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Penelope Blossom

Proud of my heritage and the courage to endure of all the pilgrims, and of all my immigrant ancestors. Being a descendant makes the Pilgrim story more connected and personal than simply a historical event. Susan C. I am grateful to those intrepid people for founding a country where the hope for liberty and justice still prevails. Karen McArthur. As a descendant of at least twelve of the Mayflower passengers, I've visited the Mayflower museums on both sides of the Atlantic and am fascinated by the stories of courage that led these families to make the journey and to set up a new community in a world that was new to them.

Finding my heritage, finding family and descendants of My 10th Great Grandfather. Learning the history of our family and the paths they took in life. With the ancestry. While many grandparents and great grandparents had interesting lineage, my fathers fathers family was the most productive. It directly linked me to William Bradford. Stephen Bennett. It's just exciting to be a part of the continuing story of these courageous early Americans and learning of their adventures. Trudy Thurgood. Going to Plimoth Plantation with my daughters strengthened me.

Knowing what they suffered and sacrificed for Freedom increases our committments to do all we can to keep our freedoms! Where could we go if we lost it here!? Michael Hawkins. Location: Indiana, United States. Proud to have my family be part of this nation's history from the beginning. Well it means an important part of my life. James DeVenney. Location: New Brunswick, Canada.

Jesselyn Knight. Being a part of the Mayflower story is about being family. I feel honored to have just been approved a new member of the Mayflower Society. I am glad I can honor my ancestor William Brewster, who had such faith, courage, and determination. Ancestor: Thomas Rogers, George Soule. Thanks to my cousin Christopher at the Mayflower Society for charting our lesser known kin on a route back to New England in It is inspiring and enlightening to realize that I am here today because of people who were willing to pull up stakes and endure hardship because they saw the need for change and were willing to make a lifetime commitment to God, one another, and a new society.

Larry Alexander. It's a great connection to my genealogy research that I can share with my family. Carolyn Schatz. My grandmother was Phoebe Mundell and comes from the line of the Jenney family. Desiree Blackwell was part of the family and I believe 3rd or 4th generation descendant of Richard Warren.

I desire to learn more of my ancestors and how they survived. To leave a legacy to my children would be awesome. Christine Decker. Finding out recently that my maternal Grandmother's line was descended from the first pilgrims on the Mayflower was a major shock! Much of my genealogy is through ME and MA which was so surprising.

I have always been a HUGE history lover so genealogy has become a super exciting new hobby for me! Robert Roether. It gives me a sense of connection. I wasn't aware of the Mayflower connection growing up, just that part of my family had been here a long time. The search was also a fascinating hobby, solving a puzzle. Heritage and Tradition Valued.

Joel Hagenburg. I have been researching my family history for many years. I was thrilled when I discovered this historic connection to Gov. William Bradford, my 12th Great-grandfather. Lisa Shoemaker. I was so excited to find myself a Mayflower descendent. I had been giving tours in the Boston area and Plymouth even though I live in the midwest , so I had studied this history and was fascinated with it, then I found out my ancestor was a part of this exciting history.

No wonder I love the Boston and Plymouth area so much! Melanie Boyan. I've lived on Cape Cod my whole life with generations before me and now having proof is amazing. I'm proud to be among the descendants of the many immigrants who have come to this land seeking a new start. I also think it's awesome to be descended from the only passenger who fell OFF the Mayflower. It is interesting to see where my family is now in comparison to their history. Pym Underwood Mumford. I have just found out that we are descended from Elder Brewster on my mother's side.

I am thrilled to know that our ancestor was such a well-respected, upright man. It is interesting that, without knowing the connection, we have spent summers in Brewster, Massachusetts, since the s. I feel so proud of our wonderful heritage. I have enjoyed learning more about my ancestors and distant relatives. It makes history much more relevant and alive! Kimberly Smith. Having a love for history, I feel very connected to the events that shaped our nation due to those of my ancestors who were involved.

As a writer and musician, I feel their influence in my heart, mind, and soul when I am working on a story or song; it is a humbling experience. There isn't a day that I do not feel their influence in my life. Debra Triplett. Ancestor: William Mullins. I am astounded to learn this information and feel more connected to my ancestors and heritage. I have been searching my lineage for years and am honored to have such an important individual in my heritage. Lois Bartlett Swan. I feel honored to be a part of the Mayflower family. It is incredible what our ancestors were willing to sacrifice for a new start in our wonderful country.

It is incredible what they had to endure, not only in the crossing but the struggle to survive once they arrived. They were awesome! It helps me to know where I came from and that I am part of the beginnings of this country. Steven Althoen. Kimberly Gelinas. I love that my personal family history includes those brave individuals who settled this country. I'm from New England and all things New England are of interest to me. I have been doing genealogy since I was about 12 but have never taken any action to tie myself to the Mayflower officially.

Thought it was about time. I've been using PAF for the past few years and have a huge file but I think I can save portions of it if needed. Steve Pattison. Mary Galemenser. I am a member of DAR and would like my children and grandchildren to know they are descendants of the Mayflower. It gives me a sense of where I came from. Incidentally, I have a friend who used to work for me who is descended from Edward Doty, an indentured man to Stephen Hopkins Elizabeth Brown. I'm very proud and happy to be a part of the Mayflower story. My daughter found this information out and I'm certain she will make sure it is remembered.

Stephanie Neely Nibert. Being a part of the Mayflower story is something very exciting and special to me and my father. I will ensure my children and generations to come know the struggle and sacrifice their ancestors endured. Walter Fiedler. I was very surprised to find that any of my ancestors had come to America on the Mayflower. I just returned home from a visit to Provincetown, MA.

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If I had known the connection I would have been even more interested in its historical significance. I can only imagine the hardships these people chose to endure, and am inspired by their stories. Robin Ruth Alexander. I love being part of living history. I am proud of my heritage and working on joining on a second Mayflower ancestor. I enjoy the meetings with other members in our local colony chapter and seeing them year after year. I also enjoy meeting new members and building new friendships. I have gotten some of my relatives in as wedding gifts.

Peggy L. Welter born Ohl. Besides Richard Warren I am linked to many more Mayflower passengers by marriage. Would like to know more. Harold Williams. Jane Barrows Tatibouet. Understanding and relating to the long line of sturdy, faithful and patriotic folks who unknowingly were creating one of the world's finest countries and way of life, has led me purposefully through my own life's accomplishments, in order that our future generations may know and appreciate these brave Pilgrim Fathers upon whose shoulders we stand.

It is so important to know our history- without knowing what came before us, we cannot appreciate all that we have today. WIth Plymouth coming in it is especially meaningful to me to be part of the Mayflower family. Cynthia Bolivar. I am a member of the D. R and have recently discovered my Mayflower connections. My late mother always claimed that we were related to the White family but I have discovered connections to the Allertons. Being a "New Englander" I am proud of my heritage and ancestral roots here where I make my home.

Christy Allred. Connecting with my ancestors and family. Research for my son's Merit Badge. Doriann Salisbury. Ancestor: Richard Warren, William White. Roberta Estes. Love being part of living history, including the DNA of my ancestors. My ancestors stories are on my blog.

I have known for a while that I was a descendant of Edward Doty, but until my grandsons entered school and became interested did I start serious study about my ancestry. I would like to become a member of the Mayflower Society by , the th anniversary. Michele Sleight. Freedom, liberty, independence, bravery. Location: Helsingborg, Sweden. Shirley Vivion. Being a part of the Mayflower story brings my historic heritage into the present with such pride in my ancestors, it's hard to put into words. It's sort of mind blowing Eleanor Schatz.

Debra Bell Yonkers. It means everything to be affiliated with this powerful part of American history, not the least of which is tremendous pride, humility, respect and appreciation, especially for the hardships endured generations ago. Knowing that my family line is part of early American history is very exciting. One of the descendents in the Stephen Hopkins line is even a signer of the Declaration of Independence!

How cool is that?! It would give me great pleasure to finally achieve what I have wanted for so long. Barbara A Weed. Ancestor: Francis Eaton. I have always been proud of my Mayflower ancestors. My grandmother would tell us of our early New England heritage. We are strong. We are survivors. I am connected to a group of individuals that helped found this nation and who value family and history; those who are not afraid to be a part of something bigger than themselves; preserving our connection to the past for those in the future.

