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Leading clergymen, including the prestigious Reverend James Henley Thornwell, a champion of high scholastic standards, praised the Citadel for the thoroughness of its academic work and for developing the talents of young men of the lower classes. Most graduates did not go on to military careers, nor did most parents want them to. They expected military schools to shape character, not to make military officers.

I submit him to your guidance with the utmost confidence. In , J. Cook, who was looking for the right place for his boys. In the midst of student unrest at the Citadel, Richard Yeadon quoted Xenophon on the need for social discipline and did not forget to mention the special need for discipline in a slaveholding society. Allen Hill, a student at the University of Georgia in , thought President Joseph Meigs too lenient and prone to believe that he could tame students by moral suasion.

The Presbyterian Reverend Dr. Yet even the denominational colleges, with less affluent students, provided slaves to haul wood and water and clean up rooms. Wake Forest College, however, rejected student demands that slaves clean their boots. Some planters feared that boys who associated with scions of much wealthier families would fall prey to self-indulgence and financial irresponsibility, thereby negating some of the reasons for sending them away in the first place.

And mothers had a special worry. Even in the low country, white boys joined black in grinding corn, viewing it as something of a sport. In the Southwest, Zachary Taylor tamed his wild, Yale-educated son Richard by making him manage a plantation. When Jefferson Davis quit school in rebellion against the discipline, his father sent him to the fields to work with the slaves.

The two-day experience sent him scurrying back to school. Other teenagers took over a small farm to provide for their families when their fathers died. The vigorous campaign to establish manual labor schools arose to combat the tendencies that Jefferson saw. The clergy, preaching the nobility of labor, supported manual labor schools largely as character-building institutions.

Still, matters did not always end well. Admonitions notwithstanding, John J. Crittenden of Kentucky exemplified slaveholders who pushed their sons to maintain a strong work ethic without much success. As a rule, from age eight to ten the sons of small slaveholders did farm work; afterward they usually worked with the slaves at critical moments in the production schedule: Senator Benjamin Hill and his brothers worked in the fields with slaves, keeping the same hours and doing the same work.

Even in the more aristocratic districts, some planters and prominent politicians began their careers as storekeepers. Patrick Henry and Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, the president of the Republic of Texas, were among those who failed as store owners. Well-educated, ambitious young men sought clerkships in the more substantial stores, which paid higher wages than the average wages of a plantation overseer.

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Clerking offered apprenticeship that led into the large and respected merchant class. Langdon Cheves and Henry Watkins Allen, the Confederate governor of Louisiana and a rich sugar planter, began their careers as store clerks. Senators Judah P. Benjamin of Louisiana and Willie P. Mangum of North Carolina were sons of storekeepers.

Pearson, a merchant and bank president. Cassels and Clifford Anderson, a state legislator who had worked as a hotel clerk. Francis Richard Lubbock clerked in a hardware store in Charleston on his way to the governorship of Texas. Robert L. Carruthers, a farm boy who became a justice of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, worked as a clerk in a mercantile house, rising to become a partner. Catherine Cooper Hopley, an English governess in Virginia, remarked that even store clerks were too well bred to hurry their customers.

Citizens read newspapers and sermons aloud as part of discussions on political and social affairs, providing an informal educational experience for browsers and store employees. In the s bookstores sold Bibles, Shakespeare, Scott, biographies of Washington and Franklin, dictionaries, sheet music and instruments as well as pictures, frames, artwork, cutlery, and sometimes liquor.

Grayson and Henry Timrod. Outside of Charleston, southern-rights men thought that the more successful storekeepers had close connections with northern merchants, which often led to strong friendships and intermarriage. Mobile, for example, had many Northerners and merchants, most of whom were politically much more moderate than most Alabamans. William H.

Holcombe of Natchez told of life with a father who took the measure of slavery in Virginia, freed his slaves, and departed for the Midwest. William became ardently proslavery, but he took that lesson to heart. As for spoiled children, the English-born Amelia Barr, who settled in Texas, offered a grim thought: Because many southern babies died during their first year or so, mothers doted on and spoiled them. So did a good many sons of small slaveholders, and professionals, who said that their fathers expected them to plow and do hard work when home on vacation.

Having to work with slaves brought out competitive instincts. The father of John Russell Dance owned between fifty and a hundred slaves but worked his son hard. Some of my hardest work as a boy was trying to beat the fastest negro cotton picker. Then too, small slaveholders and nonslaveholders expressed respect for the hard work that planters put into the management of plantations. The overwhelming majority of slaveholders had fewer than twenty slaves and did not qualify as planters; circumstances demanded that their sons work in the fields.

They tried to arrange to have their sons work alongside and as hard as the slaves. Some, like Robert P. Adair, appear to have enjoyed doing so. His father, a Tennessee planter, sent him to school, but he preferred to plow and work on the farm. Doubtless, most thought that they worked as hard as slaves; most slaves probably thought differently. But farmers do, after all, work hard. A big planter might easily have spoken as did the father of Ireneaus F. Fisher, the owner of only four slaves. Young Ireneaus complained that his father worked him harder than he worked his slaves.

Even lowcountry planters, despite or because of enormous wealth, took measures to engage their sons in physical labor as necessary to their character and sense of responsibility. Robert F. So Henry considered his spendthrift brother. Much depended on criteria and, above all, the balance of effects.

The Reverend J. Master and slave, the report declared, rise or fall together. Countless slaveholders made every effort to train their boys to be responsible, humane adults, not petty tyrants, and we may marvel at how many succeeded under the worst of temptations. And that core of truth by itself condemned slavery as a system. Contrary to postwar apologetics, the leading voices of the Old South frankly acknowledged the centrality of slavery to the formation of a distinct southern people. They have different instincts, different appetites, different morals, and a different culture.

In a ploy unusual for a Virginian, he ended by appealing to the spirit of South Carolina to call for a scorched-earth resistance to any attempt to uproot slavery from southern soil. Frederick A. Porcher of South Carolina allowed that climate alone accounted for substantial differences, but he singled out slavery and the presence of blacks as critical. Specifically, to what extent did command of slaves produce masters whose finest virtues were inextricably intertwined with poisonous vices? And to what extent — if at all — can the virtues be recaptured on more just social foundations?

Quintilian pleaded that slaves had justification for killing free men who offended their masters. George Washington typified eighteenthcentury Virginians, much as Patrick Calhoun typified nineteenth-century South Carolinians. But how many blacks young and old only the Lord knows for I believe there is about thirty that work every day in the fields besides the servants about the house.

Randolph, toward the end of his life, asked antislavery gentlemen to consider the strong and lasting friendships of masters and slaves. The master knows that he is to maintain and provide for his slave so long as he retains him in his possession. And each party accommodates himself to the situation. In , the fire-eating Governor Pettus hauled F.

Barnard, the widely respected, soonto-be-famous, northern-born chancellor of the university, before the board of trustees on charges of being unsound on slavery. The board and Barnard agreed that, if true, the charges would render him unsuitable to preside over a southern University. After a fair inquiry, the board acquitted him. He had expelled a student for beating a woman servant and, apparently, had accepted her evidence against a white man.

