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Go to abolitionist in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem 'Old Ironsides' prompts a public response that saves the frigate from the scrapyard. The Book of Mormon, translated from miraculously discovered holy tablets, is published by their finder Joseph Smith. Nat Turner leads a revolt by fellow slaves in Southampton County, Virginia, killing 59 whites and provoking more repressive legislation.

Go to Turner, Nat —31 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Evangelical preacher Charles Grandison Finney leads a new wave of revivalism in the northeastern states. English author Frances Trollope ruffles transatlantic feathers with her Domestic Manners of the Americans , based on a 3-year stay. The USA suffers the first of several cholera epidemics, spanning the sixty years to Go to cholera in Concise Medical Dictionary 8 ed.

Under the leadership of William Lloyd Garrison a society is formed in the USA calling for the immediate abolition of slavery. The first long-distance US railway, in South Carolina, carries its first passengers. Go to railway in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Whig Party in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The New York Sun gains new readers with a convincing report that astronomer John Herschel has observed men and animals on the moon.

Alexis de Tocqueville publishes in French the first two volumes of his extremely influential study Democracy in America. A school of landscape painting emerges in New York, with emphasis on the scenery of the Hudson River and the Catskill Mountains. Go to Hudson River School c. The inhabitants of the Mexican province of Texas declare their independence as a new republic. Go to Texas in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Go to Alamo in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. American professor William Holmes McGuffey writes the first of his immensely popular school reading books.

In his essay, Nature , Ralph Waldo Emerson sets out the fundamentals of the philosophy of Transcendentalism. Martin van Buren, previously vice-president to Andrew Jackson, wins the US presidential election on the Democratic ticket. US inventor Samuel Morse gives the first public demonstration, in Philadelphia, of his electric telegraph.

Five American Indian tribes are forcibly escorted to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi in the process that becomes known as the Great Removal. John James Audubon completes publication of the plates forming his 4-volume Birds of America. Go to Audubon, John James 26 Apr. US naval officer Charles Wilkes leads a four-year exploration of the Antarctic and Pacific, proving on the way that Antarctica is a continent.

In his Divinity School Address, delivered at Harvard, Ralph Waldo Emerson criticizes formal religion and gives priority to personal spiritual experience. US author Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes Fanshawe , his first novel, at his own expense. Go to Hawthorne, Nathaniel —64 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Mutiny by slaves on a Spanish vessel leads two years later to a significant abolitionist victory in the Amistad case.

Go to Amistad Case. The first issue of the quarterly magazine The Dial is issued by the Transcendentalists meeting at Ralph Waldo Emerson's home. William Henry Harrison wins the US presidential election as the Whig candidate, but dies 30 days after taking office. Go to Dana, Richard Henry, Jr. Herman Melville goes to sea on the whaler Acushnet and spends more than a year in the south Pacific. Go to Melville, Herman —91 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Horace Greeley founds and edits the New-York Tribune , which will survive for more than a century till Go to Greeley, Horace —72 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. On the sudden death of US president William Henry Harrison, from pneumonia, he is succeeded in the office by his vice-president John Tyler. Go to Tyler, John — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Edwin Pearce Christy launches the Virginia Minstrels, later to become America's most popular minstrel show under the name Christy's Minstrels.

US showman P. Barnum draws huge crowds to the New York premises where his attractions include 'General Tom Thumb', a 4-year-old midget. Go to Oregon Trail in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. William Hickling Prescott brings the Conquistadors dramatically to life in his 3-volume History of the Conquest of Mexico.

James Polk pledges in his presidential campaign to include the self-proclaimed republic of Texas in the USA. The Mormon leader, Joseph Smith, and his brother are killed by an armed mob in Nauvoo. New Yorker Alexander Cartwright devises the set of rules that become the basis of the modern game of baseball. Go to baseball in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Henry David Thoreau moves into a hut that he has built for himself in the woods at Walden Pond near Concord, Massachusetts. The expansionist slogan 'Manifest Destiny' is coined by journalist John L. Go to manifest destiny in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed.

Escaped slave Frederick Douglass publishes the first of three volumes of autobiography. Go to Douglass, Frederick —95 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. US author Margaret Fuller publishes Woman in the Nineteenth Century , an early and thoughtful feminist study of women's place in society.