Alison Haskins. I'm part of the immigrant story from our country's earliest beginnings. How strong and determined they were to carve out a new life in the wilderness. That thread continues every day with new immigrants coming here to be safe and free, and who are just as strong and determined. Donna E Gates Smeall. I am thrilled to have found my Mayflower roots as it solidifies my genealogical research for me. Denise Picard Lindgren. It is humbling to learn how my family connects to the men and women who helped to found New England.

Kathleen Boston McCune. My 10th Great Grandfather, William White died several days upon landing, but his son, who is also my 9th Great Grandfather Peregrine White, was born on the 19th of December, while he and his mother, Susanna Fuller White, my 10th Great Grandmother, were still aboard the Mayflower.

I am proud to have a heritage of family members so courageous. Jeri and Rhonda Jones.

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I am in awe of the discovery and proud of my heritage! Diane nee Gault Robinson. Rebecca Smith Munn. Elizabeth Tilley is my 12th G-Grandmother. The fact that she was the only surviving member of her family that came over on the Mayflower and that she married John Howland who almost lost his life on the journey by falling overboard, is amazing to me! If it weren't for these two, I wouldn't be here today! Marsha Joyce Adams.

I was so proud to discover I am a Mayflower descendent! Growing up in Massachusetts, history is on every corner and I am thrilled that my ancestors were here in the very beginning! Location: Maryland, United States. Having ancestors with such courage and stamina. Andrea Kleiner. My grandmother, Caroline told us we were related to Stephen Hopkins but back then it was hard to prove. Now with all the information available I believe I have proven it to be true. We are all a part of history. I'm enjoying learning so much more because this history involves my relatives, past and present.

I'm also William Brewster family. I'm proud to find that so many of my ancestors were so great a part of the history of the United States. It means that my ancestors were brave in their pursuit for freedom of their beliefs. Florence Hemming. Susan MacDonald Dill. That my ancestors were among the first European settlers in North America and descendants are still flourishing here would mean something to me about knowing my family history.

It would not make me better than anyone else but add a sense of rootedness in history. Melanie Daniels. Family Tree on Ancestry. This was a recent discovery for me, but the breadth and depth of my early American ancestry as a whole has made me much more appreciative of what our ancestors built on these shores and the importance of the liberty established on these shores to all of humanity.

Colleen Eldredge. Having a great idea of where the one line of he family began. So fascinating for me to study. Ancestor: Francis Eaton, George Soule. It means that myself and my children would have an important heritage that can be passed on to my grandchildren. Carolyn Hugley. Michael Rowley. This was an unexpected but beautiful find. Genealogy is really like a series of constant gifts. Being a descendant of the brave pilgrims who gave so much to come to this wilderness in and fought so hard to live in a land of freedom and liberty is at the very heart of who I am and all I believe.

Theirs is a story worth being told over and over. Kathleen Kingman. Our Mayflower family link meant a lot to my Uncle, Keith Kingman, who introduced me to a great group of people through Soule Kindred in America. This pic was taken when I had the pleasure of meeting Soules from all over the country at the reunion in Plymouth. The reunion in is sure to be a splendid time for all! My aunt has traced our family tree and this would bring confirmation. I've been researching my genealogy for years. After learning I had ancestors on the Mayflower, I was surprised and elated.

I think it is very exciting! Lauren Fitzharris. Allison Fitzharrs. Francis Gosling. Until a few years ago, I didn't know about this part of our family.

Now we're up to 7 direct descendants and one who didn't come on the Mayflower actually was part of the team that created the compact Robert Cushman! I've recently been to Plymouth and look forward to returning!


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Just to know my ancestors have been in this country for hundreds of years. Also to trace my ancestry back as far as I can. I'm a very patriotic person and believe in how our founding fathers fought for this country. Finding out that I descend from those who influenced this country so highly explains so much about me! I'm proud to descend from three Mayflower Passengers! I am an avid family historian and the Mayflower landing is a fascinating part of my ancestry. As a history lover, discovering that my ancestors were an integral part of what would become the United States of America is fascinating.

For me, it's a cool connection- a more personal connection - to our nation's history. Even if part of my family has been here for almost years, others are immigrants from the s. We almost all are immigrants. I wish everyone would remember that and have compassion for our current immigrants.

Ancestor: John Alden, Stephen Hopkins. I am very proud of my Mayflower Heritage. Donald Meredith. Learning more about my ancestors. JoAnn O'Linger-Luscusk. I'm honored to be descended from such brave people, and happy that I was able to honor them by proving my lineage and joining the Mayflower society.

Stephen Hopkins is my 11th great grand father, and the history he has created is fabulous to me. We visited the pilgrim village and was totally taken in by how they lived back then. I am proud to be a descendent of his. Davin ''Daffy'' Bobbel-Chase. Jon Billington came over here so that we could be free. I am free and you are free, thank you to Jon and Frances Billington, pilgrims who cared. Being part of the Mayflower story is a definite bond to the history of our country and the courageous people who sacrificed all to follow their beliefs. Marlyne Natali. That I am about as American as anyone can get and have a great heritage.

I'm a little piece of American History. Stephanie Patterson. My Grandmother was a Mayflower Society Member. This history is important to our family. Fascination with family history. Shows the pride and dedication my family has to the country we helped form.

I feel very honored and humbled to be a descendant of John Howland and the Tilleys that came over on the Mayflower. Amy Beth McGee Andrzejek. I am proud that they were co-creators of the Mayflower Compact and inspired by their courage. Jennifer Davis. William R Johnson. Location: Wyoming, United States. Being part of the Mayflower story gives meaning to my deep seated patriotism and love for the American story. Patricia Anne Rogers. Ancestor: John Billington, Francis Eaton. I have always felt an amazing connection to History, to the old days gone by. I believe our Ancestors are still with us, teaching us It has been an amazing journey to know I carry the legacy on.

It is just wonderful to know my family was part of the beginnings of our great country. Very proud. Location: Arkansas, United States. Great to be able to link myself to the history and courage of those who came before me. Very exciting to be a part of the historic voyage and settlement. It is an honor to be connected to history.

I love history and am proud of my heritage. Lynne Davidson. Jennifer Alden. The end of this line for Alden namesake. Location: Alabama, United States. It makes me think about how I need to live up to the strength and integrity of my ancestors. It makes me want to be a better person.

Plus I think it is so incredible that I am a descendent that it is hard to believe. It helps to give me a sense of history of the United States to be able to trace relatives all the way back to the Mayflower. Sharon Pontious. Being Mayflower Descendant means that my family played a major part in making the United States of America the great country it is today. Stephen Folden. Paulette Gehrke. My grandmother has documentation. I would like to continue the documentation for my children.

Brenda Doty Reiter. Christiane Fuller Woerner. One of side of my Fuller family is from the Mayflower; the other is refugees from Mexico over years ago. I am a true American on both sides of my Fuller family and I love that. Being born and raised in Massachusetts, it was very exciting to find out that I am a Mayflower descendant so many times. Carol Everson Foster. I feel connected to a historical event. Catherine Spainhour. Linda Baumgartner. I love history, especially family history.

When i started my travels, i had no idea where i might land. Catharine Dollase. William Peters. My deep roots. Bev is descendent from William Bradford. We were back wall neighbors in high school. The Williams were friends in Scrooby, England. Bev is a member of the Mayflower Society, I am trying to get there. We are both working on the agenda in San Diego. Bridgitte Baker Pascale. I am proud to be a Brewster descendant, I have been researching my Brewster family for over a decade. This family stood for freedom of choice in religion and never gave up on what they believed in, I have that same determination, spirit and sense of community.

In my local Mayflower descendants group I am the editor and photographer of our paper. My history. Amy Blankenship. Barbara Giffin. It is an inherited honor to know that I descend from 14 passengers that didn't give up when times were tough. I have little to complain about compared to their struggles to just survive in the new world.

So blessed to know my heritage which I had no part in the course that they endured. I know I can persevere in trying times just as they did. Being a part of the Billington Clan and the Mayflower Society is being connected to family and to a historic moment in time. Mary Jo Blanchard Donahoe. I am proud to be a Billington descendant. As a member of the Mayflower Society I did nothing but research the lineage.

I did not travel to a new world, I did not survive wintry hardships but I am grateful for those who did as I would not be who I am today if it weren't for those who lived before me. Thank you John and Elinor, and Frances too. Cynthia Crouch. Julie Ann Shahin. I celebrate the Pilgrim spirit and sense of adventure. Having ancestors there and involved with the founding of the United States.