The incident stoked the fears of some Mississippians that Barnard harbored antislavery tendencies. I am sustained in this view by the highest authorities. Henry A. Murray of England froze when he learned that they could lawfully kill runaways. Presbyterians led the southern clergy in maintaining that since families, like societies, required menial services, servitude inhered in the human condition.

Ross in Alabama, the Reverend William A. Hall of Louisiana, and the Reverend J. Coit of South Carolina, among many, preached that God first established the family, giving man only rights compatible with the good of the family and the government derived from it. The Reverend George D. Of all the foolish imaginations which man has dignified with the name of philosophy, none is more foolish than that such independence is necessary to a righteous responsibility. The Apostles, he said, censured the abuses of ordained institutions, not the institutions. No sensible man repudiated the marriage relation because of evils everyone knew existed.

And so for slavery. Much of the Northwest as well as the South slowed the process. Family farms retained their household character and rendered northern farmers and nonslaveholding southern farmers — as well as planters — similar in some respects. But the shared features had radically different implications in North and South. In the North, the shortage of landless agricultural laborers constrained the expansion of commodity production, encouraging self-sufficiency and mechanization.

Farmers generally strove to enter the market. Those who sought substantial wealth had to rely primarily on land speculation and investment in nonagricultural pursuits. Wealthy landowners and landless agricultural workers were separated from household production.

Southern farmers who entered the market to a significant extent assumed high risks. Accordingly, the household ideology grew naturally from the political economy of slavery. The family is a reservoir into which commodities flow, and from which each member receives continuous supplies. The patriarch gathers around him a circle of dependents. Slaveholders upheld the principle of legitimate authority in the household and polity.

They recoiled from a transatlantic marketplace ideology that propelled thought and action toward radical egalitarianism and threatened the family itself. Outside of Eden, inequality reigned. Much as God declared Adam executive head of the household, responsible for the fate of the human race, so Christian Southerners declared the male head responsible for household behavior and honor.

As the household increased in size and its operations grew more complex, the father spent more time in planning and superintendence, and the idle, improvident, weak, and incapable became dependent on the intelligent and strong. Community safety, indeed survival, required repression of the lawless and vicious. To Southerners, the North stood in a deepening contrast. In the Episcopalian Reverend William O.

The Yankee wife obeys her husband not because she accepts a divinely commanded duty but because he persuades her. No wonder, Prentiss thundered, marriage and the family in the North were unraveling. Andrew of Georgia emphasized gentleness in the rearing of children, Paternal Authority 29 but he too demanded firm discipline. Parents must govern their children, not vice versa. They also agreed with Isocrates that a man who mismanages his domestic affairs will probably mismanage matters of state.

Unfortunately, men whom slaves agreed were good masters did not always control brutal wives. The Reverend Israel Campbell had been a slave in Kentucky and had a kind master, whose wife swore, screamed, and ranted. She had thought that she married a rich man, but he proved a hard-working man who made a modest living. Embittered, she took her frustrations out on their slaves. Southerners, filing indictments large and small, could hardly believe that northern states accepted nude bathing, albeit with restrictions.

Southerners especially worried about the erosion of paternal authority, which remained central to their ideal of a Christian family. Edward B. Bryan of South Carolina reshaped the argument: Expulsion from the Garden of Eden meant that each child had to be taught to labor under direction; therefore, parents had supreme authority over children. For Representative Lawrence Keitt, slavery flowed from the absolute authority of the father. For the moderately antislavery Henry St. George Tucker of Virginia, the mother owed obedience to the father. A deceptively simple question: Did masters own their slaves, body and soul?

Did they hold property in man? In State v. Mann, he rebuffed parent-child and master-apprentice analogies. Will, the Supreme Court of North Carolina upheld the right of a slave to kill a white man who threatened his life. He characterized southern slavery as ownership of services, not men, contrasting it with his understanding of slavery in ancient Rome, and rejected the argument that slavery reduced man to a thing. As Mark V. Could a master be charged with battery against a slave? He left the qualification out of his final version. An active Episcopalian, he wrote to the Baptist Reverend John Holt about a twelve-year-old consumptive slave girl near death.

She wanted to be baptized, and Ruffin considered it his duty to arrange for her to have the sacrament. Holt agreed on condition of immersion in proper Baptist fashion. A Property in Man? Often born on the same plantation, and bred together, they have a perfect knowledge of each other, and a mutual attachment. Ruffin insisted that masters knew and loved their slaves. In any case, although the ideological as well as technical implications of State v. Mann extend widely, we here focus on their bearing on the problem of ownership in human beings or their labor.

Moses Liddell of Louisiana instructed his son St. John in never to require too much of slaves and to treat them with kindness. He must nonetheless chastise them for disobedience and obstinate behavior. Calhoun, opposing congressional reception of abolitionist petitions, denounced as slander the charge that Southerners dealt in human flesh and claimed ownership of bodies.

Collier of Petersburg carried the message to the Virginia legislature. Godfrey Barnsley, the owner of a hundred or so slaves, cited Edward B. The divines believed that labor yielded an economic surplus necessary to sustain a ruling class and civilization itself and that domestic slavery provided the most humane and moral form. They thus denied or substantively redefined property in man. The doctrine of property in man, even disguised as property in services, directly contradicted the doctrine of property in self and in labor power.

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Rejecting proslavery theory, northern employers of free labor made a moral virtue of the exclusion of hired laborers from their households. In Massachusetts, Thomas T. The two conceptions are irreconcilable. If man, then not property; if property, then not man. The Baptist Reverend Richard Fuller, debating the antislavery Baptist Reverend Francis Wayland, dismissed the notion that property in man reduced slaves to chattel. Property in furniture differs from property in a horse, and property in a horse differs from property in man.

Fuller charged that Wayland begged the question. Capitalists held free laborers to service, if by different means. Chancellor William Harper of South Carolina called it a legally sanctioned social relation; Alexander McCaine of Maryland called it a moral imperative. When, in , Governor William H. In , the Raleigh Register and the Charleston Mercury protested the timidity of Southerners who shrank from defense of property in man.

Harris of Alabama Property in Man? George P. Wilson characterized a slave as in permanent bondage to a master, having full legal power over him. In , Robert H. Fletcher concluded that if a man had absolute property in his own person — as antislavery men asserted — then he had the right to alienate it. They declared unlawful a slavery that reduced the slave to a commodity held by a master with full dominion over him. Cassells, R. The Baptist Reverend Thornton Stringfellow of Virginia condemned Roman law for reducing the slave to the status of a thing and praised southern law for recognizing his human rights.

The Reverend R. Stanton of Connecticut asked: If slaves are not chattel, why do not the laws protect their marriages and family relations? Thornwell and other usually well-tempered southern divines responded furiously, betraying a sense that they found this abolitionist argument unanswerable. This is what a master possesses with respect to his slave; it is also exactly what a person possesses with respect to his or her spouse, child, employee, or land.

