The seeds of sections Jonquilla and Bulbocodium are wedge-shaped and matte black, while those of other sections are ovate and glossy black. A gust of wind or contact with a passing animal is sufficient to disperse the mature seeds. The basic chromosome number is 7, with the exception of N. Polyploid species include N. As with all Amarylidaceae genera, Narcissus contains unique isoquinoline alkaloids. The first alkaloid to be identified was lycorine , from N. These are considered a protective adaptation, and are utilised in the classification of species. Nearly alkaloids have been identified in the genus, about a third of all known Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, although not all species have been tested.
Of the nine alkaloid ring types identified in the family, Narcissus species most commonly demonstrate the presence of alkaloids from within the Lycorine lycorine, galanthine, pluviine and Homolycorine homolycorine, lycorenine groups. Hemanthamine, Tazettine, Narciclasine, Montanine and Galantamine alkaloids are also represented.
The alkaloid profile of any plant varies with time, location, and developmental stage. Fragrances are predominantly monoterpene isoprenoids , with a small amount of benzenoids , although N. Another exception is N. Most benzenoids are non-methoxylated, while a few species contain methoxylated forms ethers , e. Other ingredient include indole , isopentenoids and very small amounts of sesquiterpenes. Fragrance patterns can be correlated with pollinators , and fall into three main groups see Pollination.
Genus valde intricatum et numerosissimis dubiis oppressum A genus that is very complex and burdened with numerous uncertainties. The genus Narcissus was well known to the ancients. In Greek literature Theophrastus  and Dioscorides. Pliny the Elder later introduced the Latin form narcissus. Mediaeval and Renaissance writers include Albert Magnus and William Turner , but it remained to Linnaeus to formally describe and name Narcissus as a genus in his Species Plantarum at which time there were six known species.
De Jussieu grouped Narcissus into a "family",   which he called Narcissi. For a while Narcissus was considered part of Liliaceae as in the illustration seen here of Narcissus candidissimus ,    but then the Amaryllidaceae were split off from it.
Various authors have adopted either narrow e. Haworth ,   Salisbury  or wide e. Herbert ,  Spach  interpretations of the genus. The eventual position of Narcissus within the Amaryllidaceae family only became settled in this century with the advent of phylogenetic analysis and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system. The infrageneric phylogeny of Narcissus still remains relatively unsettled,  the taxonomy having proved complex and difficult to resolve,    due to the diversity of the wild species, the ease with which natural hybridization occurs, and extensive cultivation and breeding accompanied by escape and naturalisation.
De Candolle, in the first systematic taxonomy of Narcissus , arranged the species into named groups, and those names have largely endured for the various subdivisions since and bear his name as their authority. A common classification system has been that of Fernandes    based on cytology , as modified by Blanchard   and Mathew Other authors e.
Webb   prioritised morphology over genetics, abandoning subgenera, although Blanchard's system has been one of the most influential. While infrageneric groupings within Narcissus have been relatively constant, their status genera, subgenera, sections, subsections, series, species has not. Three of these are monotypic contain only one species , while two others contain only two species.
Most species are placed in section Pseudonarcissus. The most hierarchical system is that of Mathew, illustrated here -. The phylogenetic analysis of Graham and Barrett supported the infrageneric division of Narcissus into two clades corresponding to Fernandes' subgenera, but did not support monophyly of all sections. A large molecular analysis by Zonneveld sought to reduce some of the paraphyly identified by Graham and Barrett.
This led to a revision of the sectional structure. If two species excluded in the former study are removed from the analysis, the studies are in agreement, the species in question instead forming a clade with subgenus Narcissus. Some so-called nothosections have been proposed, to accommodate natural 'ancient' hybrids nothospecies. Estimates of the number of species in Narcissus have varied widely, from anywhere between 16 and almost ,   even in the modern era. Linnaeus originally included six species in , by there were fourteen  by sixteen,  and by Adrian Haworth had described species.
Much of the variation lies in the definition of species. Thus, a very wide view of each species, such as Webb's  results in few species, while a very narrow view such as that of Fernandes  results in a larger number. The term "ancient hybrid" refers to hybrids found growing over a large area, and therefore now considered as separate species, while "recent hybrid" refers to solitary plants found amongst their parents, with a more restricted range.