Jennifer Pasour. Gina Poremba Peterson. I never thought I was going to find this when I began my research. It brings a whole new perspective to history. I'm proud of my ancestors' faith and bravery to leave their home and come to the new world. I visited Plymouth 3 years ago after learning of my connection. Location: Wellington, New Zealand. Fascinating to have ancestors prominent in American history. Jennifer Franklin. Connects me to my mother's family. Brenda Chapman LaTorre. This is my family and my family's journey to the new world.

Ah these By an unwarlike troubling doubt were stirred, And died for hearing what no foeman heard. They went forth to battle but they always fell. Their might was not the might of lifted spears. Over the battle-clamor came a spell Of troubling music, and they fought not well. Their wreaths are willows and their tribute, tears. Their names are old sad stories in men's ears.

Yet they will scatter the red hordes of Hell, Who went to battle forth and always fell. Ever insurgent let me be, Make me more daring than devout; From slock contentment keep inc free And fill me with a buoyant doubt. Open my ears to music, let Me thrill with Spring's first flutes and drums But never let me dare forget The bitter ballads of the slums. From compromise and things half-done, Keep me, with stern and stubborn pride; But when at last the fight is won, God, keep me still unsatisfied. And great is the man with a sword undrawn, And good is the man who refrains from wine; But the man who fails and yet fights on, Lo, he is the twin-born brother of mine!

Take up our quarrel with the foe; To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields. John McCrac Sealed Orders We bear sealed orders o'er Life's weltered sea, Our haven dim and far; We can but man the helm rigKt cheerily, Steer by the brightest star, And hope that when at last the Great Command Is read, we then may hear Our anchor song, and see the longed-for land Lie, known and very near.

Henceforth I ask not good fortune, I myself am good for- tune, Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing; Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticisms, Strong and content I travel the open road. Walt Whitman Joses, the Brother of Jesus Joses, the brother of Jesus, plodded from day to day With never a vision within him to glorify his clay; Joses, the brother of Jesus, was one with the heavy clod, But Christ was.

Joses, the brother of Jesus, was only a worker in wood, And he never could see the glory that Jesus, his brother, could. Why must he go thus roaming, forsaking my father's trade, While hammers are busily sounding, and there is gain to be made? Harry Kemp The Judgment When before the cloud-white throne We are kneeling to be known In self's utter nakedness, Mercy shall be arbitress. Love shall quench the very shame That is our tormenting flame; Love, the one theology, Set the souls in prison free Free as sunbeams forth to fare Into outer darkness, where It shall be our doom to make Glory from each earth-mistake.

Not archangels God elects For celestial architects; On the stones of hell, the guilt Of the world, is Zion built. Take towns and all that you find there, And leave me sun and mountain air! John Galsworthy From Tintern Abbey For I have learned To look on Nature, not as in the hour Of thoughtless youth; but hearing oftentimes The still, sad music of humanity, Nor harsh nor grating, though of ample power To chasten and subdue.

And I have felt A presence that disturbs rne with the joy Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime, Of something far more deeply interfused, Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, And the round ocean and the living air, And the blue sky, and in the mind of man; A motion and a spirit, that impels All thinking things, all objects of all thought, And rolls through all things. Therefore am I still A lover of the meadows and the woods, And mountains; and of all that we behold From this green earth; of all the mighty world Of eye and ear both what they half create, QUOTABLE POEMS And what perceive; well pleased to recognize In nature and the language of the sense, The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse, The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul Of all my moral being.

Nay, no man knew The fearful load I bent unto; But each as we met upon the way Spake me fair of the journey I walked that day. I came alone to my Calvary, And high was the hill and bleak to see; But lo, as I scaled the flinty side, A thousand went up to be crucified A thousand kept the way with me, But never a cross my eyes could see. Author Unknown Good Deeds How far that little candle throws his beams!

So shines a good deed in a naughty world. Heaven doth with us as we with torches do; Not light them for themselves; for if our virtues Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike As if we had them not. By permission of The Macmillan Company, publishers. A bronzed, lank man! His suit of ancient black, A famous high top-hat and plain worn shawl Make him the quaint great figure that men love, The prairie-lawyer, master of us all.

He cannot sleep upon his hillside now. He is among us: as in times before! And we who toss and lie awake for long Breathe deep, and start, to see him pass the door, His head is bowed. He thinks on men and kings. Yea, when the sick world cries, how can he sleep? He sees the dreadnoughts scouring every main. He carries on his shawl-wrapped shoulders now The bitterness, the folly and the pain. He cannot rest until a spirit-dawn Shall come; the shining hope of Europe free: The league of sober folk, the Workers 7 Earth, Bringing long peace to Cornland, Alp and Sea, It breaks his heart that kings must murder still That all his hours of travail here for men Seem yet in vain.

And who will bring white peace That he may sleep upon his hill again? The wise ones speak of the infinite sea. Oh, who can tell us if such there be? Savage Deathless I know I am deathless; I know this orbit of mine cannot be swept by the carpenter's compass; I know I shall not pass like a child's carlaque cut with a burnt stick at night.

With wonderful deathless ditties We build up the world's great cities, And out of a fabulous story We fashion an empire's glory: One man with a dream, at pleasure, Shall go forth and conquer a crown; And three with a new song's measure Can trample a kingdom down. We, in the ages lying In the buried past of the earth, Built Nineveh with our sighing, And Babel itself in our mirth; And o'er threw them with prophesying To the old of the new world's worth; For each age is a dream that is dying, Or one that is coming to birth.

Does the fish soar to find the ocean, The eagle plunge to find the air That we ask of the stars in motion If they have rumor of thee there? Not where the wheeling systems darken, And our benumbed conceiving soars 1 The drift of pinions, would we hearken, Beats at our own clay-shuttered doors. The angels keep their ancient places; Turn but a stone, and start a wing! Tis ye, 'tis your estranged faces, That miss the many-splendored thing.

But when so sad thou canst not sadder Cry; and upon thy so sore loss Shall shine the traffic of Jacob's ladder Pitched betwixt Heaven and Charing Cross. Who are Life's victors? Unroll thy long annals and say, Are they those whom the world called the victors, who won the success of a day? The martyrs, or Nero? His judges or Socrates, Pilate or Christ? William Wetmore Story The Kings Are Passing Deathward The kings are passing deathward in the dark Of days that had been splendid where they went; Their crowns are captive and their courts are stark Of purples that are ruinous, now, and rent.

For all that they have seen disastrous things: The shattered pomp, the split and shaken throne, fhey cannot quite forget the way of Kings: Gravely they pass, majestic and alone. With thunder on their brows, their faces set Toward the eternal night of restless shapes, They walk in awful splendor, regal yet, Wearing their crimes like rich and kingly capes.

Curse them or taunt, they will not hear or see; The Kings are passing deathward: let them be. Who may these be no trumpet doth arouse, These of the dark processionals of woe, Unpraised, unblamed, but whom sad Acheron's flow Monotonously lulls to leaden drowse? These are the Failures. Clutched by Circumstance, They were say not, too weak! Let the years Bring clouds or azure, joy or tears, Already a full cup I've quaffed; Already wept and loved and laughed, And seen, in ever endless ways, New beauties overwhelm the days.

Life owes me naught. No pain that waits Can steal the wealth from memory's gates; No aftermath of anguish slow Can quench the soul-fire's early glow, I breathe, exulting, each new breath, Embracing Life, ignoring Death. One clear morn Is boon enough for being born; ' And be it ninety years or ten, No need for me to question when. While Life is mine, I'll find it good, And greet each hour with gratitude. Having felt Thy wind in my face Spit sorrow and disgrace, Having seen Thine evil doom In Golgotha and Khartoum, And the brutes, the work of Thine hands, Fill with injustice lands And stain with blood the sea: If still in my veins the glee Of the black night and the sun And the lost battle, run: If, an adept, The iniquitous lists I still accept With joy, and joy to endure and be withstood, And still to battle and perish for a dream of good: God, if that were enough?

