Tolkien enormously influenced fantasy writing, establishing the form of epic fantasy ; this did much to establish the genre of fantasy as commercially distinct and viable. And today fantasy continues as an expansive, multi-layered medium encompassing many subgenres, including traditional high fantasy and sorcery , magical realism , fairytale fantasy , horror-tinged dark fantasy. There is further discussion of the history of fantasy in other languages in "Sources of fantasy" and the history of French fantasy literature is covered in greater detail under "Fantastique".
The most fantastic myths and fairy tales differ from modern fantasy genre in three respects: Modern genre fantasy postulates a different reality, either a fantasy world separated from ours, or a hidden fantasy side of our own world. In addition, the rules, history, etc. Traditional fantastic tales take place in our world in the past or in far off, unknown places, it describes the place or the time with any precision saying that it happened "long ago and far away. In traditional tales the degree to which the author considered the supernatural to be real can span the spectrum from legends taken as reality to myths understood as describing in understandable terms more complicated reality, to late, intentionally fictitious literary works; the fantastic worlds of modern fantasy are created by an author or group of authors using traditional elements, but in a novel arrangement and with an individual interpretation.
Traditional tales with fantasy elements used familiar myths and folklore, any differences from tradition were considered variations on a theme. Transitions between the traditional and modern modes of fantastic literature are evident in early Gothic novels, the ghost stories in vogue in the 19th century, Romantic novels, all of which used extensively traditional fantastic motifs, but subjected them to authors' concepts.
By one standard, no work created before the fantasy genre was defined can be considered to belong to it, no matter how many fantastic elements it includes. By another, the genre includes the whole range of fantastic literature, both the modern genre and its traditional antecedents, as many elements which were treated as true by earlier authors are wholly fictitious and fantastic for modern readers, but by the more limited definition a full examination of the history of the fantastic in literature is necessary to show the origins of the modern genre.
Traditional works contain significant elements which modern fantasy authors have drawn upon extensively for inspiration in their own works. With increases in learning in the medieval European era, literary fiction joined earlier myths and legends. Among the first genres to appear was romance ; this genre embraced fantasy, not only followed traditional myths and fables, but, in its final form, added new fantastical elements. Romance at first dealt with traditional themes, above all three thematic cycles of tales, assembled in imagination at a late date as the Matter of Rome , the Matter of France and the Matter of Britain , although a number of "non-cyclical" romances achieved a great deal of popularity; the romances themselves were fictional, but such tales as Valentine and Orson , Guillaume de Palerme , Queste del Saint Graal were only the beginning of the fantasy genre, combining realism and fantasy.
During the Renaissance , romance continued to be popular; the trend was to more fantastic fiction. Arthurian motifs have appeared in literature from its publication, though the works have been a mix of fantasy and non-fantasy works. At the time, it and the Spanish Amadis de Gaula , spawned many imitators, the genre was popularly well-received, producing such masterpiece of Renaissance poetry as Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando furioso and Torquato Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata. Ariosto's tale, with its endlessly wandering characters, many marvels, adventures, was a source text for many fantasies of adventure.
With such works as Amadis of Gaul and Palmerin of England , the genre of fantasy was inaugurated, as the marvels are deployed to amaze and surprise readers. Leaving allegory aside, the action. Fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games.
Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works.
Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not. An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality.
Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects.
Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation , where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt ; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu , preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire.
Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature. The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts.
Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop.
The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights , a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
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Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra , for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie , including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart.
Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda , includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir , dwarves , elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us. Ghost story A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them. The "ghost" may be summoned by magic.
Linked to the ghost is the idea of "hauntings", where a supernatural entity is tied to a place, object or person. Ghost stories are examples of ghostlore. Colloquially, the term "ghost story" can refer to any kind of scary story. In a narrower sense, the ghost story has been developed as a short story format, within genre fiction, it is a form of supernatural fiction and of weird fiction, is a horror story. While ghost stories are explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales.
Ghosts appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form. A widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they are composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material. Anthropologists link this idea to early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist.
Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form; the campfire story, a form of oral storytelling involves recounting ghost stories, or other scary stories. Some of the stories are decades old, with varying versions across multiple cultures. Many schools and educational institutions encourage ghost storytelling as part of literature. James ; as summarized by Frank Coffman for a course in popular imaginative literature, they were: The pretense of truth "A pleasing terror" No gratuitous bloodshed or sex No "explanation of the machinery" Setting: "those of the writer's own day"The introduction of pulp magazines in the early s created new avenues for ghost stories to be published, they began to appear in publications such as Good Housekeeping and The New Yorker.
Ghosts in the classical world appeared in the form of vapor or smoke, but at other times they were described as being substantial, appearing as they had been at the time of death, complete with the wounds that killed them. Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer's Odyssey , which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, as well as the Old Testament in which the Witch of Endor calls the spirit of the prophet Samuel; the play Mostellaria , by the Roman playwright Plautus , is the earliest known work to feature a haunted dwelling, is sometimes translated as The Haunted House.
Another early account of a haunted place comes from an account by Pliny the Younger. Pliny describes the haunting of a house in Athens by a ghost bound in chains, an archetype that would become familiar in literature. Ghosts appeared in the tragedies of the Roman writer Seneca , who would influence the revival of tragedy on the Renaissance stage Thomas Kyd and Shakespeare.
The One Thousand and One Nights , sometimes known as Arabian Nights, contains a number of ghost stories involving jinn and corpses. In particular, the tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad " revolves around a house haunted by jinns. Other medieval Arabic literature, such as the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity contain ghost stories; the 11th century Japanese work The Tale of Genji contains ghost stories, includes characters being possessed by spirits.
In the midth century, the works of Seneca were rediscovered by Italian humanists, they became the models for the revival of tragedy. Seneca's influence is evident in Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet , both of which share a revenge theme, a corpse-strewn climax , ghosts among the cast; the ghosts in Richard III resemble the Senecan model, while the ghost in Hamlet plays a more complex role.
The shade of Hamlet's murdered father in Hamlet has become one of the more recognizable ghosts in English literature. In English Renaissance theatre, ghosts were depicted in the garb of the living and in armour. Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, point out, "In fact, it is as laughter threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of'spirit drapery'. The drapery of ghosts must now, indeed, be as spiritual as the ghosts themselves. This is a striking departure both from the ghosts of the Renaissance stage and from the Greek and Roman theatrical ghosts upon which that stage drew.
The most prominent feature of Renaissance ghosts is their gross materiality, they appear to us conspicuously clothed.
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Fantasy world A fantasy world is an author-conceived world created in fictional media, such as literature, film or games. Typical fantasy worlds involve magic or magical abilities, nonexistent technology and sometimes, either a historical or futuristic theme; some worlds may be a parallel world connected to Earth via magical items. Many fantasy worlds draw on real world history, sociology and folklore ; the setting of a fantasy work is of great importance to the plot and characters of the story. The setting itself can be imperiled by the evil of the story, suffer a calamity, be restored by the transformation the story brings about.
Stories that use the setting as a backdrop for the story have been criticized for their failure to use it fully; when the land itself is not in danger, it is used symbolically, for thematic purposes, to underscore moods. Early fantasy worlds appeared as fantasy lands, part of the same planet but separated by geographical barriers. For example, Oz, though a fantasy world in every way, is described as part of this world.
Although medieval peasants who if traveled far from their villages could not conclusively say that it was impossible that, for example, an ogre could live a day's travel away, distant continents were necessary from the Renaissance onwards for such fantastic speculation to be plausible, until further exploration rendered all such terrestrial fantasy lands implausible. Within the span of mere decades, Oz, situated in a desert in the United States when first written about in , was relocated to a spot in the Pacific Ocean.
A more recent example of a fantasy land with definite connections to the actual world is Austin Tappan Wright's Islandia. Islandia's remoteness and aura of mystery, as well as its preservation of an arcadian society, are explained by means of a law which allows only limited contact with foreigners. Dream frames were once common for encasing the fantasy world with an explanation of its marvels; such a dream frame was added to the story of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for the movie version.