Wiley, defending the extended slaveholding household, inadvertently cast in a new light the thesis that slavery unified labor and capital. In , William Branch Giles and James Madison echoed the Virginians of the federal Constitutional Convention, refusing to base representation for slaves in property rights. They defined slaves as persons whose masters had a duty to represent them and protect their rights. The Methodist Reverend William A. The Arminian Smith and the Calvinist Thornwell led southern divines in projecting a Christian household that included laborers.

They moved from a defense of slavery as one possible social system to espousal of slavery as a model for the future. Yet Southerners had inadvertently abandoned their own principle. By agreeing to the constitutional compromise that counted three-fifths rather than all slaves for electoral purposes, they retreated from the concept of a hierarchical household in which the master represented all members.

A delicious irony: In , opponents of constitutional reform in Louisiana complained that the counting of slaves for legislative apportionment in effect gave them the vote. A doctrine based on a right to service passed into a doctrine of personal estate, with laborers as property. As property in the body emerged as practice, the theoretical distinction faded.

The antislavery Harriet Martineau thought that black nurses taught white children to lie and be slovenly. Wise of Virginia did not appreciate everything taught by his black nurse, for he hired a white nurse for his own children. He did not want them pampered as he had been.

Some illiterate slaves had wide practical experience and marvelous memories for detail, from which white children profited. His 36 The Complete Household uniform kindness to us and his unfailing patience with us very greatly endeared him to us. Here and there, slaveholders hired out slave women to care for white children. Absenteeism grew with expansion into the upcountry. Lowcountry planters left their plantations up to six months at a time; some went to their plantations perhaps only twice a year. Residents of middle and northern Georgia, for example, owned plantations in southwestern Early County.

Jesse Sanford of Milledgeville, Georgia, died in with hundreds of slaves distributed among six plantations. Hammond, in a spirited defense of slavery, admitted the presence of the evil in the South Carolina low country. In response, some planters refused to divide their plantations even when they proved economically unwieldy. Ideally, a father ran one plantation and his sons the others.

Wade Hampton II, one of the largest, lived in Columbia, South Carolina, but spent much of the fall and winter at his plantations in Mississippi. He managed his nine hundred slaves competently despite time spent in hunting and at racetracks. Gustavus Henry of Tennessee, who devoted most of his time to politics, visited his Mississippi plantation regularly to see that the overseer managed efficiently and humanely.

Francis Terry Leak of Mississippi took his family for a six-week visit to his second plantation in Arkansas. Although some planters owned plantations in another state or at a great distance within the same state, even most of the bigger planters did not. Rather, like William L. In the Mississippi River cotton parishes of Louisiana in , local absenteeism ran from about 35 percent in Tensas to 81 percent in Concordia, with other parishes at about 40 percent. Away from the Mississippi River, absenteeism ran about 15 percent. Sugar planters were more likely to live on their plantations in order to provide close management.

In black-belt counties across the South, local absenteeism often ran above 50 percent, with most planters living in the nearby towns from which they rode out to their plantations twice a week. Few planters in Texas lived in town. Another decade might have produced greater absenteeism, but Slave Sales 37 Texas resembled the North Carolina low country, which did not have many absentees.

McTyeire, supported by other denominational leaders, warned Christian planters against blaming overseers for mistreatment of slaves. She did not explain her reason for thinking that slaves would fare better under the watchful eyes of the masters she tirelessly berated as power-drunk, selfish, irresponsible, and even sadistic. The biggest planters had too many slaves to know them personally, but some large absentee planters like Zachary Taylor ranked among those with good reputations as solicitous masters who knew their people. Nathaniel Heyward, the largest rice planter of his day, managed between 2, and 2, slaves on 17 plantations clustered around the Combahee River.

He certainly did not know most of them, yet he remained in residence and reputedly never sold a slave. Account books, diaries, and correspondence reveal that planters with as many as a hundred slaves knew them, albeit some a great deal better than others. A grotesque telltale sign of the direct contact: Almost invariably, masters gave personal attention to runaways. Frequently, masters protested that slaves ran away without provocation and had suffered no ill treatment — a judgment the slaves doubtless did not share.

In such cases, even usually mild masters had all the self-justification they needed for whipping with extreme severity. The burning contradiction in the ideology of the southern household lay in slave sales. Slaveholders argued that throughout the world, notably in Africa, poor people sold their children into slavery. The slaveholders knew, however, that the practice had largely disappeared from the parts of Europe they considered the most civilized.

Incredibly, Armstrong defied overwhelming evidence to rebuff vehemently accusations of family breakups. Why, he had never seen such a thing. Edmund Ruffin had never heard of bloodhounds used to chase runaways. Tyler to say that families are not often separated. I know better than that, and so does she. Private papers and public testimonials show that few slaveholders swallowed that cant. Usually, Southerners admitted the evil and replied tu quoque, feebly arguing that economic pressures drove poor northern families westward and compelled as many involuntary separations as occurred among southern slaves.

A contributor to the Southern Presbyterian Review maintained that slave families suffered fewer forced separations than families of laborers anywhere in the world.

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Joseph Jones of Savannah regretted that his parents had sold a troublesome slave family since it included Lafayette, his favorite slave. Lafayette, weeping bitterly, chose to remain with the Joneses rather than go with his unfeeling and often cruel father. Creditors pressed masters. Almost no one defended the separation of husbands and wives, although many may have been indifferent. But it seemed more humane to sell a young slave or two rather than risk foreclosure and the breakup of the plantation household.

Henry Hughes, protesting the breakup of slave families, allowed a small exception — unless necessary for family subsistence. Unfortunately, in a debt-ridden, cash-poor economy, that necessity plagued more slaveholders than Southerners cared to count. The argument proved worse than none at all, for it damned slavery by forgiving the sinner while testifying to the sin. Marianne Palmer Gaillard and Elizabeth Randolph were not easily consoled.

Plaintively, she asked her half-brother not to disrupt slave families and, in particular, to take good care of Patience, who had served loyally for twenty-two years. Just so. Jefferson, for example, insisted that he would never willingly sell a slave to pay debts and would remain governed by their happiness. Even the enormously wealthy Manigaults saw their rice plantation swept by five epidemics between and , with a net loss of ninety-two slaves.

The Manigaults had the resources to weather the financial storm, but they had to replace those slaves. A slave bought meant a slave sold, often with separations. Richard Yeager of Kentucky long treated his slave mistress and their children well until one day he saw a chance for a financial killing. He sold his mistress and three boys — separately. That is what made American slavery possible. Joseph B. After the War, J. Wise penned a fond portrait of life in old Virginia but concluded that the mere sight of a slave auction should have told Southerners that slavery was wrong.