Fernandes originally accepted 22 species,  Webb Later the genus divided into the two subgenera Hermione and Narcissus between The divisions between the sections of Hermione then took place during the Miocene period Subgenus Hermione in turn arose in the southwestern mediterranean and north west Africa.
There is no evidence for the flower being named for the youth. Narcissus poeticus which grows in Greece, has a fragrance that has been described as intoxicating. The plural form of the common name "narcissus" has caused some confusion. Dictionaries list "narcissi", "narcissuses" and "narcissus". The common name narcissus should not be capitalised. The name "daffodil" is derived from "affodell", a variant of asphodel. The narcissus was frequently referred to as the asphodel  see Antiquity.
Although the family Amaryllidaceae are predominantly tropical or subtropical as a whole, Narcissus occurs primarily in Mediterranean region , with a centre of diversity in the Iberian Peninsula Spain and Portugal. While the exact northern limit of the natural range is unknown, the occurrences of wild N. Since this is one of the oldest species found in cultivation, it is likely to have been introduced into Kashmir. The only occurrence in Luxembourg is located near Lellingen, in the municipality of Kiischpelt. In Germany it is found mainly in the nature reserve at Perlenbach-Fuhrtsbachtal and the Eifel National Park , where in the spring at Monschau the meadows are teeming with yellow blooms.
However unlike the above examples most species have very restricted endemic ranges   which may overlap resulting in natural hybrids. The biogeography demonstrates a phylogenetic association, for instance subgenus Hermione having a lowland distribution, but subgenus Narcissus section Apodanthi being montane and restricted to Morocco, Spain and Portugal. The remaining sections within subgenus Narcissus include both lowland and mountain habitats.
Their native habitats are very varied, with different elevations, bioclimatic areas and substrates,  being found predominantly in open spaces ranging from low marshes to rocky hillsides and montane pastures , and including grassland , scrub , woods , river banks and rocky crevices. Narcissus scaberulus will grow on granite soils where it is moist in the growing season but dry in the summer, while Narcissus dubius thrives best in regions with hot and dry summers.
The Pseudonarcissus group in their natural habitat prefer humid situations such as stream margins, springs, wet pastures, clearings of forests or shrublands with humid soils, and moist hillsides. These habitats tend to be discontinuous in the Mediterranean mountains, producing discrete isolated populations.
Narcissus are long-lived perennial geophytes with winter-growing and summer-dormant bulbs  that are mainly synanthous leaves and flowers appearing at the same time. Flower longevity varies by species and conditions, ranging from 5—20 days. However the dormant period is also one of considerable activity within the bulb primordia. It is also a period during which the plant bulb may be susceptible to predators see Pests and diseases below.
Like many bulb plants from temperate regions, a period of exposure to cold is necessary before spring growth can begin. This protects the plant from growth during winter when intense cold may damage it. Warmer spring temperatures then initiate growth from the bulb. Early spring growth confers a number of advantages, including relative lack of competition for pollinators, and lack of deciduous shading. Plants may spread clonally through the production of daughter bulbs and division producing clumps.
The flowers are insect pollinated , the major pollinators being bees , butterflies , flies , and hawkmoths , while the highly scented night flowering N. Pollination mechanism fall into three groups corresponding to floral morphology see Description - Flowers.
Allogamy outcrossing on the whole is enforced through a late-acting ovarian self-incompatibility system, but some species such as N. Diseases of Narcissus are of concern because of the economic consequences of losses in commercial cultivation. Pests include viruses, bacteria, and fungi as well as arthropods and gastropods. For control of pests, see Commercial uses. Aphids such as Macrosiphum euphorbiae can transmit viral diseases which affect the colour and shape of the leaves, as can nematodes.
The flowers which may be smaller than usual may also be streaked or blotched. NWSV produces greenish-purple streaking on the leaves and stem turning white to yellow, and premature senescence reducing bulb size and yield. The growth inhibition caused by viral infection can cause substantial economic damage. Bacterial disease is uncommon in Narcissus but includes Pseudomonas bacterial streak and Pectobacterium carotovorum sp. More problematic for non-commercial plants is the fungus , Fusarium oxysporum f. This is the most serious disease of Narcissus. Since the fungus can remain in the soil for many years it is necessary to remove infected plants immediately, and to avoid planting further narcissi at that spot for a further five years.