Robert Louts Stevenson A Morning Prayer Let me today do something that will take A little sadness from the world's vast store, And may I be so favored as to make Of joy's too scanty sum a little more. Let me not hurt, by any selfish deed Or thoughtless word, the heart of foe or friend. Nor would I pass unseeing worthy need, Or sin by silence when I should defend. However meager be my worldly wealth, Let me give something that shall aid my kind A word of courage, or a thought of health Dropped as I pass for troubled hearts to find.

William Cullen Bryant Count That Day Lost If you sit down at set of sun And count the acts that you have done, And, counting find One self-denying deed, one word That eased the heart of him who heard; One glance most kind, That fell like sunshine where it went Then you may count that day well spent.

George Eliot The Question Whither When we have thrown off this old suit So much in need of mending, To sink among the naked mute, Is that, think you, our ending? We follow many, more we lead, And you who sadly turf us, Believe not that all living seed Must flower above the surface. Sensation is a gracious gift But were it cramped to station, The prayer to have it cast adrift Would spout from all sensation. Enough if we have winked to sun, Have sped the plough a season, There is a soul for labor done, Endureth fixed as reason. Then let our trust be firm in Good, Though we be of the fasting; Our questions arc a mortal brood, Our work is everlasting.

To whom shall the world henceforth belong, And who shall go up and possess it? To the Valiant who fought For a soul-lifting thought, Saw the fight to be won and have won it. To the Men who will bear Their full share of Life's care, And will rest not till wrongs be all righted. To the Stalwarts who toil 'Mid the seas of turmoil, Till the haven of safety be sighted. John Oxenham Man What a piece of work is a man I how noble in reason! Bring me men to match my prairies, Men to match my inland seas, Men whose thought shall prove a highway Up to ampler destinies, Pioneers to clear thought's marshlands And to cleanse old error's pen; Bring me men to match my mountains Bring me men!

Across the bitter centuries I hear the wail of men: " Oh, would that Jesus Lord, the Christ, would come to us again. We know we do not do His will who lessoned us to pray, " Our Father grant within our lives Thy Kingdom rule today. Above our brothers' frailties we cry " Unclean! We know within our factories that wan-cheeked women reel Among the deft and droning belts that spin from wheel to wheel. We know that unsexed childhood droops in dull-eyed drudgery The little children that He blessed in far-off Galilee Yet surely, Lord, our hearts would grow more merciful to them, If Thou couldst come again to us as once in Bethlehem.

Henry van Dyke Consummation Not poppies plant not poppies on my grave! I want no anodyne to make me sleep ; I want that All-Bestowing Power, who gave Immortal love to life, and which we crave The promise of a larger life, to keep. What that may be I know not no one knows; But since love's graces I have striven to gain, Plant o'er my soon-forgotten dust, a rose That flower which in love's garden ever blows That thus a fragrant memory may remain. For my fond hope has been, that I might leave A Flowering even in the wayside grass A Touch of Bloom, life's grayness to relieve A Beauty, they who follow may perceive, That hints the scent of roses as they pass.

Are we content to be inheritors? Can you not hear the pleading of the sod That canopies our heroes? Hasten, then! Help the sad earth unlearn the vogue of war. Be just and earn the eternal praise of men; Be generous and win the smile of God. Robert Underwood Johnson Sunrise Day! Faster and more fast, O'er night's brim, day boils at last: Boils, pure gold, o'er the cloud-cap's brim Where spurting and suppressed it lay, For not a froth-flake touched the rim Of yonder gap in the solid gray Of the eastern cloud, an hour away; But forth one wavelet, then another, curled, Till the whole sunrise, not to be suppressed, Rose, reddened, and its seething breast Flickered in bounds, grew gold, then overflowed the world.

Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight, And all the air a solemn stillness holds, Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight, And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds; Save that, from yonder ivy-mantled tower, The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such as, wandering near her secret bower, Molest her ancient, solitary reign. Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade, Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, Each in his narrow cell forever laid, The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, The swallow twittering from the straw-built shed, The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn, No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed. For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn, Or busy housewife ply her evening care; No children run to lisp their sire's return, Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share. Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke; How jocund did they drive their team afield! The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave, Await alike the inevitable hour: The paths of glory lead but to the grave, Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, If memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise Where through the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.

Can stoned urn or animated bust Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? Can Honor's voice provoke the silent dust Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death? Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire; Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed, Or wak'd to ecstasy the living lyre; But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page, Rich with the spoils of time, did ne'er unroll; Chill Penury repressed their noble rage, And froze the genial current of the soul.

Full many a gem of purest ray serene The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air. Under the summer roses, When the flagrant crimson Lurks in the dusk Of the wild red leaves, Love, with little hands, Comes and touches you With a thousand memories, And asks you Beautiful unanswerable questions. Carl Sandburg The Creedless Love A creedless love, that knows no clan, No caste, no cult, no church but Man; That deems today and now and here, Are voice and vision of the seer; That through this lifted human clod The inflow of the breath of God Still sheds its apostolic powers Such love, such trust, such faith be ours.

Too long our music-hungering needs Have heard the iron clash of creeds. The creedless love that knows no clan, No caste, no cult, no church but Man, Shall drown with mellow music all, The dying jangle of their brawl; Such love with all its quickening powers, Such love to God and Man be ours. Let time go by. Love is forever over all. As deed by deed, and tear by tear, He climbed up to the height, Each deed a splendid deed, each tear A jewel shining bright, So grant us, Lord, the patient heart, To climb the upward way, Until we stand upon the height, And see the perfect day. Studdert-Kennedy A Leaf of Grass I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars, And the pismire is equally perfect, and a grain of sand, and the.

He is not here today. With sentences that twist and tease, Confusing mind and heart, You forge your wordy homilies And bid us heed your art. But where is He or can you tell? Who stilled the brothers' strife, Who urged the woman at the well To live a better life? We weary of your musty lore Behind dead walls of gray; We want His loving words once more By some Emmaus way. Give us a Christ our hearts can know The Man of Nazareth. Man's mind, what is it but a convex-glass Wherein are gathered all the scattered points Picked out of the immensity of sky, To reunite there, be our heaven for earth, Our known Unknown, our God revealed to man?

This, too, I pray, That from this day No love of ease Nor pride prevent My good intent Not to be pleased, but to please. Maltbie D. Babcock Where is Heaven? Where is Heaven? Is it not Just a friendly garden plot, Walled with stone and roofed with sun, Where the days pass one by one Not too fast and not too slow, Looking backward as they go At the beauties left behind To transport the pensive mind. Does not Heaven begin that day When the eager heart can say, Surely God is in this place, I have seen Him face to face In the loveliness of flowers, In the service of the showers, And His voice has talked to me In the sunlit apple tree.

Laura F. Time got his wrinkles reaping thee Sweet herbs from all antiquity. Then, Time, let not a drop be spilt: Hand me the cup whene'er thou wilt; 'Tis thy rich stirrup-cup to me; I'll drink it down right smilingly. And through their meeting eyes their souls drew near, Linked by their sons, men who had held life dear But laid it down for something dearer still. One had wrought out with patient iron will The riddle of a pestilence, and won, Fighting on stricken, till his work was done For children of tomorrow. Far away In shell-torn soil of France the other lay, And in the letter that his mother read Over and over, kneeling as to pray " I'm thanking God with all my heart today, Whatever comes " that was the day he died " I've done my bit to clear the road ahead.

I do not ask for peace From life's eternal sorrow; But give me courage, Lord, To fight tomorrow! Would they cheer Him and strew the way With garlands of myrtle and bay As they did on that distant day When He came to Jerusalem? What would America say If Jesus came back today? We fashion great churches and creeds But the heart of the people still bleeds And the poor still rot in their needs.

We display with pride His cross In the midst of our pagan life While we hug to our hearts the dross Of our selfishness and strife. What sacrifice have we made To live the love He prayed? What willing blood have we shed To do the deeds He said?

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To be popular and well-fed We forsake the way He led And follow a ghost instead! Vincent Godfrey Burns Life's Evening Ah, yet, ere I descend to the grave, May I a small house and large garden have, And a few friends, and many books, both true, Both wise, and both delightful too! Arthur Thomson. The God of things that are Is the God of the highest heaven; The God of the morning star, Of the thrush that sings at even; The God of the storm and sunshine, Of the wolf, the snail, and the bee, Of the Alp's majestic silence, Of the boundless depths of the sea; The God of the times and the nations, Of the planets as they roll, Of the numberless constellations, Of the limitless human soul.