In Boston, the black Baptist Reverend J. If slavery is right at all, then its terrors and horrors — the whip, the manacle, the thumbscrew, the paddle, the stake, the gibbet — are right also. He charged slavery with reduction of the mass of southern nonslaveholders to degradation in some respects worse than that suffered by the blacks. Neither the slaveholders nor their successors could reply adequately to the abolitionist challenge. Without de facto if not indeed de jure ownership, just how were they supposed to secure control of plantation labor?

A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof. Hence, when Paul Trapier of South Carolina entered Harvard in , he was astonished to find himself waited on by white servants. By the s, however, some elite families in port cities — Charleston, Mobile, Savannah — had white servants. Grace Brown Elmore of Columbia expressed a common thought — black servants were much more loyal than white. Northerners did no better.

Employers took vast liberties with their supposedly dependent creatures, who resented the condescension. Since Northerners stigmatized Irish servants much as Southerners stigmatized blacks, they often put up with incompetence if accompanied by cheerful deference. Letitia A. Burwell of Virginia found that New Yorkers worked white servants harder than Virginians worked black slaves and showed them less consideration. Thomas Low Nichols, who admired the South, thought that southern blacks had impeccable manners and carried themselves with grace and dignity, in stark contrast to northern free blacks.

Wealthy Americans, like the wealthy everywhere, demanded deference, punctuality, efficiency, good cheer, and obedience. But those sterling qualities rarely appeared among northern servants, who — if we may credit the whining of their betters — grew worse over time. Matilda Charlotte Houstoun, an English novelist, described the few American-born servants in New York as well-paid and cheeky rather than deferential, and she found both Irish and black servants held in contempt.

In the s and s, Irish immigrants in northeastern cities pushed free blacks out of jobs as domestics, waiters, and hotel servants. Southerners snorted. Southerners who traveled north or to England judged those white servants more harshly. Generally, they decided that their own irritating house slaves were not so bad after all.

In the s, Lucien Minor of Virginia reported that genteel New Englanders raged over the poor quality and insolence of white servants and the high wages they commanded. He seemed 42 Strangers within the Gates bemused by servants who accepted only specific tasks, whereas southern slaves had to do as they were told. American servants, she wrote in the s, were better paid, more respectful, and less disposed to steal. She praised white and black, free and slave, but expressed special admiration for the house slaves of New Orleans. Southerners, she added, spoke more respectfully to their house slaves than Northerners did to their servants.

Amelia Murray reinforced the characterization of northern servants as more trouble than they were worth. Yet she said that southern black servants — notwithstanding cheerfulness, deference, and formal obedience — knew how to get away with murder and do everything except the essential tasks. Sara Pryor of Virginia concurred but with a difference. Alas, few blacks were willing to leave the South for the proffered brave new world. Indeed, they became something of a fad in chic circles in and around Natchez and Mobile. Despite a reputation for sexual promiscuity, deceit, thievery, and insubordination, Irish and German girls began to replace black maids.

Here and there, French cooks and nurses pushed out black mammies. A few communities — Jews in Mobile, Moravians in central North Carolina, some colleges and public institutions — preferred white servants to black, whether from distaste for slavery or for blacks or for some other reason. Hale for the training of women physicians. During the War, James Norman, C. Amelia Henry of Charleston, the mother of a respected Jewish politician, practiced for many years, but physicians, coveting the business, railed against allegedly incompetent midwives.

Frederick Law Olmsted reported from Natchez that more and more of the richest planters were turning to Frenchwomen to care for their children. Newspaper advertisements suggest that white and free black wet nurses found steady employment. Still, many available white women did not look appealing.

Thornwell would not let her touch her child. I fear there is no chance of getting such a nurse as you want here. Jones, Jr. Floride Calhoun preferred white servants. Her spirited daughter did not. Richard D. God knows I should be very unwilling to exchange them for mere hirelings. During the War, the Union General Benjamin Butler denounced transplanted Northerners for carrying southern views in their hearts and for being the worst of rebels. Henry E. Handerson loved the Union, disliked slavery, and opposed secession; he nonetheless imbibed southern racial attitudes and served in the Confederate army.

Some Northerners with no apparent sympathy for secession or southern political principles declined to leave. The friends of Cathie Morrill urged her to return to Maine in , but she remained in Virginia for another two years. She was fired from the Institute simply for being northern-born and despite recognition as a local heroine for her selfless efforts during the smallpox epidemic of Instead of leaving, she became a tutor in the family of Col. George Hampton Young, a large planter. Others, although not considered family members, held special places.

The widowed John P. Kelly, a mill owner in Culpeper County, Virginia, left his home and children to Frances Thornhill, his competent white housekeeper. During and after confinement not every lady trusted her slave nurse. Clinch found that the demand for good nurses, white or free black, outran the supply. Hired white women assumed considerable responsibility in planter families.

The family believed that the young women received as good an education at home as John did at Yale. Burnley, a slaveholding widow, did various chores for the family of Francis Taylor, who included her in family dinners and social functions. Julia Tyler of New York, the wife of President John Tyler, preferred Irish servants and formed a particularly strong attachment to Catherine Wing, who managed the black servants for her.

The Belgian-born Rosalie Stier Calvert, uncomfortable with blacks, hired a white servant for herself and her children. Others hired white women who doubled as seamstresses or performed other functions. Some poor whites lived on the periphery of the household. Why had he acted so hastily? Speights got caught stealing from the Wallace household in Norfolk; it got worse when she spread false stories about Elizabeth Curtis Wallace and her neighbors, bringing the occupying Yankees down on their heads.

Some turned out too well to suit public opinion. Henry Middleton of South Carolina brought a German woman to Washington as governess for his daughters. To the consternation of high society, she married the Prussian ambassador. They included indentured servants, freemen in search of gainful employment, and ministers who supplemented their income.

Female tutors ranged from indentured servants to respectable but financially strapped widows. Tutors then and long afterward expected to be received into the family circle. William J. My wants were always anticipated. The family Library was transported without entreaty into my chamber; paper and the apparatus for writing were placed on my table; and once, having lamented that my stock of segars was nearly exhausted, a negro was dispatched seventy miles to Charleston for a supply of the best Spanish.

More commonly, presentable middle-class young men went on to fine careers after 46 Strangers within the Gates having tutored children of wealthy planters. No few college professors, lawyers, and ministers began as tutors, among them Henry W. Allen, the Confederate governor of Louisiana. Henry Timrod, who loved poetry and hated the study of law, tutored for the Lowndes family. Howison of Virginia, an historian, taught Marion Harland and her sister, whose father demanded that they be taught as rigorously as boys.

Margaret Junkin regretted that home schooling deprived her of school discipline and the companionship of classmates.


The politically charged but personally amicable relations of Jefferson Davis and John A. Quitman began sweetly enough: When Davis was a lad, Quitman tutored him in Spanish. In the Delta, a Mr.

Herbert read Paradise Lost with the seventeen-year-old Harry St. John Dixon but proved incapable of teaching him algebra. When Charles Dabney studied at William and Mary in , he warned his father to prepare his younger sibling more carefully. His able tutor had not prepared him in mathematics as well as in Greek and Latin.