Not all species and cultivars are equally susceptible. Relatively resistant forms include N. Another fungus which attacks the bulbs, causing narcissus smoulder, is Botrytis narcissicola Sclerotinia narcissicola and other species of Botrytis , including Botrytis cinerea ,   particularly if improperly stored. Copper sulfate is used to combat the disease, and infected bulbs are burned. Blue mould rot of bulbs may be caused by infection with species of Penicillium , if they have become damaged either through mechanical injury or infestation by mites see below.
Rhizopus stolonifer , Rhizopus nigricans cause bulb soft rot   and Sclerotinia bulborum , black slime disease. Fungi affecting the roots include Nectria radicicola Cylindrocarpon destructans , a cause of root rot  and Rosellinia necatrix causing white root rot,  while others affect root and bulb, such as Aspergillus niger black mold , and species of Trichoderma , including T.
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Other fungi affect the remainder of the plant. Another Botrytis fungus, Botrytis polyblastis Sclerotinia polyblastis causes brown spots on the flower buds and stems narcissus fire , especially in damp weather and is a threat to the cut flower industry. Arthropods that are Narcissus pests include insects such as three species of fly that have larvae that attack the plants, narcissus bulb fly Merodon equestris , and two species of hoverflies , the lesser bulb flies Eumerus tuberculatus  and Eumerus strigatus.
The flies lay their eggs at the end of June in the ground around the narcissi, a single female fly being able to lay up to fifty eggs. The hatching larvae then burrow through the soil towards the bulbs and consume their interiors. They then overwinter in the empty bulb shell, emerging in April to pupate in the soil, from which the adult fly emerges in May.
Other arthropods include Mites such as Steneotarsonemus laticeps Bulb scale mite ,  Rhizoglyphus and Histiostoma infest mainly stored bulbs and multiply particularly at high ambient temperature, but do not attack planted bulbs. Planted bulbs are susceptible to nematodes , the most serious of which is Ditylenchus dipsaci Narcissus eelworm , the main cause of basal plate disease  in which the leaves turn yellow and become misshapen.
Infested bulbs have to be destroyed; where infestation is heavy avoiding planting further narcissi for another five years. Gastropods such as snails and slugs also cause damage to growth. Many of the smallest species have become extinct, requiring vigilance in the conservation of the wild species. In three species were considered endangered, five as vulnerable and six as rare. These areas often host daffodil festivals in the spring.
Narcissi, Hortus Eystettensis Narcissi, John Parkinson , Paradisus Terrestris Great Double Yellow Spanish Daffodil. Of all the flowering plants, the bulbous have been the most popular for cultivation. Narcissi have been cultivated from at least as early as the sixteenth century in the Netherlands , when large numbers of bulbs where imported from the field, particularly Narcissus hispanicus , which soon became nearly extinct in its native habitat of France and Spain, though still found in the southern part of that country.
Cultivation is also documented in Britain at this time,    although contemporary accounts show it was well known as a favourite garden and wild flower long before that and was used in making garlands. In his Hortus Medicus , the first catalogue of a German garden's plants,  Joachim Camerarius the Younger states that nine different types of daffodils were represented in his garden in Nuremberg. That garden is described in Besler's Hortus Eystettensis by which time there were 43 different types present.
While Shakespeare 's daffodil is the wild or true English daffodil N. In the early seventeenth century, Parkinson helped to ensure the popularity of the daffodil as a cultivated plant  by describing a hundred different varieties in his Paradisus Terrestris ,  and introducing the great double yellow Spanish daffodil Pseudonarcissus aureus Hispanicus flore pleno or Parkinson's Daffodil, see illustration to England. I thinke none ever had this kind before myselfe nor did I myself ever see it before the year for it is of mine own raising and flowering first in my own garden.
Although not achieving the sensationalism of tulips , daffodils and narcissi have been much celebrated in art and literature see The Arts. The largest demand for narcissi bulbs were large trumpet daffodils, N. By the early baroque period both tulips and narcissi were an important component of the spring garden. By a Dutch nursery catalogue listed 50 different varieties. A catalog of a Dutch nursery from already counted 50 varieties. In Hill gave an account of the history and cultivation of the daffodil in his edited version of the works of Thomas Hale , writing "The garden does not afford, in its Kind, a prettier plant than this; nor do we know one that has been so early, or so honorably mention'd by all Kinds of Writers" see illustration.