Francis Parkman travels west into dangerous territory in Wyoming, an adventure he later describes in The Oregon Trail. The Irish, fleeing from the potato famine at home, become the main group of immigrants to the USA. Brigham Young leads the migration of Mormons west up the Missouri from Illinois. Go to Young, Brigham —77 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Smithsonian Institution in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. A dentist in Boston, William Morton, uses ether as an anaesthetic while surgeon John Collins Warren removes a tumour in a patient's neck.

Members of the Donner Party, on the trail to California, survive by eating human flesh when trapped by snow in the mountains of the Sierra Nevada. Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes his first collection of poems, many of which have appeared first in The Dial. Gold is found on the property of John Sutter, at Coloma on the Sacramento river in California, and news of it launches the first gold rush. Go to gold rush noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Two New York girls, Maggie and Katie Fox, claim to be in touch with the spirit of a murdered man, thus launching the modern cult of spiritualism.

Go to spiritualism in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Wilmot Proviso is defeated in the US Senate, heightening north-south tensions on the issue of slavery. Go to Wisconsin in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Susannah is in the first published collection of popular songs by Stephen Collins Foster.

A utopian community dedicated to the sharing of both property and sexual favours is established by John Humphrey Noyes near Oneida, New York. Go to Taylor, Zachary — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Francis Parkman's The Oregon Trail , already serialized in , is published in book form. An anti-British mob attacks the New York theatre where William Macready is appearing as Macbeth, leaving 22 dead and many injured. The gold rush to California gathers pace during , causing the prospectors to become known as 'forty-niners'.

As many as 50, US pioneers travel west this year on the Oregon Trail. California is admitted to the union just two years after being acquired from Mexico. Go to California in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. The slave trade, but not slavery itself, is banned in Washington and the district of Columbia. US president Zachary Taylor dies after a short illness and is succeeded by his vice-president, Millard Fillmore.

Go to Fillmore, Millard —74 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The US Congress passes the Compromise of , designed to defuse the growing crisis over slavery. Go to Compromise of in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Fugitive Slave Act, concerned with the arrest of runaway slaves, is the most contentious part of the Compromise of Go to Prynne, Hester [Lit. Go to Panama Canal in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Escaped slave Harriet Tubman makes the first of many dangerous journeys back into Maryland to bring other slaves into freedom.

Go to Tubman, Harriet — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Lind, Jenny —87 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Pinkerton, Allan —84 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. An American clergyman, L. Langstroth, discovers the 'bee space', which becomes a standard feature of the modern beehive. Herman Melville publishes Moby Dick; or, The Whale , a novel based on his own month experience on a whaler in A journalist in the Terre Haute Express gives a piece of advice, 'Go west, young man', that chimes perfectly with the US pioneer spirit.

The citizens of the US are scandalized to discover that the Mormons practise polygamy. In the four years since the discovery of gold, the population of California has leapt from 14, to , Go to gold rushes in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes a massively successful antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin , that sells , copies in its first year.

Go to Pierce, Franklin —69 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. An anti-slavery movement, formed in the USA to oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act, adopts a resonant name, calling itself the Republican party. US inventor Elisha Otis dramatically demonstrates his new safety elevator, cutting the rope suspending his platform in New York's Crystal Palace. The controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act passes into law, enabling citizens of these territories to decide whether or not to allow slavery.

Thoreau publishes an account of his two years of self-sufficient transcendentalism in his hut at Walden Pond. The first edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass is published anonymously, at his own expense, and contains just 12 poems. Go to Whitman, Walt —92 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Longfellow publishes his American Indian epic, The Song of Hiawatha , in an irresistibly catchy metre. Abolitionist John Brown presides over the lynching of five pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie in Kansas.

Go to Buchanan, James — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Badger, Daniel D. Go to Fenian movement in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Abraham Lincoln comes to national prominence through his debates on slavery with Stephen Douglas, his rival for an Illinois seat in the Senate. Go to Lincoln, Abraham —65 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Edwin L. Drake strikes oil in Pennsylvania, leading to several local oil rushes. John Brown is captured leading a group of abolitionists to seize arms from the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry.

Go to Brown, John —59 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Abolitionist John Brown is convicted of treason at Harper's Ferry and is hanged. Mail is carried by horse relay from Missouri to California, travelling miles in ten days in the service known as the Pony Express.

Go to Pony Express —61 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Lincoln becomes the Republican presidential candidate, benefiting from a Democratic party split on the issue of slavery. German immigrants arriving in the USA now outnumber even the Irish. Go to German Americans. South Carolina becomes the first southern state to secede from the Union in response to Lincoln's election.