And learning at home had cut him off from the rough-and-tumble relations with peers he now faced in college. He urged that his siblings be sent to a local school for at least a year before they entered college. The northern-born S. Prentiss began his flamboyant career in Mississippi politics as a plantation tutor and metamorphosed into the local schoolmaster. So did professional tutors like Catherine Cooper Hopley of England. As late as the s and s, some plantation districts lacked schools, and the children of the well-to-do relied on tutors. Salaries varied widely, depending on range of subjects and extent of duties as governesses and disciplinarians.

As the need for tutors outran the supply, salaries rose. He also reported that Samuel Burns, an exceptional tutor in Charleston, had retired with a fortune. What did these salaries mean to tutors? Paid a few hundred dollars plus room and board, she made enough money to help her widowed mother in Massachusetts. She married Dr. In , David Rice, a Pennsylvania-born sugar and cotton planter in St.

Charles Dabney of Mississippi complained that his generally able tutor did not prepare him well enough to enter William and Mary. The well-recommended woman he hired to tutor his daughter proved deficient in scholarship and manners. After graduating from the College of Charleston, John Girardeau, the Presbyterian theologian, tutored for Thomas Hamilton and married his daughter Penelope. Enoch Hanford of Connecticut, a Yale graduate, who became a professor of languages at South Carolina College and a prominent lawyer, married one of the children he had tutored for William DeWitt of Society Hill.

McCurdy, who welcomed him and his wife into the family circle. Some Yankee women went south to marry a rich planter, arousing no special resentment unless they proved indifferent teachers. And that sometimes led to unpleasantness. Tutors in eighteenth-century Virginia had considerable latitude to punish lazy pupils, although trouble might ensue when one parent proved softer than the other.

In , W. He lost the case. What would people of the North think of such conduct at the table?! All went well for a competent and pious tutor. Yet, although tutors and governesses might feel accepted into the family circle, they soon learned that if the host family squabbled internally or with neighbors, one side or the other ostracized them.

Sarah Morgan of Baton Rouge, caught in the maelstrom of the War, wondered if she would have to become a teacher or governess. I think of the nameless, numberless insults and trials she is forced to submit to; of the hopeless, thankless task that is imposed on her, to which she is expected to submit with out a murmur; of all the griefs and agony shut up in her heart — and I cry Heaven help a governess!

At certain times, agricultural labor became scarce; at other times labor redundancy exposed disguised unemployment. Planters diversified production in part to keep slaves busy and out of mischief. Seasonal variations in cash crops sometimes compelled the hiring of free labor, generally white. Financially embarrassed women slaveholders rented out slaves at a return above that projected if they labored at home. Louisiana sugar plantations hired white and black day laborers, and local contractors recruited skilled laborers in New Orleans and nearby towns. The Presbyterian Reverend Robert J.

Breckenridge, denouncing the movement to expel free blacks from Maryland, maintained that nonslaveholders faced ruin without access to free black laborers. By the War, wheat growers in Maryland, especially on the Eastern Shore, depended heavily on free black labor at harvest time. Attempts to expel free blacks met stiff resistance from whites in the countryside who needed their labor. Jefferson hired a good many laborers. Although most did field work, skilled workmen taught slaves trades. Into the nineteenth century, hired white laborers built homes.

One year Charles L. Pettigrew of North Carolina hired nearly a hundred men. His neighbor Josiah Collins III, who hired large numbers of white laborers, insisted on treating poor men with the same respect as rich. Benton Miller of Washington County, Georgia, having to supplement the labor of his three slaves, hired a white worker who performed less well than the slaves. Calhoun told the U. Let no man be ashamed of a hard hand or a sunburnt face. Often, sons of small farmers did odd jobs to supplement family income, but native agricultural workers had as bad a reputation as foreigners did for dissolute behavior, unsteady work habits, and troublemaking.

Yet planters and even farmers who needed hired hands to set up a place or during a harvest, often turned to native whites for field work. Irish immigrants worked on public projects and did plantation ditch digging and other work deemed too dangerous for slaves. Harry St. I asked him if Syria was not one of the Apostles; he after meditating a moment very knowingly said yes.

I enjoy a good laugh, and he kept my sides literally shaking the whole time. Some were jacks-of-all-trades. The Massenburg plantation of thirty to forty slaves in North Carolina hired whites for a few days at a time to make a roof for the barn, shoes for slaves, and chimneys for slave cabins.

Richard Greenlee of North Carolina did business with three local brothers who harvested the potato crop, sold him apples, and rented land. Although planters increasingly bought northern shoes and clothing for slaves, many still found it easier or cheaper to hire a local shoemaker, seamstress, or weaver. Thus, slaveholders sometimes hired men of questionable talent, primarily to support struggling neighbors. Here and there, planters followed the example set by Charles Pettigrew of North Carolina at the turn of the nineteenth century or by his son, Ebenezer, fifty years later.

Charles Pettigrew seems to have earned the gratitude of laborers and artisans for his conscientious efforts to provide as much work as possible and to treat them decently. Confronted by noblesse oblige, workers do not always think what others assume they think.

Neither Pettigrew encouraged social intimacy or feelings of equality in workers. Occasionally, small slaveholders hired hands for long periods and made them feel part of the household. Then too, churchgoing brought masters and hired hands closer. Slaveholders, big and small, engaged in banter with white workmen or rebuked them sharply but expected blunt retorts.

The reception accorded them varied with the extent to which poor whites were kin to the rich. John Walker of Virginia hired white workers from neighboring families, paying in cash, bacon, and grain. In the central Piedmont of North Carolina landless whites accounted for 30 to 40 percent of free white households. Some were well-off artisans, but most were poor. By tenancy had become a way of life for thousands, some of whom owned livestock and were not poor by local standards.

In Arkansas Overseers and Their Families 51 and Louisiana, a large if underdetermined number of landless farmers worked as tenants, sharecroppers, and day laborers, who did not always do worse than struggling small farmers. Tenancy embraced at least 20 percent of a rural white population that lived under the threat of proletarianization.

By , social critics in South Carolina declared the landless widespread and growing. Tenancy offered a way station to property ownership, but the reverse was also the case. Relations between planters and well-off tenants remain beclouded. On Louisiana sugar plantations a number boarded with the overseer and an occasional skilled worker with the planter. Generally, they did not feel put-upon by aristocratic airs.

John H. Caroline Couper Lovell of Georgia visited the cabins of tenants, who received her graciously but never returned visits. Proud people did not presume on others of higher status, and they asked for aid only in extreme circumstances. Calhoun told John Quincy Adams that families in South Carolina hired white farm laborers but not women domestics, at least not if the family valued its reputation. A twentieth-century survey of Tennessee Confederate war veterans suggests that no more than 5 percent of wives of poor men worked for planters and well-off yeomen.