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Maddock does not include narcissi in his list of the eight most important cultivated flowering plants in England,  whereas in the Netherlands van Kampen stated that N. Narcissi became an important horticultural crop in Western Europe in the latter part of the nineteenth century, beginning in England between and and the end of the century in the Netherlands. Tazetta "Paperwhite" were being exported annually from the Netherlands to the United States.
With the production of triploids such as "Golden Spur", in the late nineteenth century, and in the beginning of the twentieth century, tetraploids like "King Alfred" , the industry was well established, with trumpet daffodils dominating the market. Other countries followed and the American Daffodil Society which was founded in publishes The Daffodil Journal quarterly, a leading trade publication.
Narcissi are now popular as ornamental plants for gardens, parks and as cut flowers , providing colour from the end of winter to the beginning of summer in temperate regions. They are one of the most popular spring flowers  and one of the major ornamental spring flowering bulb crops, being produced both for their bulbs and cut flowers, though cultivation of private and public spaces is greater than the area of commercial production.
They are one of the most economically important ornamental plants. While some wild narcissi are specific in terms of their ecological requirements, most garden varieties are relatively tolerant of soil conditions,  however very wet soils and clay soils may benefit from the addition of sand to improve drainage. Bulbs offered for sale are referred to as either 'round' or 'double nose'.
Round bulbs are circular in cross section and produce a single flower stem, while double nose bulbs have more than one bulb stem attached at the base and produce two or more flower stems, but bulbs with more than two stems are unusual. For daffodils to flower at the end of the winter or early spring, bulbs are planted in autumn September—November. This plant does well in ordinary soil but flourishes best in rich soil. Daffodils like the sun but also accept partial shade exposure. Narcissi are well suited for planting under small thickets of trees, where they can be grouped as 6—12 bulbs.
Unlike Tulips , narcissi bulbs are not attractive to rodents and are sometimes planted near tree roots in orchards to protect them. The commonest form of commercial propagation is by twin-scaling , in which the bulbs are cut into many small pieces but with two scales still connected by a small fragment of the basal plate.
The fragments are disinfected and placed on nutrient media. Some 25—35 new plants can be produced from a single bulb after four years. Micropropagation methods are not used for commercial production but is used for establishing commercial stock. Florists require blooms that only open when they reach the retail outlet. For garden plants the objectives are to continually expand the colour palette and to produce hardy forms, and there is a particular demand for miniature varieties. The cultivars so produced tend to be larger and more robust than the wild types. To produce large cupped varieties, N.
Multiheaded varieties, often called "Poetaz" are mainly hybrids of N. For horticultural purposes, all Narcissus cultivars are split into 13 divisions as first described by Kington ,  for the Royal Horticultural Society RHS ,  based partly upon flower form shape and length of corona , number of flowers per stem, flowering period and partly upon genetic background.
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Division 13, which includes wild daffodils, is the exception to this scheme. Most commercially available narcissi come from Divisions 1 Trumpet , 2 Large cupped and 8 Tazetta. Growers register new daffodil cultivars by name and color with the Royal Horticultural Society, which is the international registration authority for the genus.
Registered daffodils are given a division number and colour code  such as 5 W-W "Thalia". Daffodil breeding has introduced a wide range of colours, in both the outer perianth tepal segment and the inner corona. In the registry, daffodils are coded by the colours of each of these two parts. Thus "Geranium", Tazetta Division 8 as illustrated here with a white outer perianth and orange corona is classified as 8 W-O. All Narcissus species contain the alkaloid poison lycorine , mostly in the bulb but also in the leaves. They are responsible for the poisonous properties of a number of the species.
Over different chemical structures of these compounds are known, of which 79 or more are known from Narcissus alone. The toxic effects of ingesting Narcissus products for both humans and animals such as cattle, goats, pigs and cats have long been recognised and they have been used in suicide attempts. Ingestion of N. Death may result if large quantities are consumed. The toxicity of Narcissus varies with species, N. The distribution of toxins within the plant also varies, for instance there is a five times higher concentration of alkaloid in the stem of N. The distribution of alkaloids within tissues may also reflect defence against parasites.