Seven southern states, meeting in Montgomery, Alabama, agree to form the Confederate States of America. The seven members of the newly formed Confederacy elect Jefferson Davis as their provisional president. Go to Davis, Jefferson —89 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Richmond, the state capital of Virginia, becomes the capital of the Southern Confederacy. Go to Fort Sumter in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Mathew Brady sends teams of photographers to the various battle fronts to ensure a thorough photographic record of the American Civil War. Go to Brady, Mathew B. Longfellow's narrative poem Paul Revere's Ride dramatizes a turning point at the start of the American Revolution. The Monitor and the Merrimack fight all morning off the Virginia coast, in history's first clash between ironclad ships.

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A two-day engagement at Shiloh is the first Civil War battle to bring massive casualties, with more than 23, dead, wounded or missing. In a surprise raid, Union forces sail up the Mississippi estuary to capture New Orleans. George B. Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee defeat a Union army in the second battle of Bull Run or Manassas.

The Federal victory at Antietam comes at a cost of more than 22, casualties in a single day. Lincoln declares in his Emancipation Proclamation that all slaves in any state opposing the Union government 'are and henceforward shall be free'. Go to Emancipation Proclamation in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Unpublished American poet Emily Dickinson writes more than poems within the year.

It is discovered in the US that wood pulp can be used to make paper, and the Boston Weekly Journal is the first to use the new substance. Go to wood in The Oxford Companion to the Book 1 ed. Mobs of women destroy shops in Richmond, Virginia, in protest at food prices inflated by the war.

The three-day Battle of Gettysburg, inconclusive but more damaging to the Confederates, brings casualties on both sides of more than 50, After a six-week siege the city of Vicksburg surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant, bringing the entire Mississippi under Union control. Four days of riots in New York greet Lincoln's new conscription or draft laws, with exemptions for the rich. Go to Draft Riots, Civil War. President Lincoln, in honouring the Union dead at Gettysburg, captures in three minutes the essence of American democracy.

Ulysses S. Grant moves south in a hard-fought campaign to pin down Lee's Confederate army at Petersburg, near Richmond. Lee and turns it into a war cemetery. William Tecumseh Sherman captures Atlanta, the first important southern city to fall into Union hands. President Lincoln is re-elected for a second term, thanks largely to recent Union successes on the Civil War battlefields. William T. Sherman reaches the coast and captures Savannah, after his violently destructive 'march to the sea'. The Confederate government abandons Richmond, and Lee begins a retreat to the west.

Lincoln visits the Confederate capital at Richmond and is greeted by a jubilant crowd of freed black slaves. Lee surrenders to Grant at the Appomattox Court House, and is offered conciliatory terms. Go to Johnson, Andrew —75 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The southern states pass new Black Codes, designed to limit the freedom granted to African-Americans by the victorious north. Go to Black Codes —66 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Plains Indians are threatened by settlers pressing west, building railways and slaughtering buffalo.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the US constitution not ratified till assures equal rights as citizens to all born or naturalized in the USA. My Captain! Go to O Captain! Go to Homer, Winslow — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Recovery from serious injury convinces Mary Baker Eddy that sickness and health are spiritually based, and provides her with the impulse to found Christian Science.

The US Congress passes Reconstruction Acts, dividing the defeated South into military districts and insisting on elections by universal male suffrage. The invention of barbed wire is patented in the USA by Lucien Smith, designed to fence in cattle but also a protection for the wheat fields of the Midwest plains. Go to patent in A Dictionary of Economics 3 ed.

William Cody earns his nickname Buffalo Bill by killing thousands of the animals to feed construction workers on the Union Pacific Railroad. US president Andrew Johnson escapes impeachment for dismissing his secretary of war by a single vote. George Custer leads federal troops in the massacre of more than American Indians, on an official reservation beside the Washita river. Civil War hero Ulysses S. Go to Grant, Ulysses S.

The Fifteenth Amendment to the US Constitution ratified in makes it illegal to deny the right to vote on racial grounds. Cincinnati, Ohio, fielding the first baseball team in which every member is a hired professional, wins every match of the year. John D. Rockefeller and his partners establish the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Go to Rockefeller, John D. Go to National Rifle Association. US president Ulysses S. A fire in Chicago destroys a third of the city, to be followed by an extremely rapid and successful period of reconstruction. Go to Chicago Fire. The US Congress establishes Yellowstone, with its famous geysers, as the world's first national park.