Some poor farm women, working in their own homes, spun regularly or did other work for planters. In rare circumstances, white women lived with employers, but not as household members. In , James Barbour, in his presidential address to the Agricultural Society of Albemarle, Virginia, deplored the prejudice against overseers and boasted of paying well for the best possible management of slaves and crops. Pollok Burguyn of Ravenswood, North Carolina, dismissed the portrait of poorly paid overseers, arguing that, fed and housed by planters, they could save most of their wages.

Still, J. Flournoy of Georgia invoked Xenophon to stress the need to have overseers as devoted to the estate as the owner himself. The Southern Planter of Richmond thought no men more knowledgeable about 52 Strangers within the Gates plantation management than overseers. Despite repeated attempts at reform, the overseer system and the status of overseers changed little.

Slaves seized the opportunity. They undermined countless overseers by appealing over their heads, implicitly asserting their prescribed status as householders, in contradistinction to strangers. Masters listened to slaves against overseers and against planters to whom they hired their slaves out. William Massie of Virginia privately described his overseer as a brute, as inhuman, yet recommended him as first-rate.

Brent of Virginia and Calvin H. John Archibald Campbell of Alabama doubtless agreed, but, as a veteran jurist, he fell back on the advice of the ancient Romans to keep overseers in full view lest they abuse slaves. Class attitudes had an impact on legal as well as social relations. Justice varied according to local circumstances, notably, the relations of planters to the less affluent in time and place.

John Randolph dismissed his overseer for scandalous behavior but did not take him to court. Two gentlemen warned that no matter the evidence, juries sided with the poorer men. The governor explained that the murder occurred without intent in a chance incident. In North Carolina, an overseer killed a master who treated lower-class whites with contempt; he expected acquittal on grounds of self-defense.

The principal exception consisted of sons of prosperous small slaveholders who worked as overseers in order to learn plantation management. As scions of slaveholding families, they became intimates of the master and might marry into his family. The whole, low, thieving tribe of overseers should be done away, and a competent set of factors put in their place. Union troops did not separate the threads of these complex relations. Susan R. Jervey of Middle St. They distributed her property to the freedmen, leaving her nothing except some clothes.

Hugh Davis of Alabama had his overseers to table, if bachelors, but they may not have enjoyed it. They did not expect to be introduced to the guests but were expected to amuse themselves watching the crowd. He would soon sigh for the fields, and less polished but more suitable companions.

I dined with Mr. Barrow last year on Christmas we then had a magnificent dinner and in candor I think I enjoyed my dinner today Much Better than last Christmas. He judged anyone who bullied inferiors and fawned over superiors as arrogant, tyrannical, and servile. For Robert E. A true man of honor feels humbled himself when he cannot help humbling others. I told him that he drank too much and swore too much. When Jesse Bellflower, R.

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Allston remembered Bellflower and another overseer in his will despite having always maintained social distance from these piney woods men. Overseers may have resented planters but hoped to own slaves. Their typical salaries of three to four hundred dollars per year made the ascent difficult but not impossible. Yet they carried heavy managerial responsibilities, worked a longer although physically less strenuous day than the slaves, and hardly ever had a day off. Saving to buy land and Overseers and Their Families 55 slaves took self-discipline and luck. A minority of overseers owned one or two slaves whom they hired out or kept as house servants.

Archeological evidence from the low country and Sea Islands reinforces literary sources: Overseers usually subsisted on a diet not much different from that of the better-treated slaves. Like slaves, they ate raccoon and opossum.


Like favored slaves, they had chipped china handed down by planters. Edward Blunt, an overseer, bought Lucretia Heyward and her mother. He poor white trash but he daid now. He hab heself to look out for, enty? He wuk, he sabe he money for buy slabe and land. From colonial times, a woman who married an overseer put her reputation at risk. In , William Byrd denounced such a match as a gross breach of class etiquette and virtually an act of prostitution.

Then and later, although planter families tried to prevent such marriages, quarrels broke out between horrified relatives and relatives moved by the pleas of a young woman in love. They finally relented, acknowledged him as a good husband, and provided for them in their will. Once married, a bride faced a lifetime of difficulty. I wonder why she married him.

She does not look like a contented woman. In the s, John Harrower, a Scots tutor in Virginia, noticed that some overseers hesitated to marry, lest a wife and children bind them to an unsatisfactory position. Some advertisements insisted that an overseer be a bachelor. Garland D. Harmon, probably the most renowned overseer in the South, married Emily Edge in , but we know little about her or their children.

But planters fled to the up country or elsewhere to avoid expected epidemics, whereas overseers and their families had to brave the climate with the slaves. The Reverend Mr. Only occasionally did a planter provide overseers with a home in a more hospitable locale in easy ride of the plantation. William Byrd described his overseer as henpecked. Visitation will be held Thursday, May 9, , from — p. Mike Meadows officiating.

She had 29 great grandchildren and 14 great-great grandchildren. Numerous nieces and nephews and close friends. Until her health condition made it impossible Shirley was an active member of Central Baptist Church. Shirley there caring for the little ones. She loved her fellow church family just as much as her own family. Crafting was her most treasured hobby.

She loved making things for her family and friends. She will be dearly missed and forever in our hearts. First St. She is preceded in death by her parents; husband, Fred Pritchard Sr. Richard John Steele Jr. Interment will follow at p. Visitation will be held Saturday, May 11, from a. He is preceded in death by his father. Curtis Edward Berry. Funeral Services for Mr. Curtis Edward Berry Sr. Luke Baptist Church in San Augustine.

Interment will follow in the St. Luke Cemetery in San Augustine. A visitation will be held on Friday, May 10, from p. Berry went home to be with the Lord on Saturday, May 4, He was employed as a welder for many years and an active member of Palestine Baptist Church in Chester. He graduated from Springfield Platteview High School in In , his life was forever changed - Greg met the love of his life, Vicky. In her, he had finally found his refuge, his soul-mate, his best friend, career partner and dance partner for life.

It was here through hard work and dedication that they were able to have one of the highest volume stores for a number of years, but most importantly, they were able to impact the lives of so many young employees. Greg had shown them how to choose a path to be successful in life by adopting a strong work ethic, accountability, discipline and just plain old unconditional love.

He was always the first one to lend a helping hand to a friend, neighbor or even to a complete stranger. In , when Hurricane Rita hit, Greg and Vicky assisted by feeding the first responders and families displaced by the storm. When they had exhausted ways to assist others, he came home to clean up their lakeside retreat, only to find that his neighbors had already cleaned up. Greg loved spending time with his family and friends. He had a strong sense of adventure and loved to travel, go boating, riding his Harley, swapping stories, and country music.

Greg loved the beautiful message that the songs delivered, but most of all, he loved twirling his beloved bride, Vicky, across the dance floor — that was his heaven on earth. Visitation will be held Monday, May 6, , from — p. She is preceded in death by her parents; husband, John Hammack Sr. Pallbearers: John Hammack Jr. Visitation will be held Sunday, May 5, , from — p. He is preceded in death by his father; brother, Wesley Moore; and daughter, Eden Kimes.