For there is nothing small, And naught can mighty be; Archangels and atoms all Embodiments of Thee! A single thought divine Holds stars and suns in space; A dream of man is Thine, And history finds its place. When the universe was young Thine was the perfect thought That life should be bound in one By the strand of love enwrought In the life of the fern and the lily, Of the dragon and the dove, Still through the stress and struggle Waxes the bond of love.

Down there where neither sun nor air came through, I felt it blow dcross my dungeon walls The wind before the footsteps of the Lord! It bloweth now across the world; It strangely stirs the hearts of men; wars cease; Rare deeds familiar grow; fastings and prayers, Forgiveness, poverty; temples are built On visioned impulses, and children march On journeys with no end.

William A. And what is so rare as a day in June? Then, if ever, come perfect days; Then Heaven tries earth if it be in tune, And over it softly her warm ear lays; Whether we look, or whether we listen, We hear life murmur, or see it glisten; Every clod feels a stir of might, An instinct within it that reaches and towers, And, groping blindly above it for light, Climbs to a soul in grass and flowers; The flush of life may well be seen Thrilling back over hills and valleys; The cowslip startles in meadows green, The buttercup catches the sun in its chalice, And there's never a leaf nor a blade too mean To be some happy creature's palace; The little bird sits at his door in the sun, Atilt like a blossom among the leaves, And lets his illumined being o'errun With the deluge of summer it receives; His mate feels the eggs beneath her wings, And the heart in her dumb breast flutters and sings; He sings to the wide world and she to her nest In the nice ear of Nature, which song is the best?

What use are breath and strength if we no longer feel The thrill of battle for some holy cause Or hear high morning bugles calling us away? Let brave hearts dare to break the truce with things Ere we have lost our ancient heritage. Are we to gain a world to lose our souls, Souls which can keep faith until death And die, triumphant, in some crimson dawn? Nay, we must keep faith with the unnumbered brave Who pushed aside horizons, that we might reach The better things: We cannot rest until We have put courage once more on her throne; For Honor clamors for her heritage, And Right still claims a kingdom of its own.

Walter A. Cutter God Is Here God is here! I hear His voice While thrushes make the woods rejoice. I touch His robe each time I place My hand against a pansy's face. I breathe His breath if I but pass Verbenas trailing through the grass. God is here! From every tree His leafy fingers beckon me. Madeleine Aaron 42 QUOTABLE POEMS I Tramp a Perpetual Journey I tramp a perpetual journey, My signs are a rain-proof coat, good shoes, and a staff cut from the woods, No friend of mine takes his ease in my chair, I have no chair, no church, no philosophy, I lead no man to a dinner-table, library or exchange, But each man and each woman of you I lead upon a knoll, My left hand hooking you round the waist, My right hand pointing to landscapes of continents, and a plain public road.

Not I nor anyone else, can travel that road for you, You must travel it for yourself. Who stoops to scrub a floor May worship more Than he who kneels before a holy shrine; Who crushes stubborn ore More worthily adore Than he who crushes sacramental wine. William Shakespeare From " As You Like It " From Among the Ferns I lay among the ferns, Where they lifted their fronds, innumerable, in the green- wood wilderness, like wings winnowing the air; And their voices went by me continually.

As the wind at midday rains whitening over the grass, As the night-bird glimmers a moment, fleeting between the lonely watcher and the moon, So softly inaudibly they rained, While I sat silent. And in the silence of the greenwood I knew the secret of the growth of the ferns; I saw their delicate leaflets tremble breathing an unde- scribed and unuttered life; And, below, the ocean lay sleeping; And round them the mountains and the stars dawned in glad companionship forever. Edward Carpenter The Newer Vainglory Two men went up to pray; and one gave thanks, Not with himself aloud, With proclamation, calling on the ranks Of an attentive crowd.

Thank God I am not as these rigid fools, Even as this Pharisee. Edwin Markham The Seeker After God There was a dreamer once, whose spirit trod Unnumbered ways in thwarted search for God: He stirred the dust on ancient books; he sought For certain light in what the teachers taught; He took his staff and went unto the Wise, And deeper darkness fell about his eyes; He lived a hermit, and forebore his food, And God left visitless his solitude; He wrapped himself in prayer night after night, And mocking demons danced across his sight.

Resigned at last to Him he could not find, He turned again to live among mankind And when from man he no more stood apart, God, on that instant, visited his heart! Frederic Lawrence Knowles Choice Ask and it shall be given. Ask ask. And if you ask a stone Expect not bread; And if the stone glitter like a caught star, And shine on a warm, soft breast, And you have tossed your soul away To see it in that nest, Yet is it still a stone not bread.

Seek and you shall find. Seek seek. Knock and the door shall open. Knock knock. Two doors are there, beware!

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Think well before you knock; Your tapping finger will unlock Your heaven or hell. Soon shall Oblivion's deepening veil Hide all the peopled hills you see, The gay, the proud, while lovers hail These many summers you and me. Beneath the open sky, The sphere of crystal silence surcharged with deity. The winds blow from a thousand ways and waft their balms abroad, The winds blow toward a million goals but all winds blow from God.

The midnight earth sends incense up, sweet with the breath of prayer Go out beneath the naked night and get religion there. Where shall we get religion? Beneath the blooming tree, Beside the hill-encircled brooks that loiter to the sea; Beside all twilight waters, beneath the noonday shades. Beneath the dark cathedral pines, and through the tangled glades; Wherever the old urge of life provokes the dumb, dead sod To tell its thought in violets, the soul takes hold on God. Go smell the growing clover, and scent the blooming pear, Go forth to seek religion and find it anywhere.

Sam Walter Foss Thanksgiving For all things beautiful, and good, and true; For things that seemed not good yet turned to good; For all the sweet compulsions of Thy will That chastened, tried, and wrought us to Thy shape; For things unnumbered that we take of right, And value first when they are withheld; For light and air; sweet sense of sound and smell; For ears to hear the heavenly harmonies; For eyes to see the unseen in the seen; For vision of the Worker in the work; For hearts to apprehend Thee everywhere; We thank Thee, Lord.

For want of me the world's course will not fail; When all its work is done, the lie shall rot; The truth is great, and shall prevail, When none cares whether it prevail or not. Coventry Patmore Beauty How can you smile when pain is everywhere; How flaunt complacently your vulgar wealth? My health And calm delight the eye and banish care It would be sad indeed if none were free To sanction Beauty and embody Joy. Enough of you, who would with gloom destroy My grace.

I do my share of Charity! Who tipped the scales To Sophistry and weighed a fancy gown Against a street rat's need of bread? The nails Of Calvary, the cross, the thorned crown, The face of sorrow that He wore, reply: " Forgive them, God, they know not when they lie! John B. My plans he balked; my aims he foiled; He blocked my every onward way.

When for some lofty goal I toiled, He grimly said me nay. Thy wretched features I would see. Until one night I held him fast, The veil from off his form did draw; I gazed upon his face at last And, lo! Edwin L. Lord Christ, we take the torch from Thee; We must be true, we must be free, And clean of heart and strong of soul, To bear the Glory to its goal. O Lord, I have saved, Saved, put by in a goodly hoard. What of the prodigals? Judge them, Lord Their wanton waste of Thy mercies poured Into the sewers! Judge them, Lord, in Thy righteous wrath. I have saved, O Lord, I have scraped and saved, With my eyes downbent to my daily path; I have counted and carried, checked and stored, Nothing too worthless, nothing too small, Never a fragment thrown away A gainful use I have found for all.

But what is my store? Do they call this Death, This poignant insight? At last I see. I have wasted nothing, Lord, but life, Time, and the talent Thou gavest me. And so I do not dare to pray For winds to waft me on my way, But leave it to a Higher Will To stay or speed me; trusting still That all is well, and sure that He Who launched my bark will sail with me Through storm and calm, and will not fail Whatever breezes may prevail To land me, every peril past, Within His sheltering Heaven at last. Then whatsoever wind doth blow, My heart is glad to have it so; And blow it east or blow it west, The wind that blows, that wind is best, Caroline Atherton Mason The Tide of Faith So faith is strong Only when we are strong, shrinks when we shrink.

It comes when music stirs us, and the chords, Moving on some grand climax, shake our souls With influx new that makes new energies. It comes in swellings of the heart and tears That rise at noble and at gentle deeds. It comes in moments of heroic love, Un jealous joy in joy not made for us; In conscious triumph of the good within, Making us worship goodness that rebukes.