Go to Yellowstone National Park. The Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad cuts through the territory reserved for American Indians, bringing hordes of 'boomers'. Pragmatism emerges as a philosophical approach in meetings of the Metaphysical Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Go to pragmatism in A Dictionary of Sociology 3 rev ed. San Francisco merchant Levi Strauss receives a patent for denim jeans, soon to be known as Levi's.

Moody launches into a new career as a revivalist preacher. St Nicholas , a monthly magazine of high literary quality for children, is launched in the USA. Go to St. Madame Blavatsky founds in New York the Theosophical Society, preaching universal brotherhood with a strong dash of mysticism. Congress passes a Civil Rights Act outlawing segregation in the USA on public transport and in hotels and restaurants.

Andrew Carnegie's new steel mill near Pittsburgh prospers through automation, new technology and non-union labour. Go to Iron and Steel Industry. US artist Thomas Eakins' depiction of the gruesome aspect of surgery, in his portrait of Dr Gross, offends many viewers. Go to Eakins, Thomas — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Alexander Graham Bell makes the first practical use of his telephone, summoning his assistant from another room with the words 'Mr Watson, come here.

I want to see you. In 21 years Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass has grown from 12 poems to the two volumes of the sixth edition, published in the USA's centenary year. Susan B. Go to Anthony, Susan B.

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After a failed bank hold-up in Northfield, Minnesota, the whole of the James gang is killed except Jesse and his brother Frank. Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes defeats Democrat Samuel J. Tilden in a US presidential election of which the result is strongly disputed. The Compromise of settles the disputed US presidential election but ends active Republican commitment to the cause of Reconstruction in the southern states.

Go to Compromise of Puck is launched in the USA as a an illustrated weekly magazine of political satire. Cattle-rustler William H. Bonney becomes known as Billy the Kid in his brief and murderous career of crime in New Mexico. A strike against wage cuts by Baltimore railway workers spreads until it becomes almost a national strike. Go to Railroad Strikes of The human voice is recorded for the first time when Thomas Edison recites 'Mary had a little lamb' into his newly patented phonograph.

Go to phonograph in The Oxford Companion to Music 1 rev ed. A disagreement between families on the West Virginia and Kentucky border flares up and eventually claims a dozen lives. Go to Hatfield-McCoy Feud. Thomas Edison develops a long-lasting carbon filament light bulb traditionally 40 hours and is able to light his Menlo Park laboratory with 30 bulbs. Go to Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.

Barnum and his main rival James Bailey merge their enterprises to form America's leading circus. Guiteau at a Washington railway station, and dies two months later. Booker T. Washington, freed at the end of the Civil War, heads a college in the south, in Tuskegee, Alabama, to educate former slaves. Go to Washington, Booker T. Jesse James allows into his home a new gang member, working secretly for the police, who shoots him in the back.

Jumbo, the 'world's largest elephant', becomes the star attraction of Barnum and Bailey's touring circus. Harvard graduates J.

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Mitchell and E. Martin establish Life magazine as a new satirical weekly. The Supreme Court declares illegal the Civil Rights Act against segregation, thus enabling the southern states to pass racist laws. Joseph Pulitzer buys the New York World and builds circulation with sensational news and campaigns. Brooklyn Bridge, the longest suspension bridge in the world, is opened between Brooklyn and lower Manhattan. Go to Brooklyn Bridge. Mark Twain's autobiographical book Life on the Mississippi details his own personal involvement with the great river. William Cody, better known as Buffalo Bill, celebrates the world of the cowboy in his immensely successful Wild West Show.

US entrepreneur James 'Buck' Duke wins exclusive rights in a machine that can manufacture , cigarettes a day. The name Coca-Cola is registered by John S. Pemberton in America for a drink of cocaine, cola nuts and citrus juices. In the Haymarket Affair a demonstration in Chicago against police brutality results in deaths and subsequent executions. The Statue of Liberty, after crossing the Atlantic, is erected on Bedloe's island in the approach to New York harbour.

The American Federation of Labor, with Samuel Gompers as its first president, is formed as an umbrella organization to represent all unions. The US Congress passes the Interstate Commerce Act, an early attempt to avoid the excesses of unrestrained capitalism. January blizzard and summer drought bring to an end ten years of agricultural boom in the US Midwest, prompting a new slogan — 'In Kansas we busted'. Go to Kansas in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Dawes Severalty Act deprives American Indians of their tribal lands, giving each instead an allotment of up to acres. Anne Sullivan works with the deaf and blind 7-year-old Helen Keller, in a relationship that will last nearly half a century.