He is survived by his wife, Naomi Moody; daughters, Alex Thompson, Rayann Kimes, and Scarlett Kimes; son, Austin Kimes; mother, Donna Davis; grandmother, Lonna Seagroves; and father-in-law, George Moody; along with numerous aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, other relatives, and friends. Danny Benton officiating.

Interment will follow in the Peebles Cemetery in Livingston, Texas. Visitation will be held from p. He is preceded in death by his parents; brother, Ronald Jones Jr. Chimney, where he remained a member until his demise. On December 24, he married the love of his life, Mrs. Olivet Criswell Petties for 48 Blessed years. He was a devoted husband, father, brother, grandfather, and great grandfather who provided well and worked hard to provide for his household. Butch devoted his time and was known for his dedication to Polk County Road and Bridge for more than 38 plus years as a Heavy Equipment Operator until his health began to fail.

Butch was also a faithful member of the Camden Trailblazers who loved riding horses, pinning cows and anything incorporating animals. After the passing of the late Mr. LA Prescott, Butch helped his family at Duncan Funeral Home as a gravedigger for many years also until his health declined. Please sign our guestbook at www. Donald McConnell officiating. Visitation will be held from a. Annie was a loving mother and homemaker. Her family was the center of her life. If we were near, we got a cake. She made clothes, costumes, wedding dresses, bridesmaid dresses, prom dresses.

If it could be constructed, she could make it. Annie also ran the family country store for several years. Later she became involved in subdivision lot sales with great success. A favorite pastime was spending time on their fishing boat. A great joy later in life was playing games with her brothers and sisters and her in-laws. She often had a scrabble board set up in the living room with Neta and Allie sitting around it with her for an all-day session. The greatest joys of her life were her grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren. She never failed to have a smile and hugs and kisses ready when any or all of them were near-by.

Annie loved her family and loved life. She will be missed for her bright smile, her beautiful eyes and her patient, kind and loving ways. Don McConnell. Military honors will be provided by VFW Post During his life, he proudly served his country in the United States Army. He is preceded in death by his parents; wife, Lillie Amason; and daughter, Teresa Amason. Nolan C. He was blessed to have numerous grandchildren, great grandchildren, and even great-great grandchildren.

The last thing he remembered was working on his deck to his travel trailer. That could be where he got his love for gambling. He enjoyed gambling, playing marbles, dominoes and cards. I am sure he will be meeting Dee Zeigler his beloved mother-in-law in heaven and trying to beat her in a game of Skipbo, which he said she always cheated at. He built everything from swings, decks, cabinets and even complete houses. He was a man who never met a stranger and spoke to everyone. He had even given his last dollar to a stranger before. He loved God, although the last few years he did not attend church.

If you see a lost marble, card, or domino just know he is there. You love yourself. He will be greeted in heaven by his brothers, sisters, mom, dad, mother-in-law, son-in-law, and a host of friends and of course, our great God. I know God finished his porch on Friday, April 26, and he will be sitting there watching us all enjoying the sunshine. Tipton know that we had a husband, dad, brother, son, grandpa, father-in-law, and friend that we all probably did not deserve for 79 years and be happy that he is home with God, flying as our angel.

Zion Cemetery in Point Blank, Texas. Pace Funeral Home in charge of arrangements. Brown taught in public schools for 34 years and retired from Livingston Independent School District in Interment will follow in the Pine Grove Cemetery in Corrigan. A visitation will be held at p. Jimmie went home to be with the Lord on Thursday, April 18, After this union, they had two daughters and one son.

Jimmie retired from the City of Lufkin as a water clerk, with 13 years of service. She enjoyed being outdoors, sewing, and crocheting. The family would like to extend a special thanks to Heart to Heart Hospice for their care. She was a graduate of Livingston High School. A private memorial service will be held at a later date. She is preceded in death by her parents; husband, Richard Snyder; son, David Snyder; and her brothers and sisters in England.

A visitation will be held at a. She was an active member of Barnum Baptist Church. Delores was a scrapbooking enthusiast and through her hobby, she gained some very special friends. She was a retiree of Polk County Precinct 3, after 22 years of service. She loved her job and her co-workers. Pallbearers: Patrick Cherry, Jr. A special thanks to Sarah Williams, her sister-in-law—for everything. A big thanks to Hospice in the Pines for their care. To send your online condolences visit www. Connie Hatfield Collins. We rejoice in the life of Connie Hatfield Collins.

Connie lived 57 years and 4 months. Connie was preceded in death by her father Robert Thornton and her husband Lavon Collins. Connie was loved greatly and will be missed by all that knew her. William Henry Clafferty Jr. A rosary will be held from a. He served 4 years in the Air Force during peace time.

Marine Division for search and rescue. He worked at NASA for thirty-two years for various contractors through the move of equipment in various buildings throughout Houston to the present site in Webster, Texas. He then continued to work through all of the flights including the end of the Shuttle Program. He retired and moved to managing a wine-grape vineyard near Rising Star, Texas for nine years.

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While there, Hank was commissioned by the pastor to serve as an Adult Acolyte to help the priest manage the four parishes he was pastor of. He then became the Co-coordinator of the service and did so for five years until our move to Livingston, Texas in March of He was a father of five girls and married for fifty-seven years to the same lady. After several moves, her family settled in Schwab City, Texas.

They were married until his death on September 8, She married B. She always bragged about how lucky she was to have married two wonderful men! Rose never met a stranger and was known for talking to everyone no matter where she was. She was passionate about her family, God and her country. She was a founding member of F. Families and Individuals Thanking Heroes and was actively involved in the care package program until her health started declining a few years ago. But that did not stop her from telling everyone she came in contact with about the program! She will always be remembered for her fund-raising efforts for this group.

Rose also wanted to say a last big thank you to her special son and doctor, Dr Jerry Wood. She always loved you and appreciated you for your care and friendship! Your family is her family! She loved them as her own! A special bond with each of them will always be remembered and cherished. Rose was blessed with many, many nephews and nieces, all of whom she loved and doted on.

She had a special bond with them all and loved them with her entire being. Rose also valued her friends and made a point to talk to anyone and everyone, and to get to know them, whether they wanted to or not. She made friends for life! She is survived by her longest friendship of 63 years, Ada Ruth Oberpriller. Although their friendship has been confined to the phone the last 10 years, it was just as endearing to her last week as it was when they met. In lieu of flowers, she has asked for donations be made to F. Interment will follow in the Carmona Cemetery, Corrigan, Texas.

Thomas finished his earthly journey on Thursday, April 4, and went home to be with the Lord. Thomas joined the United States Army and served his country from After his honorable discharge from the military, he went to work for Shell Oil Company as a pipefitter for 30 years. He looked forward to Sunday drives to the lake and enjoyed the scenery along the way. Funeral Arrangements entrusted to Corrigan Funeral Home. She was the last living sibling of William C. Estelle graduated from Saratoga High School in She married George C.

