacqueline Beurre, in ; second, Marie Aimery ; he was an ' ancien' of the church at Guines. James Sauchelle may have been connected with the Sauchelles of Flushing Chap.

See First Narrative. See note 1, above, and page 9. En foi de quoy j'ay signe. Vaillant adds : ' Son cadavre, exhume de sa fosse, jete sur une charrette, fut transports a Calais et la s'executa la sentence d'une incroyable horreur. See above, p. The Major and the Mayor were two distinct officials. There wee all shedd teares lamenting our sad conditions.

Landrin, of Guines, the following passage he has extracted from the Registres de l'etat civil de S' Pierre- les-Calais : — ' Le 30 Dec. Wee were obligd to pay s d 3 men 30 Sous a day each for y e time they were in our house, from y' time wee were free at home but on Sundays wee went to Church to y e sermon but did not stay to heare the latter part of y e mass but came out so soon as y e sermon was done as did alsoe all the old Roman Catholick who had bene at mas y' morning it not being requird of them to assist at 2 mases in one day.

Sunday morning messrs. Isaac Sigart, James Hays, Jn. Hays, Adrien Lernoult, Abraham le Maire, Jonas Duriz etc ra those persons came to my Mothers house and I went with them to heare y e sermon w ch sometimes were very good. I had agreed with a man to bee ready to bring from found the following form of abjuration in the same registers, which is very similar to the one given above : — ' Nous confessons avoir fait abjuration de la religion pretendue reformee pardevant Andre 1 Mareschal curd de la paroisse, pour embrasser l'apostolique, catholique, et romaine dans laquelle nous voulons continuer ; en foi de quoi nous avons signe.

He and his wife Bridget appear several times in the Registers of St. Mary, Dover. Isaac has told us the exact spot where the embarkation took place : ' off of petite wall' see p. This was La Petite Walde, i. In this map it appears as ' Wael,' and is on the sea-coast, close to Marck. That is y e methode y' was made use of by y e popish church to make converts to theire religion by w ch meanes they could show the abjuration of many hundred thousand persons under their hands, I pray god to preserve all people who call themselves 1 Daniel Pilart, ' ancien ' of the church at Guines ; his wife was Catherine Lamens.

Severall other famillyes in Calais were used after y e same maner viz m r Louis Delebecque a worthy gentleman who had a numerous familly who had a daughter maryed to a Capt n of a Company of Suisses of men etc. Louis Delebecque was a 'diacre receveur. How would'st thou delight in her Calmes, that canst so well endure her stormes? Of the nine surviving children of Ambroise Miner, and Susanne de Haffrengue, eight had now escaped to England ; one, Daniel, was at Flushing.

In what way they escaped, how they fared in the new lands, and what has become of their descendants, so far as it has been possible to trace them, I propose to speak in this chapter. And here, again, we have to depend mainly on the notes which Isaac has left us, and which he seems to have jotted down on two occasions — in , and again in ; though in one or two instances he has added still later notes.

Thomas, the eldest son, was born in , a date we are able to fix from the record of his marriage, which reads as follows : — Le 3i e. Calais et y dem te , assistee de Jonas Goubart son frere, et de Daniel Pilart son oncle maternelle. His eldest child, Susan, must have been born in , but no record of her birth is contained in the Guines Registers, where, had Thomas remained in Calais, we should expect to find it. The birth of another child, Ambroise, is, however, recorded in the Canterbury Registers in September ; and between that 1 Guines Registers, p.

The note of repeats the same statement, but gives some further details : — Thomas was maryed at Calais to M! Ambroyse fils de Thomas Mine et de Goubar sa feme. Ambroyse Mine ; Ellyzab Stanly. Jean Peltier, serugien ; Marie Coppen. Nasq' le 2 de ce mois. Elizabeth, fille de Thomas Minet. Jacob Minet ; Susanne de Fays. Isaac Minet ; Susanne Minet. Pierre, fils de Thomas Minet and Marthe Goubard sa feme.