An American Indian visionary, Wovoka, launches a new religion that will bring the dead back to life, calling it the Ghost Dance. Go to Wovoka c. Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison wins the US presidential election, defeating the incumbent president Grover Cleveland. Go to Harrison, Benjamin — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The first Land Run into Oklahoma has settlers galloping in from noon to claim territory previously reserved for American Indians. A collapsing dam sends 40 feet of water through Johnstown, Pennsylvania, killing more than people.

The first conference of American nations, in Washington, D. Go to Pan American Union. Poems is the first of six collections of Emily Dickinson's poetry, found among her papers on her death and published posthumously. A new Populist Party, dedicated to democracy and welfare, begins a brief career of considerable political influence in the USA. Go to basketball in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Herman Melville dies in obscurity in New York, with an unpublished manuscript of Billy Budd not printed till Ellis Island in New York Bay opens as the point of reception for arriving immigrants.

The Ohio Supreme Court rules that monopolistic practices by Rockefeller's oil company are illegal. San Francisco businessmen found an organization to protect nature, the Sierra Club of California, a powerful environmental pressure group. Go to Sierra Club. Leaves of Grass , still growing, is published in its ninth edition in the year of Walt Whitman's death. The closing of the Homestead Steel Works near Pittsburgh in a dispute with unions leads to massive confrontation and violence.

Go to football, American in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Former president Grover Cleveland defeats incumbent president Benjamin Harrison, becoming the only US president to serve non-consecutive terms. In a sensational trial in Massachusetts, Lizzie Borden is acquitted of the charge of killing her father and stepmother with an axe. Decline in the federal gold reserve and panic by investors prompts a spectacular crash in the US economy. Go to Free Silver Movement.

William Randolph Hearst buys the New York Journal , the first of numerous purchases in building up his press empire. Joshua Slocum sails from Boston in his sloop Spray for his attempt at a solo circumnavigation of the world. Go to Slocum, Joshua —c. Go to Golf. Utah is admitted to the union as the 45th state, after the Mormons agree to give up polygamy. Go to Robinson, E. Ferguson that it is legal for a state to provide 'separate but equal' facilities for blacks.

Go to Plesseyv. US engineer Henry Ford test drives his first four-wheel internal-combustion vehicle, the Quadricycle, built in a coal shed behind his home. Go to McKinley, William b. Henry James views the feckless adults in Maisie's life through the eyes of the child herself in What Maisie Knew. Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes Women and Economics , developing the feminist theme in US cultural and political life.

Go to National Consumers' League. Joshua Slocum reaches Newport, Rhode Island, after sailing 46, miles to achieve the first solo voyage round the world. US basketball becomes a professional game with the establishment in Philadelphia of the National Basketball League. US social scientist Thorstein Veblen publishes The Theory of the Leisure Class , an attack on capitalist exploitation and 'consumerism'. Marconi equips two ships to send radio reports to New York on the progress of the yachts racing for the America's Cup. US Secretary of State John Hay circulates a proposal that western powers should adopt an open-to-all trading policy in China.

After a prodigiously productive career as novelist and journalist, Stephen Crane dies of tuberculosis at the age of Joshua Slocum publishes Sailing Alone Around the World , an account of his famous circumnavigation. Jack London's first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf , brings him a wide readership. Theodore Dreiser's first novel, Sister Carrie , receives no publicity because his publisher, Frank Doubleday, considers it immoral. More than people die when a hurricane demolishes the seaside resort of Galveston in Texas. The American League emerges from baseball's Western League, before going national in In the US presidential election William McKinley wins a second term on a simple platform, promising 'the full dinner pail'.

Go to automobile in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to coffee in A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 3 ed. Frank Lloyd Wright designs low residential buildings, suitable for the plains around Chicago, and calls them Prairie Houses. The Texas oil industry is launched with the discovery of the 75,barrel-a-day Lucas Gusher near Beaumont. Go to Petroleum Industry. Frank Norris publishes The Octopus , the first of a projected trilogy of novels set in Southern California.

President McKinley is assassinated by an anarchist when visiting the Pan-American exhibition in Buffalo. Go to Roosevelt, Theodore b. Edith Wharton's publishes her first full-length novel, The Valley of Decision. Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside independently see the link between the atmosphere and the behaviour of radio waves. Go to dixieland in The Oxford Companion to Music 1 rev ed. Brooklyn shopkeepers Morris and Rose Michtom have a huge success with their presidential 'Teddy's Bear'. Go to teddy bear in A New Dictionary of Eponyms 1 ed.