Pope, Sr. She was married to G. Estelle was a homebody is ever there was one. Her house was always tidy and welcoming. They always slept in clean beds and had clean clothes to wear. The hamper got full sometimes with five people in the home but never overflowed.

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Even at 93 the dishes were promptly washed and stacked in the drain rack. And most of all while growing up, the front porch was swept every day. After G. She was always a strong support for her children and grandchildren, nieces and nephews through her loving, gentle ways and regular petition in prayer.

Beloved nieces Dyli Martin and Nyli Smith were like daughters to her and provided great comfort and joy in her later years. She also had a special affection for nephew, Joe Pope, Jr. Numerous other nieces and nephews were a happy part of her life in the Sellers-Pope family. Services will be held on Saturday, April 13, Visitation and viewing from pm with service to begin at 2pm. Burial services to follow at Magnolia Cemetery in Woodville, Texas. A Celebration of Life service will be held on Saturday, April 13, at a. Bill Schubert passed away peacefully in Livingston, Texas on April 4, Bill proudly served his country in the United States Marine Corps where he used his musical talent to build a recruit choir.

He then became the Choir Director for high school in Anahuac, Texas. Bill is preceded in death by his parents, Walter and Wilma Schubert; and his first wife, Shirley Schubert. He was a great teacher, educator and philosopher with a magnificent tenor voice. He enjoyed a successful career in music as a performer and an educator. He built an award-winning choir program at Anahuac High School and changed the lives of many students by helping them find their voice.

Bill will always be remembered as a wonderful husband, father, grandfather and friend. He will be greatly missed by all that knew him. Box , Livingston, Texas or to a charity of your choice. She was born in St. Joseph Hospital in Houston TX. She graduated high school from Houston Reagan in and then attended Texas Lutheran college from Erline started work at Shell Development in and met her husband there in She worked at Exxon from From to she was a loving and devoted stay at home mom to her three children and her husband.

While living in Friendswood Erline was actively involved in Hope Lutheran Church where she was a member of the Ladies Guild and volunteered in many activities. She worked at Community National Bank for 12 years. In they moved from Friendswood to Livingston in a home they designed and built together. She also enjoyed her bowling league and playing bridge with her many friends. A Memorial Service will be held Monday, April 8, at p.

Barb was born February 3, in Seymour Indiana to parents Harold and Marie Alexander and passed away peacefully in Livingston, Texas surrounded by her loving family and friends March 31, She was preceded in death by her parents and older brother Jimmy Alexander, who died as a toddler. She is also survived by her sisters, Pam Benny King and Anita Naanes plus loving nieces, nephews and countless extended family and friends.

Barb was a kind and generous soul who loved to work with the elderly, volunteer for good causes and show her artistic side through needlework and flowers. Barb always taught that no matter what, family stuck together, forgave each other, and loved each other. In Terry moved his family here from Missouri City, Tx. He was a master cabinet builder and a gifted wood worker. His entire life Terry could be found working on a pit crew, hauling race cars, building and repairing whatever was needed at racetracks, driving car 99 and was the flagman at local racetracks.

Terry never remarried after his divorce from Jorja. Jorja and her husband, Butch Turner, had a special friendship with Terry all while raising their grandson, Kaiden together. Jo Ann went home to be with the Lord on Tuesday, April 2, surrounded by her loved ones. Jo Ann was a Baptist by faith and a longtime member of Sagemont Church. She grew up in Groveton and attended Groveton High School. Her hobbies were adult coloring, needle point, embroidering, shopping, collages, and reading. Spending time with her family, Christmas giving, laughing, and singing gospel hymns brought her the most joy.

Lawrence, April Zarzour, Randy White and wife Amanda, Melissa West and husband Mike, and Casey Burkett and wife Tammy; 11 great-grandchildren; 2 great-great grandchildren and numerous nieces and nephews and other relatives and friends. Crystal is preceded in death by her sister, Phenelopy. Jonathan Merritt Alexander Sr. Tim Thompson officiating. Jon was born December 12, in Livingston, Texas, to parents, E. Stiney and Jenarie Alexander and passed away peacefully at his home in New Willard, Texas, surrounded by his loving family on April 1, He is preceded in death by his parents; brother, Jack Alexander; and granddaughter, Merritt Elizabeth Alexander.

Jon was a generous and kind man, and a loyal friend, who never failed to lend a helping hand to those in need. He will be greatly missed by all those who knew him. Sean Ferry officiating. During his life, he proudly served his county in the United States Marine Corps. He is survived by his sons, Kasey Roberts, Kirk Roberts and Kerry Roberts; daughters, Kim Scoville and Kelly Lackey; brother, Jerry Roberts; thirteen grandchildren; seventeen great grandchildren; numerous other relatives and a host of friends.

Visitation will be held Wednesday, April 3, , from a. The family wishes to thank everyone at the Pine Ridge Nursing Home and Kindred Hospice for the excellent care of their loved one. Pick Bland officiating. During his life, he proudly served his county in the United States Navy. He is survived by his son, Larry Deplois Jr.

Roy Blackmon and Bro. Visitation will be held Saturday, March 30, from — p. She is preceded in death by her parents; husband, Glenn Cryer; and brother, Gary Baker. Mitch Murphy officiating. Visitation will be held Friday, March 29, from — p. He is preceded in death by his parents; and brother, James Marvin Allen. Joel Salazar officiating. Gail is survived by her husband, Robert J. Visitation will be held Monday, March 25, , from — p.

Ishmael; along with numerous other relatives and friends. David C. Luna and Polo Villareal SR. David was a member of St. A visitation will be held Friday, March 22, from P. Livingston, Texas. Interment to follow at Magnolia Cemetery in Onalaska Texas. To send online condolences please go to www. Phyllis was called by God on Monday, March 18, with her daughter Gina and granddaughter, Jessica by her side. Phyllis was a Christian lady and loved the Lord with all her heart.

Spending time with her family always put a smile on her face. She was employed by TDCJ and retired with 11 years of service. She was a huge animal lover and never wanted any stray animal that showed up on her porch to go hungry. In her spare time, she enjoyed going to the lake to fish. Frank Aragon officiating. Donna was a member of Central Baptist Church of Livingston.

Livingston, Texas, beginning at A. Visitation will be held Friday, March 22, , from a. He is preceded in death by his father; and grandmother, Jewel Odean Nunley. Visitation will be held Sunday, March 17, , from — p. She is preceded in death by her parents; and stepdaughter, Lenora Goddard. Visitation will be held at a. Doris was a Baptist by faith and a wonderful homemaker, who was an extremely good cook.

She enjoyed painting and arts and crafts. In her younger years, she enjoyed fishing. One of her favorite game shows was Family Feud hosted by Steve Harvey. Most of all, she had a great love for Jesus and her family. She is preceded in death by her parents; husband, Harold W. Pleasant, Texas; along with numerous other relatives and friends. Philip Larsen officiating. Sam Baggett, Jr. Funeral services for Sam Baggett, Jr. Saturday at Oakdale Cemetery.