Many cases of poisoning or death have occurred when narcissi bulbs have been mistaken for leeks or onions and cooked and eaten. Recovery is usually complete in a few hours without any specific intervention. In more severe cases involving ingestion of large quantities of bulbs, activated carbon , salts and laxatives may be required, and for severe symptoms intravenous atropine and emetics or stomach pumping may be indicated. However, ingestion of large quantities accidentally is unusual because of a strong unpleasant taste. When narcissi were compared with a number of other plants not normally consumed by animals, narcissi were the most repellent, specifically N.
On 1 May , a number of schoolchildren fell ill at Gorseland Primary School in Martlesham Heath , Suffolk, England, after a daffodil bulb was added to soup during a cookery class. One of the most common dermatitis problems for flower pickers, packers, florists and gardeners, "daffodil itch", involves dryness, fissures, scaling, and erythema in the hands, often accompanied by subungual hyperkeratosis thickening of the skin beneath the nails.
It is blamed on exposure to calcium oxalate , chelidonic acid or alkaloids such as lycorine in the sap, either due to a direct irritant effect or an allergic reaction.
If bulb extracts come into contact with wounds, both central nervous system and cardiac symptoms may result. The scent can also cause toxic reactions such as headaches and vomiting from N. Despite the lethal potential of Narcissus alkaloids, they have been used for centuries as traditional medicines for a variety of complaints, including cancer. Plants thought to be N. These bulbs contain pretazettine, an active antitumor compound. Narcissus products have received a variety of other uses.
The Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus listed narcissus root in De Medicina among medical herbs , described as emollient , erodent, and "powerful to disperse whatever has collected in any part of the body". Other uses include the application to wounds, strains, painful joints and various local ailments as an ointment called 'Narcissimum'. Powdered flowers have also been used medically, as an emetic , a decongestant and for the relief of dysentery , in the form of a syrup or infusion.
The French used the flowers as an antispasmodic , the Arabs the oil for baldness and also an aphrodisiac. In the eighteenth century the Irish herbal of John K'Eogh recommended pounding the roots in honey for use on burns, bruises, dislocations and freckles , and for drawing out thorns and splinters. A homeopathic medicine made from bulbs was prescribed for bronchitis and whooping cough. There is also a long history of the use of Narcissus as a stimulant and to induce trance like states and hallucinations. Sophocles referred to the narcissus as the "Chaplet of the infernal Gods",  a statement frequently wrongly attributed to Socrates see Antiquity.
Extracts of Narcissus have demonstrated a number of potentially useful biological properties including antiviral , prophage induction , antibacterial , antifungal , antimalarial , insecticidal , cytotoxic , antitumor , antimitotic , antiplatelet , hypotensive , emetic , acetylcholine esterase inhibitory , antifertility , antinociceptive , chronotropic , pheromone , plant growth inhibitor , and allelopathic. The most-studied alkaloids in this group are galantamine galanthamine ,  lycorine , narciclasine, and pretazettine. It is likely that the traditional use of narcissi for the treatment of cancer was due to the presence of isocarbostyril constituents such as narciclasine , pancratistatin and their congeners.
Acetylcholine esterase inhibition has attracted the most interest as a possible therapeutic intervention, with activity varying by a thousandfold between species, and the greatest activity seen in those that contain galantamine or epinorgalanthamine. The rodent repellant properties of Narcissus alkaloids have been utilised in horticulture to protect more vulnerable bulbs. Of all the alkaloids, only galantamine has made it to therapeutic use in man, as the drug galantamine for Alzheimer's disease.
Galantamine is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor which crosses the blood brain barrier and is active within the central nervous system. Throughout history the scent of narcissi has been an important ingredient of perfumes , a quality that comes from essential oils rather than alkaloids. The Netherlands , which is the most important source of flower bulbs worldwide is also a major centre of narcissus production. Of 16, hectares ha under cultivation for flower bulbs, narcissi account for about 1, hectares.
In the s narcissus bulb production was at million, sixth in size after tulips , gladioli , irises , crocuses and lilies and in it was ranked third. The largest production cultivars are shown in Table II; . While some of the production is for forcing, most is for dry bulb production. Bulb production and forcing occurs in the East, while production in the south west is mainly for outdoor flower production. Production of both bulbs and cut flowers takes place in open fields in beds or ridges, often in the same field, allowing adaptation to changing market conditions.
Narcissi grow best in mild maritime climates. Compared to the United Kingdom, the harsher winters in the Netherlands require covering the fields with straw for protection. Areas with higher rainfall and temperatures are more susceptible to diseases that attack the crops.