Cuba is forced to accept a permanent US military presence in Guantanamo Bay. Gertrude Stein leaves the USA to share with her brother an apartment in Paris that soon becomes a literary and artistic salon. Go to Stein, Gertrude 3 Feb. Edwin S. Go to cinema in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. A US warship appears off the coast of Panama in support of rebels declaring an independent republic. William Harley and three Davidson brothers begin the commercial production in Milwaukee of motorcycles, but complete only three by the end of the year.

US author W. Go to Du Bois, W. The Pit , the second volume of an uncompleted trilogy by US novelist Frank Norris, is published posthumously. The first World Series is played between nine leading baseball teams from the National League and the American League. The USA is granted exclusive control in perpetuity of a ten-mile corridor across Panama, suitable for a canal. Orville Wright travels 40 yards in the first successful powered flight, at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina. Theodore Roosevelt wins the US presidential election in his own right.

US inventor King C. Gillette receives a patent for a disposable safety razor. Go to safety razor noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Australian soprano Nellie Melba makes the first of a great many recordings. Industrial Workers of the World with its members later known as Wobblies is founded in Chicago as a radical union initiative. Edith Wharton publishes the novel that brings her fame and fortune, The House of Mirth. Percival Lowell predicts the existence of an unknown planet, almost exactly where Pluto is discovered 25 years later. Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle , a hard-hitting novel about the Chicago meat-packing industry.

Fire destroys much of San Francisco following the most violent earthquake in the city's history. Go to San Francisco Earthquake and Fire. In Charles Ives' composition The Unanswered Question the trumpet repeatedly asks 'the perennial question of existence'. The Naturalization Act provides definitive requirements for naturalization as a US citizen.

Go to Pure Food and Drug Act. Stuart Blackton, introduces the concept of the animated cartoon. Go to animation in A Dictionary of Media and Communication 1 ed. President Roosevelt sends marines to protect US property during political unrest in Honduras. Collapse of trust companies causes panic and financial crisis in USA. A Midwest region, including what remains of the reserved Indian Territory, is included in Oklahoma when it joins the Union as the 46th state.

President Roosevelt sends a fleet of warships on a goodwill tour of the world that also demonstrates US power. William Howard Taft, the Republican candidate, is elected to follow Roosevelt as president. Go to Taft, William Howard b. Leo Baekeland announces his discovery of Bakelite, calling it 'the material of a thousand uses'. Mary Pickford begins her film career at sixteen, when she is hired by D.

Jack London publishes his most autobiographical novel, Martin Eden. US physicist Robert A. Millikan devises an oil drop experiment that determines the charge of an electron. Go to Millikan's oil-drop experiment in A Dictionary of Physics 6 ed. President Taft sends marines to Nicaragua after the government there executes two US citizens.

Go to Taft, William Howard 15 Sept. Joshua Slocum, the most famous sailor of the day, vanishes on another lone voyage. Chicago cardiologist James Herrick publishes the first account of the cells causing sickle-cell anaemia. Go to sickle cell anaemia in A Dictionary of Biomedicine 1 ed. US geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan establishes the chromosome theory of heredity through his study of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

The Gimbel family open their flagship department store in Manhattan. Go to department store in A Dictionary of Marketing 3 ed. Elizabeth Arden opens her first beauty salon on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan. Eugene B. Ely lands his Curtiss biplane on the US cruiser Pennsylvania , pointing the way to the future development of the aircraft carrier. Go to Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire.

US inventor Isaac Newton Lewis patents a lighter version of the machine gun. US driver Ray Harroun wins the first Indianapolis motor race. Go to Automobile Racing. Scott Joplin completes a ragtime opera, Treemonisha. Go to Joplin, Scott? Frances Hodgson Burnett publishes The Secret Garden , which becomes a classic of children's literature. Baseball pitcher Cy Young retires with a record achievement of wins in 22 professional seasons.

Go to Baseball. Rudolph Wurlitzer's company in the USA produces the first of its famous movie theatre organs. New Mexico becomes the 47th state of the United States of America. Go to New Mexico in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Arizona becomes the 48th state of the United States of America. Go to Arizona in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Roosevelt, Theodore 27 Oct. Lillian and Dorothy Gish make their screen debut with the Biograph Company. The White Star liner Titanic sinks on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York, drowning passengers and crew.