Naq' le onzieme de present Mars. The Registers of the French Church at Canterbury are now in course of publication as vol. Thomas was, it would seem, a grocer and distiller, a trade for which his early training in his father's house at Calais had no doubt fitted, him. As, beyond these few facts, there is nothing known of him, we may pass on to his eldest surviving son, Thomas, from whom is de- scended the eldest branch of the family as now represented in England. Thomas the younger was born at Canterbury on September 14, Thomas Minet, a freeman, by marriage with Rebecca, daughter of John Winter.

He perhaps resided at Dover for some time after his marriage, but in he was settled in London, where, in , a letter was written to him by Peter Fector, his sister Mary's son, who was then paying his addresses to his kinswoman, Mary Minet, but whose suit had not been received favourably. The letter itself I shall have occasion to refer to more fully in another connexion, 1 but the fact of its being written to Thomas, shows that he must have been intimately connected with the negotiations. The really interesting point about the letter, for our present purpose, is an endorsement made on it by Hughes Minet, Mary's brother, into whose hands the document fell.

This endorsement may, of course, have been touched by prejudice, as Hughes was strongly opposed to the marriage ; but it is certainly not at all flattering. The date of his death is not known, but he left sur- viving him four children — Thomas, James, Susan, and Mary — who were all alive in , as appears from the fact that legacies were then paid them under the will of William Minet.

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The eldest, Thomas, is 1 Page It is from James, the second son of Thomas the younger, that what may be called the Madeira branch of the family traces its descent. How or when is not known, but this James drifted to Lisbon and the Azores. He married Josepha Maria Durpont, of St. Michael's, in the Azores, where his eldest child, Mary Isabel, was born on August 26, , the two later children — Joseph and Mary Ann Victoria — being born in Lisbon.

His wife, from her name, may have been of French origin : but she was apparently a Catholic ; at least, all her three children were baptised in that religion. There may, perhaps, have been some special reason for this ; in any case, the family are now of the Reformed faith. Joseph, his son, is said to have come to England when quite young, and it is from his two marriages with Anna Maria Barker and Elizabeth Brissault that the two divisions of the elder branch of the Minets trace their descent.

Full particulars of these will be found on reference to Tables B and C. I may add here, however, a note on Joseph Minet's second wife, who strengthened the Huguenot blood already running so strongly in the Minet veins. She was granddaughter on her father's side to John Brissault, of Southampton and of Whitechapel, where he carried on the business of a sugar- refiner, and on her mother's side granddaughter of Nicolas Hebert, of Spitalfields, weaver.

When I come to speak of the business in a later chapter, this connexion will be more fully dwelt on ; suffice it here to say that Mary's son, Peter, came over from Rotterdam as a lad, in , to be a clerk in his great-uncle's house at Dover. A portrait of him hangs in the Dover Town-Hall. His son and grandson remained on in the business until , when John Minet Fector finally retired.

The Fectors were well known at Dover. Parmi ces femmes, il y a Etta Palm, mais Louise ne la nomme pas. Claude Guillon signale la signature de Louise sur celle de juin qui demande la punition des conspirateurs. Je vous crois, madame Robert. Elle se retranche dans l'affirmation d'un silence conforme au devoirs de son statut, et parle Septembre est le point culminant du mouvement populaire, et de son encadrement par la Convention.

La cocarde est un signe politique depuis juillet Son port est, pendant trois ans, affaire de choix. Mais, lors de la proclamation de la patrie en danger, en juillet , il devient obligatoire pour les hommes. Il ne reste donc signe militant que pour les femmes. De quels instruments disposons-nous pour l'explorer? Einband bzw. Binding, dust jacket if any , etc may also be worn.

Seller Inventory MB. Couverture souple. Pas de jaquette. Trace d'usure sur les coins et les bords. Published by?? About this Item:?? Condition: Very Good. Great condition for a used book! Minimal wear. From: Ammareal Grigny, France. Condition: Bon. Edition Former library book. Seller Inventory A Contribution no. Published by Communio, Paris About this Item: Communio, Paris, From: Gallix Gif sur Yvette, France.

Condition: Neuf. Published by Hurtubise Hmh About this Item: Hurtubise Hmh, Soft cover. Condition: New.

En somme, les bonheurs et les malheurs d? Trace d'usure sur les coins. Traces d'usure sur la couverture.