Presentiment of better things on earth Sweeps in with every force that stirs our souls To admiration, self-renouncing love. George Eliot Vitse Summa Brevis They are not long, the weeping and the laughter, Love and desire and hate: I think they have no portion in us after We pass the gate. They are not long, the days of wine and roses: Out of a misty dream Our path emerges for a while, then closes Within a dream.

Ernest Dowson From Ulysses There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail: There gloom the dark broad seas. My mariners, Souls that have toil'd, and wrought, and thought with me That ever with a frolic welcome took The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed Free hearts, free foreheads you and I are old; Old age hath yet his honor and his toil; Death closes all: but something ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with gods.

The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks: The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs: the deep Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends, Tis not too late to seek a newer world. It may be that the gulfs will wash us down: It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. Tho' much is taken, much abides; and tho' We are not now that strength which in old days Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are; One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.

Alfred Tennyson Invincible The years race by on padded feet Unhaltingly, and panther-fleet Imprinting marks of drab decay. My hair grows ashen; cravings numb; Lips pale; and telltale age-lines come Life's hoary touch I may not stay. Winnie Lynch Rockett Rules for the Road Stand straight: Step firmly, throw your weight: The heaven is high above your head, The good gray road is faithful to your tread.

And when the night comes, rest: The earth is friendly as a mother's breast. Whine of the groaning car, Caste, which divides like a wall; Curse of the raw-sored soul; Doom of the great and small; The White Christs fashioned by Pale White Men Sanction and bless it all. God send us a little ground Tall trees standing round, Homely flowers in brown sod, Overhead Thy stars, God! God bless when winds blow Our home and all we know. From childhood to youth's but a span, And the years of our life are soon sped; But the youth is no longer a youth, but a man, When the first of his dreams is dead.

He may live on by compact and plan, When the fine bloom of living is shed; But God pity the little that's left of a man When the last of his dreams is dead. Let him show a brave face if he can, Let him woo fame or fortune instead; Yet there's not much to do but to bury a man, When the last of his dreams is dead. Though clouds environ round, And gladness hides her face in scorn, Put off the shadow from thy brow: No night but hath its morn.

Have Faith. Where'er thy bark is driven The calm's disport, the tempest's mirth Know this: God rules the hosts of heaven, The inhabitants of earth. Have Love, Not love alone for one, But man, as man, thy brother call; And scatter, like a circling sun, Thy charities on all. Nay, there is something a trifle left; Who shall receive this dower? See, Earth Mother, a handful of dust Turn it into a flower. Ethdyn Wetherald Truth, Crushed to Earth Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again The eternal years of God are hers; But Error, wounded, writhes in pain, And dies among his worshippers.

Life has loveliness to sell, Music like a curve of gold, Scent of pine trees in the rain, Eyes that love you, arms that hold, And for your spirit's still delight, Holy thoughts that star the night. Spend all you have for loveliness, Buy it and never count the cost; For one white singing hour of peace Count many a year of strife well lost, And for a breath of ecstasy Give all you have been, or could be.

Sara Teasdale Three Steps Three steps there are our human life must climb. The first is Force. The savage struggled to it from the slime And still it is our last, ashamed recourse. Above that jagged stretch of red-veined stone Is marble Law, Carven with long endeavor, monotone Of patient hammers, not yet free from flaw. Henry 'van Dyke On Entering a Chapel Love built this shrine; these hallowed walls uprose To give seclusion from the hurrying throng, From tumult of the street, complaint and wrong, From rivalry and strife, from taunt of foes If foes thou hast.

On silent feet come in, Bow low in penitence.

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Whoe'er thou art Thou, too, hast sinned. Uplift in prayer thy heart. Thy Father's Blessing waiteth. Read within This holy place, in pictured light portrayed, The characters of worthies who, from years Long past, still speak the message here displayed In universal language not to fade. Leave then thy burden, all thy cares and fears; Faith, hope, and love are thine, for thou hast prayed. Who is he That every man in arms should wish to be?

It is the generous Spirit, who, when brought Among the tasks of real life, hath wrought Upon the plan that pleased his boyish thought: Whose high endeavors are an inward light That makes the path before him always bright. He labors good on good to fix, and owes To virtue every triumph that he knows: Who, if he rise to station of command, Rises by open means; and there will stand On honorable terms, or else retire, And in himself possess his own desire; Who comprehends his trust, and to the same Keeps faithful with a singleness of aim; And therefore does not stoop, nor lie in wait For wealth, or honors, or for worldly state.

Whose powers shed round him in the common strife, Or mild concerns of ordinary life, A constant influence, a peculiar grace; But who, if he be called upon to face Some awful moment to which Heaven has joined Great issues, good or bad for human kind, Is happy as a Lover; and attired With sudden brightness, like a Man inspired; And, through the heat of conflict, keeps the law In calmness made, and sees what he foresaw; Or if an unexpected call succeed, Come when it will, is equal to the need.

Prosperous or adverse, to his wish or not Plays, in the many games of life, that one Where what he most doth value must be won: Whom neither shape of danger can dismay, Nor thought of tender happiness betray; Who, not content that former worth stand fast, Looks forward, persevering to the last, From well to better, daily self-surpast: Who, whether praise of him must walk the earth Forever, and to noble deeds give birth, Or he must fall, to sleep without his fame, And leave a dead unprofitable name Finds comfort in himself and in his cause; And, while the mortal mist is gathering, draws His breath in confidence of Heaven's applause: This is the happy Warrior; this is he That every Man in arms should wish to be.

William Wordsworth These Times Our motors pierce the clouds. They penetrate The depth of oceans. Microscopes reveal New worlds to conquer, while we dedicate Our intellects to strength of stone and steel. We are as proud as those who built a tower To reach to heaven. Recklessly we rear Our lofty Babels, arrogant with power. How dare we boast of cities while we hear The nations groping through the dark along The road of life?

Then let our prayers and labors never cease; We act the prologue of a masterpiece. Freed In all his works from prickings of desire, Burned clean in act by the white fire of truth, The wise call that one wise. Our bodies broken for the truth By mobs or Pharisees of State Must be the bread which Liberty Feeds on, and lives, and waxes great. Our blood, our covenant of love, Is the rich wine which we must give To a sick world that hates the gift So, by our dying, God may live.

Far, far ahead, is all her seamen know. And where the land she travels from? Away, Far, far behind, is all that they can say. On sunny noons upon the deck's smooth face, Linked arm in arm, how pleasant here to pace; Or, o'er the stern reclining, watch below The foaming wake far widening as we go.

On stormy nights when wild northwesters rave, How proud a thing to fight with wind and wave! The dripping sailor on the reeling mast Exults to bear, and scorns to wish it past. One such study examined the extent to which work demands, including irregular work schedules, are related to work-family conflict as well as life and job satisfaction among nurses.

Irregular work schedules along with work overload are the predictors of work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict is in turn associated with lower job and life satisfaction Yildirim and Aycan Generally, having to be constantly available for work, not just long hours per se, creates a daily struggle for workers to reconcile competing caregiving and workplace demands Correll et al.

The fact that household income has become more volatile in the most recent four decades, through the late s, is a key labor market development. It is also surprising, given the relatively higher stability in the macroeconomy until A surprisingly high share over 30 percent of Americans report experiencing significant spikes and dips in their incomes. Most important here, among such workers, 42 percent attribute the variability to an irregular work schedule while an additional 27 percent cite seasonality of work or an unemployment spell, and the rest being paid by bonuses or commissions.

This reason for income volatility, an irregular work schedule , constitutes almost as much as all other work reasons put together. Of the 42 percent whose work hours change from week to week, 58 percent work full-time, 30 percent work part-time, and 11 percent are self-employed. Moreover, 10 percent say that their income varies substantially from month to month while another 21 percent say that they occasionally experience a work month with unusually high or low incomes.

Reduced work hours are one of three main culprits along with health problems and unexpected increase in household member size. Work hour schedules are not uncommonly posted no more than a week in advance for employees, sometimes even less, for work the following week. Little advance notice of posting of work schedules, daily scheduling changes, and overtime work can lead to increased work-family time conflict, but also to work stress, child care difficulties, and variable earnings e.