President Taft sends US marines to Cuba because of political unrest in the island. Theodore Roosevelt's followers form a rival party to the Republicans, soon to be known as the Bull Moose party. Go to Progressive Party of — Mack Sennett sets up the Keystone studio in California, soon to be famous for the knockabout farce of the Keystone Kops. Go to Keystone Kops [Cin. Renascence is the title poem in college student Edna St Vincent Millay's first published collection.

Go to Millay, Edna St. Memphis Blues is composed by 'father of the blues' W. Go to Handy, W. Go to Wilson, Thomas Woodrow 28 Dec. Go to railway stations in The Oxford Companion to Architecture 1 ed. Cecil B. In O Pioneers Willa Cather finds her major theme, life on the frontier. The US navy begins transmitting by radio a regular time signal, much used by the nation's watchmakers and menders. In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier. The Woolworth Building opens in New York as the world's tallest skyscraper, a distinction it retains until Henry Ford pioneers the moving assembly line in the manufacture of cars at his company's Michigan plant.

Go to Brillo pad noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. The foxtrot, possibly introduced by US performer Harry Fox, becomes an immensely popular ballroom dance. Go to foxtrot in The Oxford Dictionary of Dance 2 ed. Edith Wharton's novel The Custom of the Country begins publication in serial form. George Ruth acquires the nickname Babe when he joins the baseball team the Baltimore Orioles.

American-born poet Thomas Stearns Eliot crosses the Atlantic to England, making it his home for the rest of his life. Go to Eliot, T. Margaret Anderson publishes in Chicago the first issue of The Little Review , a monthly literary magazine. The Assemblies of God is established as the largest affiliation of Pentecostal churches. Go to Assemblies of God in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Martha, 29 years old and the last passenger pigeon in the world, dies in the Cincinnati zoo in Ohio. The sculptor Constantin Brancusi has his first one-man exhibition, at Stieglitz's gallery in New York.

Go to Brancusi, Constantin 19 Feb. The Clayton Act strengthens many aspects of US antitrust legislation. The Corning Glass Company launches Pyrex, a new range of heat-resistant kitchen ware made from borosilicate glass. Thomas Edison invents a machine to record telephone conversations, calling it the telescribe. American campaigner for birth control Margaret Sanger publishes a controversial pamphlet, Family Limitation.

Typhoid-carrier Mary Mallon is detained in New York after leaving a trail of destruction. Go to Masters, Edgar Lee ?

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William Joseph Simmons, a suspended Methodist preacher in Georgia, wins a big racist following in the south with his revival of the defunct Ku Klux Klan. Haiti becomes a US protectorate, under the terms of a treaty signed in the previous year. Enrique Granados, on the last leg of his return from New York, is one of many civilians to die when the Sussex is torpedoed by a U-boat in the English Channel.

Earth's the right place for love' in Robert Frost's 'Birches', included in his collection Mountain Interval. Go to National Park System. In his first World Series for the Boston Red Sox, year-old Babe Ruth sets a still unbroken record, pitching 13 successive scoreless innings. William Boeing flies an aircraft built by himself, and a month later sets up in Seattle his own Aero Product company.

The Passing Show of is the first of 22 musicals written in the short span of 17 years by the brothers George and Ira Gershwin. In his ground-breaking film Intolerance D. Griffith intercuts four parallel stories from different historical periods. The Imagist poet H. Hilda Doolittle publishes her first collection, Sea Garden. Margaret Sanger opens the first US birth control clinic, in a poor district of Brooklyn, and is gaoled for thirty days. Go to Highway System. November 7 - Woodrow Wilson wins re-election as US president after campaigning on the slogan 'He kept us out of war'.

New York responds with enthusiasm when the Original Dixieland Jazz Band performs a new kind of music in Reisenweber's restaurant. Silent film comedian Harold Lloyd adopts the glasses and the straw hat that become his familiar props. The first annual prizes are awarded, under the terms of Joseph Pulitzer's will, for the best new US novel, play, history and biography.

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Race riots against migrant southern blacks in East St Louis, Missouri, leave forty-eight dead. March 1 - a deciphered telegram, from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann, inflames US public opinion by promising Texas and more to Mexico. Go to Zimmermann Note 19 Jan. April - German U-boats sink Allied and neutral merchant ships in this month alone. June - the Allies frustrate the German U-boats by introducing the convoy system.