Lovecraft made active use of the dream frame, creating elaborate geographies accessible to humans only when they were asleep and dreaming; these dream-settings have been criticized, are far less frequent today. This change is part of a general trend toward more self-consistent and substantive fantasy worlds; this has altered the nature of the plots.
The most common fantasy world is one based on medieval Europe , has been since William Morris used it in his early fantasy works, such as The Well at the World's End. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings ; such a world is called "pseudo-medieval"—particularly when the writer has snatched up random elements from the era, which covered a thousand years and a continent, thrown them together without consideration for their compatibility, or introduced ideas not so much based on the medieval era as on romanticized views of it.
When these worlds are copied not so much from history as from other fantasy works, there is a heavy tendency to uniformity and lack of realism. The full width and breadth of the medieval era is drawn upon. Governments, for instance, tend to be uncompromisingly feudal-based, or evil empires or oligarchies corrupt, while there was far more variety of rule in the actual Middle Ages.
Fantasy worlds tend to be medieval in economy, disproportionately pastoral. Careful world-building plus meticulous attention to detail is cited as the reason why certain fantasy works are convincing and contain a magical sense of place. Heavy and faithful use of real-world setting for inspiration, as in Barry Hughart's Bridge of Birds derived from China , or Lloyd Alexander's use of real world cultures such as Welsh for The Chronicles of Prydain or Indian for The Iron Ring , make the line between fantasy worlds and alternate histories fuzzy; the use of cultural elements, still more history and geography, from actual settings pushes a work toward alternative history.
Conversely, the creation by an author of an imaginary country—such as Ruritania or Graustark—does not automatically transform that imaginary country into a fantasy world if the location would be impossible in reality owing to a lack of land to contain it. According to Lin Carter in Imaginary Worlds: the Art of Fantasy , fantasy worlds, by their nature, contain some element of magic; this element may be the magical abilities of the people inhabiting the world.
These are drawn from mythology and folklore t. It is a subgenre of tokusatsu entertainment; this word originated from the Chinese Classic of Seas. Kaiju referred to monsters and creatures from ancient Japanese legends; the word "Kaiju" first appears in Classic of Seas. After Sakoku , opening Japan to foreign relations, Japanese came to use the term kaiju to express concepts from paleontology and legendary creatures from around the world.
For example, in , during the Meiji period , it was suggested that the extinct Ceratosaurus was alive in Alaska , referred to as kaiju. However, there are no traditional depictions of kaiju or kaiju-like creatures in Japanese folklore but rather the origins of kaiju are found in film; the title of the first film with the name of the Kaiju is an atomic Kaiju appears, the title of The Beast from 20, Fathoms in Japan.
Gojira is regarded as the first kaiju film and was released in Tomoyuki Tanaka , a producer for Toho Studios in Tokyo , needed a film to release after his previous project was halted and upon seeing how well American Hollywood giant monster movie genre films King Kong and The Beast from 20, Fathoms had done in the box offices of Japan, as well as being a fan of the films, Tomoyuki Tanaka set out to make a new movie based on those American giant monster movies and created Godzilla. It is the tenth volume in his extensive Dray Prescot series of sword and planet novels, set on the fictional world of Kregen, a planet of the Antares star system in the constellation of Scorpio.
It is the eleventh volume in his extensive Dray Prescot series of sword and planet novels, set on the fictional world of Kregen, a planet of the Antares star system in the constellation of Scorpio. It is the twelfth volume in his extensive Dray Prescot series of sword and planet novels, set on the fictional world of Kregen, a planet of the Antares star system in the constellation of Scorpio. Renegade of Kregen is a science fiction novel by British writer Kenneth Bulmer, written under the pseudonym of Alan Burt Akers; it is the thirteenth volume in his Dray Prescot series of sword and planet novels, set on the fictional world of Kregen, a planet of the Antares star system in the constellation of Scorpio.
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