How far in advance do employees know what days and hours they will need to work? Having such short notice is more common among workers paid by the hour 41 percent than by other means 33 percent and also among part-time 48 percent workers, but not uncommon among full-time workers 35 percent. While 41 percent of hourly workers report knowing their work schedule only one week or less in advance, an almost identical proportion 39 percent report knowing their work schedule four or more weeks in advance. Thus, many employers are certainly capable of informing hourly employees well in advance. Advance notice of schedules is distributed quite differently among occupational groups.

Among service workers, production workers, and skilled trades, most employees know their schedule only one week or less in advance. Service and production supervisors, however, are among both those with the shortest and the longest advance notice categories. In contrast, the majority of professionals, business staff, and providers of social services for example, school teachers, social workers, and nurses know their work schedule four or more weeks in advance. Furthermore, approximately 74 percent of employees in both hourly and nonhourly jobs experience at least some fluctuation in weekly hours over the course of a month.

Among workers with children, 40 percent report one week or less advance notice and 50 percent say they have no input into their schedule. Employers determine the work schedules of about half of young adults without employee input, which results in part-time schedules that fluctuate between 17 and 28 hours per week. For the majority of employees who work fewer than 40, as well as those with more than 44 hours in a normal week, hour fluctuation is the norm.

So, among workers with the longest hours, the hour workweek seems not to be the norm but rather, just a lower bound. The mean variation in the length of the workweek is 10 hours among hourly workers as compared with nearly 12 hours among nonhourly workers. Among the 74 percent of hourly workers who report having fluctuations in the last month, hours vary by a whopping 50 percent of their usual work hours, on average. A sampling nonrepresentative of retail sector workers in and around New York City finds that only 40 percent of such employees have a minimum number of hours set per week Luce, Hammad, and Sipe For workers with significant care-giving or financial commitments, having weeks with as few as zero hours and days when there may be either no work or short notice to arrive at work, may make balancing work with life stressful, intolerable, or even impossible, forcing them to choose between participating in the paid labor force, unemployment, or withdrawal from the labor force.

Which workers are more prone to have variable workweeks? It contrasts the degrees of work-family interference, work stress, and fatigue reported by those on irregular vs. It distinguishes this by hourly vs. The results are intended to estimate the possible improvement of worker well-being if FLSA reform were to include a legal right to request flexible, shorter or more stable work hours with more advance notice.

Table 1 shows that about 10 percent of the employed work on shift times that are irregular, including those that work on an on-call basis. Adding in those who work on other types of shifts that are not fixed—rotating shifts or split-shift times—the proportion rises to about 17 percent of the employed. More specifically, those who work irregular or on-call shift times are about 6 percent of hourly workers, 8 percent of salaried workers, and 30 percent of those paid on some other basis such as contract work. Based on post-hoc ANOVA test, work-family conflict is more frequent for both those on irregular and split-rotating shifts, while workers on regular schedules have shorter hours than those on split-rotating shifts and less work-family conflict than both those on irregular and split-rotating schedules.

Respondent income is in inflation-adjusted constant year dollars. Table 1 also shows that lowest-income workers have the most irregular work schedules. In addition, those working irregular shifts or variable hours rotating or split shifts work a relatively longer workweek, on average. There is, however, variation by occupation. In particular, about 15 percent of workers in sales and related occupations have irregular schedules, while most other occupations are quite near or in the case of administrative support far below the national average.

Finally, variable work shifts, in particular, irregular and on-call work, appear to be associated with significantly higher reported frequency of having work-family conflict as shown in the bottom section of Table 1. It is also associated with greater reported work stress, although this difference is not statistically significant.

Thus, the pattern of distribution of irregular schedules is slightly skewed toward younger workers, but not decidedly so. Years on the job have no effect either way, which may be somewhat surprising. By race, irregular work schedules appear to be greater among whites than non-whites, but this phenomenon is almost entirely attributable to racial differences in income, work hours, and access to flexible work scheduling arrangements. Perhaps surprisingly, having young children has no influence either way. Being male actually strongly increases being on an irregular shift gender has no association with working split or rotating shifts.

All models were controlled for education, survey year, age, age square, race, marital status, presence of a preschool-age child, and years on the job. However, for workers on irregular schedules, the role of longer hours becomes statistically insignificant when including the effect of having flexibility in work scheduling. That suggests that the typical worker with unpredictable shift times has at least some ability to adjust the start and stop times of those shifts, but less ability to take time off during work. This association between start and stop time flexibility and irregular scheduling is likely to be a reflection of salaried jobs, where such flextime is more common than in hourly jobs or lower-income jobs.

However, while having irregular work shift times was associated with longer hours of work, it seems that this in large part is because such jobs also have less work schedule flexibility and greater job demands, such as the perception that there are too few staff to get the work done. Working longer workweeks is associated with greater likelihood of working mandatory overtime, not surprisingly.

Also, mandatory overtime is associated with having less flexibility in their work schedules, both the ability to take time off during work and at the fringes of the work day. This might reflect the findings elsewhere that exempt employees meaning that they are not automatically eligible for overtime protection work relatively longer workweeks. There was little difference between whether someone with mandatory overtime as a working condition actually worked days of overtime or not.

Among the various other working conditions entered as controls for whether flexible or mandatory work may just be reflecting other such conditions , little effect is observed, thus confirming that mandatory overtime and flexible schedules contribute independently to explaining the incidence of irregular, unusual work schedules these results are not shown in the table. The following findings come from the underlying data for Table 3 but are not shown in Table 3. By income level, working mandatory overtime is pretty evenly distributed across income brackets.

However, there is a slightly higher association with being in the next to lower income level. Perhaps such employees put up with this working condition so as to keep their incomes at least slightly above the lowest income level. Men are more likely to have required overtime work, all else constant. In addition, not surprisingly, working mandatory overtime is strongly positively associated with working longer hours. However, both indicators of having scheduling flexibility are related negatively. This suggests that workers with mandatory overtime tend to have less ability to control the timing of their work schedule.

Perhaps surprisingly, however, being paid a salary rather than per hour, tends to be associated positively with having mandatory overtime work, whereas we might expect such work to be associated more with hourly jobs. Does working unusual or unpredictable shift times exacerbate the experience of work interfering with family time, controlling for the number of work hours, income, pay status, and other job or worker characteristics?

Does it also affect the degree of reported work stress? Does mandatory overtime work contribute to these outcomes work-family conflict and work stress? Table 4 shows the results of multinomial probit regression estimations on these two dependent variables. Table 4 then shows the results when distinguishing between workers who are paid by salary, by the hour, and by other type of employment arrangements. In the entire sample, irregular shift work is strongly associated with significantly greater work-family conflict, for the three years of data pooled. Indeed, the size of the coefficient estimates suggests that shift working that is irregular has the strongest adverse effect on work-family harmony.

This is particularly evident for salaried workers. It is adversely associated for hourly workers as well, and is exceeded only by having split-shift work as an association with work-family conflict among hourly workers. Weekly hours, unsurprisingly, is associated with greater work-family conflict and work stress. The same holds true for night shift workers except those categorized as other. Finally, while hourly workers report less frequent work-family conflict than salaried, on average, all types of shift times other than the traditional day shift exacerbate their work-family conflict.

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All models were controlled for education, survey year, age, age square, race, marital status, presence of a preschool child, and years on the job. Working on rotating and split shift times is not significantly associated with work stress. Hourly paid workers experience some greater work stress if working on irregular shift times, while the effect for salaried is not significantly positive.

Table 5 illustrates how having overtime work that is mandatory, which is arguably one form of work being irregular, contributes to the experience of work-family conflict and work stress. Similarly, although by about half the magnitude, mandatory overtime is associated with greater work stress, all else constant.

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Thus, workers with mandatory overtime work experience both greater work-family conflict and work stress, and their well-being might benefit from a greater ability to work overtime more on a voluntary than required basis. All models were controlled for income, working hours, education, survey year, age, age squared, race, marital status, presence of a preschool-age child, and years on the job.

Table 6 shows how shifts vary by industry. Most pertinently, almost 3 in 10 workers in retail or wholesale trade have work schedules too irregular to specify a time of day. Not surprisingly, agriculture has the greatest share of workers reporting irregular shifts. Only 8 percent had advance notice of 4 or more weeks. The most recent survey of U. If you had only one of these three choices, which of the following would you prefer? Which of the following would you prefer? A full-time job?