Go to convoy system in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson formulates fourteen detailed proposals as a basis for world peace once the conflict has ended. May - US troops are by now fighting in large numbers on the western front. Quia Pauper Amavi contains the first three of Ezra Pound's eventually more than cantos. US boxer Jack Dempsey defeats Jess Willard for the world heavyweight title, sending him from the ring with a broken jaw. At least thirty-eight people are killed in a race riot in Chicago. Lillian Gish stars as a Cockney girl in D.

Griffith's inter-racial film romance Broken Blossoms , set in London's slums. Steelworkers go on strike in the US, attempting a major confrontation with industrial management. Go to Steel Strike of President Woodrow Wilson suffers a severe stroke that renders him largely incapable during the final seventeen months of his presidency. Sherwood Anderson establishes a reputation with a collection of short stories, Winesburg, Ohio.

Prohibition comes into effect in the USA, three months after the Volstead Act has provided guidelines for enforcement. The US steel strike collapses after four months, with nothing achieved. Ezra Pound publishes Hugh Selwyn Mauberley , a poem that reflects on the practice of poetry itself. Edith Wharton publishes her best-known novel, The Age of Innocence. Go to Nineteenth Amendment. Charles Ives publishes his Piano Sonata No.

Douglas Fairbanks makes the first of his swashbuckling adventure movies, The Mark of Zorro. The marriage of Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks is a Hollywood sensation after a three-year affair. Warren Harding wins the US presidential election for the Republicans. Go to Harding, Warren Gamaliel 2 Nov. The American novelist Sinclair Lewis has his first major success with Main Street , an unflattering portrayal of American village life.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt is paralyzed from the waist down by polio. Go to Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 30 Jan.

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  6. Italian immigrant anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti are convicted of murder in a US trial flawed by prejudice. Tulsa race riots cap previous levels of violence, with more than eighty-five blacks killed. Marianne Moore calls her first published collection simply Poems. November 11 - the first of America's 'unknown soldiers' is placed in the new Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery.

    De Witt Wallace and his wife, working from home, publish the first issue of Reader's Digest. Robert J. Flaherty lives with the Inuit in the Arctic to make his dramatized documentary Nanook of the North. Go to Flaherty, Robert J. Sinclair Lewis creates an archetypal character in George Folanshee Babbitt, a real-estate broker in the Midwestern town of Zenith. Linus Pauling, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology, begins theoretical work on the nature of the chemical bond.

    The Broadway show Ziegfeld Follies features an exciting new dance, the Charleston. Henry Luce has an immediate success with a new magazine, calling it simply Time. Bessie Smith has a big hit with her first record, Downhearted Blues , selling two million copies within a year. Wallace Stevens' first collection, Harmonium , sells copies. It involves life-altering permanents and poorly-made toupees. Obstacles to daily survival ensue. R 99 min Comedy, Crime, Drama. During his final days, a dying man is reunited with old friends, former lovers, his ex-wife, and his estranged son.

    R min Documentary, Comedy, War. Bill Maher 's take on the current state of world religion. R 83 min Drama, Sci-Fi, Thriller. A young man awakens from a six-year coma with the ability to see into peoples futures. Votes: 1, R 96 min Biography, Comedy, Drama. In need of a grubstake, a young man convinces a couple of friends to help him kidnap Frank Sinatra Jr. It's a true story. Macy , James Russo , Ryan Browning.

    Votes: TV-G 40 min Documentary. The 19th century was a period of growth both for alcoholic beverages and the temperance movement. Washingtonian societies - made up of men who had taken a pledge to forgo all alcoholic The crew changes the outcome of the American revolution when they travel back in time. Stars: Eric Hovind , Paul Taylor. TV 44 min Adventure, Drama, Fantasy. Fear is rampant in Sleepy Hollow when Pandora releases an ancient artifact from her box that can transform an ordinary human into a terrifying figure from the past.

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    Could it contain hidden messages from our nation's forefathers intended to be discovered years later? Star: Stanley Klos. Director: Steven L. Anderson Star: Steven L. TV 45 min Adventure, Drama, Fantasy. Director: Ernest R. A new accuser comes out against Roy Moore. News, Talk-Show. Hugh Hefner is dead at Ben recommends "Saints and Soldiers" He hates the stage musical, "The Book of Mormon". TV 43 min Adventure, Drama, Fantasy. Director: John R. Homer becomes the host of a popular political talk show, starts an "everyman" movement in Springfield, and ends up hand-picking Ted Nugent as the Republican nominee for president.