A part-time job? Table 7 shows first that working longer weekly hours is definitely associated with more work-family conflict, as might be suspected. Moreover, underemployed workers, who would be willing to work more hours, actually do not have significantly any better work-family conflict than workers who have the amount of weekly work hours they prefer, despite having time they are willing to sacrifice.

That clearly discounts one suggested, possible advantage of being employed less than full-time. The second indicator of hours mismatch shows similar findings, a bit more strongly—overemployment working full-time but wanting part-time is significantly positive and underemployment working part-time but wanting full-time negative but not significantly so. As indicated in a note to the table, the third indicator—those wishing to spend less time at paid work— reinforces these findings particularly when not controlling for the number of weekly hours.

In addition, it shows that part-time workers who prefer that part-time status experience less work-family conflict. Whereas those whose part-time employment is not preferred, work-family conflict is not significantly reduced. When measured with a time-use question not shown in the table , those wishing to spend less time at paid work had significantly greater job-family conflict, while those who wanted more time at work had less conflict, but not significantly so.

Regarding work stress, Table 8 shows results for underemployment, overemployment, and schedule control similar to those for work-family conflict in Table 7. Longer work hours is associated with more work stress from work. Overemployment somewhat increases work stress, controlling for hours, while underemployment does not significantly reduce conflict. However, variable hours were found to be more prevalent in certain occupations and industries, and for certain worker characteristics.

An individual had a reduced probability of not being able to specify their workweek if he fit in one or more of the following categories: a union member, a government employee all levels, but particularly local public sector , has higher education, is white, is male, and is married. Certain occupational classifications also were associated with reduced variability of work hours—professional, managerial, and administrative support.

On the other hand, certain occupations increased weekly hours variation: sales and related occupations and sales representatives, services other than protective especially private household service and health service occupations , precision production, craft and repair especially fabricators , transportation and material moving, and farming. Some of the workweek-stabilizing effect of unionism is traceable either to employment in government or the detailed industry distribution of union jobs.

Half the higher probability of having unstable workweeks for nonwhites, and virtually all of the higher probability for women, is attributable to the distribution of their jobs across industries, thus, attributable largely to industry segregation in employment. Those in craft jobs also have reduced chances of working variable hours, but this is due to the concentration of such jobs in certain industries. The greater variability of hours for sales workers was to a large extent attributable to the more flexible scheduling associated with this major occupational classification.

Indeed, generally, workers have a far greater likelihood of having a variable length of the workweek if they have both shorter than standard hours and access to flexible daily starting and ending times. The most salient finding was that having variable hours is strongly positively associated with usually working part-time, as opposed to working full-time. Being part-time more than doubled the likelihood of having hours that vary weekly.

Usually working full-time reduced the chances of having an unpredictable workweek by more than 40 percent. This suggests part-time hours are used to buffer stability for full-timers. A small but nontrivial proportion of the U. About 4 percent of the usual part-time workforce 1. Unfortunately, part-timers are not asked the reasons why they are working full-time hours. Policy efforts to curb such hours of overemployment, such as a right to refuse extra work hours without retaliation, might go some way toward reducing underemployment of other part-time employees, were they in the same establishment.

Given the evidence presented here and in other, recent studies of the relationship between long, irregular or unpredictable work hours and work-family conflict, which policies might prove effective at mitigating the conflict? Other countries have taken steps to limit the unpredictability of work schedules and promote a legally protected ability of workers to adjust their work schedules? While access is particularly limited for hourly workers Sweet et al. Versions of this right exist now in two other states—Montana protects an employee request for job sharing and Oregon protects a request for teleworking Kulow The law is also like the federal legislation in that there are at least eight factors for which the employer may deny the request, either completely or partially, as long as the denial of the request is put in writing.

San Francisco employers must inform employees of their new rights and meet tight deadlines for responding formally to requests for flexible or predictable work schedules. Any employee may request a new schedule to help care for a child, a parent age 65 or older, or any family member with a serious health condition. To be eligible, the employee must have worked for the employer for at least six months, must regularly work at least eight hours each week, and must work in San Francisco. The measures are intended to give hourly retail staffers more predictable schedules and priority access to extra hours of work available.

Finally, it prohibits formula retail employers from discriminating against employees with respect to their rate of pay, access to employer-provided paid and unpaid time off, or access to promotion opportunities. This will more forcefully protect employees on part-time status, for example, by providing part-timers and full-timers equal access to scheduling and time-off requests.

If a formula retailer had additional hours of work to offer in job positions held by current part-time workers, it would be required to offer those hours of work first to existing qualified part-time employees before hiring additional part-time employees or before hiring through a temporary services agency, staffing agency, or any similar contractor.

It is not yet implemented because a judge blocked enforcement at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, pending appeal. Such ground level efforts are aimed specifically at addressing the very work scheduling practices that have led to chronic underemployment of so many workers. This measure advised the Berkeley, California, City Council to adopt an ordinance that would allow both private- and public-sector workers to request part-time work, and to ask the state and federal governments to draft legislation to give employees a right to shorter or more flexible work hours unless a legitimate business reason for denial of the request was presented in writing.

Eight U. While employees may still be sent home from work, they are guaranteed one or more hours of pay to offset the expenses associated with showing up at work transportation, childcare, etc. In Connecticut, a non-exempt employee in the mercantile trade and restaurant industries who reports for duty by request or permission of the employer must be paid a minimum of four hours of pay at her regular rate only two hours for restaurant and hotel workers.

In Massachusetts, non-exempt employees except those in charitable organizations , who are both scheduled to work at least three hours and report on time must be paid for at least three hours at no less than the minimum wage even if no work is available. Non-exempt employees in the restaurant and hotel industries in New York who by request or permission report for duty must be paid at least three hours for one shift or the number of hours in the regularly scheduled shift, whichever is less.

Other specific minimum payments are required when workers were scheduled to work two or three shifts. Canada has legislated reporting pay requirements in its federal sector and in several of its provinces. The amount of pay owed differs among jurisdictions. In Ontario, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Alberta, compensation is mandated for a minimum of three hours at the minimum wage.

In the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, employees are owed four hours at the regular wage if they show up to work their shift and less than four hours of work is provided. The federal sector requires three hours at the regular wage. Wider adoption of such reporting pay requirements might help to compensate employees in ways the labor market is currently not necessarily compensating them for the work-family conflict and stress they experience when regular or overtime work is unpredictable in a given day or week Canadian Labour Congress In the U.

An employer can still deny a request if it has a good business reason for doing so. There is now a more formally established appeal process for employees, should they wish to pursue it further. According to a survey, 8 percent of U. Roughly 35 percent of those surveyed said they might consider requesting flexible work hours at some point Pilon In Australia, similarly, the right to request was expanded in from parents of preschool-aged children to any employee with at least 12 months on a full-time or part-time experience with their employer who has a child up to age 18 or any caregiving responsibility for a member of his or her immediate family or household , has a disability, is experiencing domestic violence, or is age 55 or older.

The age criterion may be regarded as providing a potential bridge or phasing of retirement. No dissatisfaction has been documented by either employees or employers, who must seriously consider a request for flexible working arrangements but may refuse on reasonable business grounds see Skinner and Pocock Outside the U.

Model policies include those addressing the root sources of underemployment, including those regarding part-time work with minimum thresholds for working hours. In France, the regulation of part-time work has been substantially modified by Act No. Not only is the minimum number of working hours of part-time workers set at 24 hours per week or its equivalent calculated over a reference period , except for students, but negotiations regarding the organization of part-time work in companies must be initiated when at least one-third of the workforce in a sector is employed on a part-time basis.

This number may be reduced upon request, to deal with personal constraints or to combine several occupations with a view to reaching the equivalent of a full-time job. Messenger Processes to improve the quality of part-time work include granting part-time workers pro-rata earnings and benefits, and rights to request changes in their working hours. Not only the duration of working hours, but also work schedule predictability can be addressed through legislation.

President Obama has directed the federal Office of Personal Management OPM to initiate more flexible work and workplace options for the approximately 2 million federal employees. The agencies must facilitate conversations about work schedule flexibilities, including telework, part-time employment, or job sharing arrangements. Supervisors have to confer directly with the requesting employee as appropriate to understand fully the nature and need for the requested flexibility, and carefully respond within 20 business days of the initial request.