Optimal soil pH is 6. Prior to planting disinfection by hot water takes place, such as immersion at Bulbs are harvested for market in the summer, sorted, stored for 2—3 weeks, and then further disinfected by a hot This eliminates infestations by narcissus fly and nematodes. The bulbs are then dried at a high temperature, and then stored at Traditionally, sales took place in the daffodil fields prior to harvesting the bulbs, but today sales are handled by Marketing Boards although still before harvesting. In the Netherlands there are special exhibition gardens for major buyers to view flowers and order bulbs, some larger ones may have more than a thousand narcissus varieties on display.
While individuals can visit these gardens they cannot buy bulbs at retail , which are only available at wholesale , usually at a minimum of several hundredweight. The most famous display is at Keukenhof , although only about narcissus varieties are on display there. There is also a market for forced blooms, both as cut flowers and potted flowers through the winter from Christmas to Easter, the long season requiring special preparation by growers.
The narcissus is also a national flower symbolising the new year or Newroz in the Iranian culture. In the West the narcissus is perceived as a symbol of vanity, in the East as a symbol of wealth and good fortune see Eastern cultures , while in Persian literature , the narcissus is a symbol of beautiful eyes. In western countries the daffodil is also associated with spring festivals such as Lent and its successor Easter.
In Germany the wild narcissus, N.
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Although prized as an ornamental flower, some people consider narcissi unlucky, because they hang their heads implying misfortune. The decorative use of narcissi dates as far back as ancient Egyptian tombs, and frescoes at Pompeii. The narcissus appears in two Graeco-Roman myths , that of the youth Narcissus who was turned into the flower of that name, and of the Goddess Persephone snatched into the Underworld by the god Hades while picking the flowers. The narcissus is considered sacred to both Hades and Persephone,  and to grow along the banks of the river Styx in the underworld.
The Greek poet Stasinos mentioned them in the Cypria amongst the flowers of Cyprus. The flower, she recounts to her mother was the last flower she reached for before being seized. Other Greek authors making reference to the narcissus include Sophocles and Plutarch. Sophocles, in Oedipus at Colonus utilises narcissus in a symbolic manner, implying fertility,  allying it with the cults of Demeter and her daughter Kore Persephone ,  and by extension, a symbol of death. Just as Persephone reaching for the flower heralded her doom, the youth Narcissus gazing at his own reflection portended his own death.
A passage by Moschus , describes fragrant narcissi. He believed that the myth of Persephone long antedated that of Narcissus, and hence discounts the idea the flower was named after the youth. Virgil , the first known Roman writer to refer to the narcissus, does so in several places, for instance twice in the Georgics. The poet Ovid also dealt with the mythology of the narcissus. In his Metamorphoses , he recounts the story of the youth Narcissus who, after his death, is turned into the flower,   and it is also mentioned in Book 5 of his poem Fasti. The waves beside them danced, but they Outdid the sparkling waves in glee: — A poet could not but be gay In such a laughing company: I gaz'd — and gaz'd — but little thought What wealth the shew to me had brought: For oft when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude, And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the Daffodils.
William Wordsworth version . Although there is no clear evidence that the flower's name derives directly from the Greek myth, this link between the flower and the myth became firmly part of western culture. The narcissus or daffodil is the most loved of all English plants,  and appears frequently in English literature. Many English writers have referred to the cultural and symbolic importance of Narcissus    . No flower has received more poetic description except the rose and the lily , with poems by authors from John Gower , Shakespeare , Milton see Roman culture , above , Wordsworth , Shelley and Keats.
Frequently the poems deal with self-love derived from Ovid's account. Shakespeare, who frequently uses flower imagery ,  refers to daffodils twice in The Winter's Tale  and also The Two Noble Kinsmen. Robert Herrick alludes to their association with death in a number of poems. More recently A. Housman , using one of the daffodil's more symbolic names see Symbols , wrote The Lent Lily in A Shropshire Lad , describing the traditional Easter death of the daffodil.
In Black Narcissus , Rumer Godden describes the disorientation of English nuns in the Indian Himalayas , and gives the plant name an unexpected twist, alluding both to narcissism and the effect of the perfume Narcisse Noir Caron on others. The novel was later adapted into the British film of the same name. The narcissus also appears in German literature such as that of Paul Gerhardt. In the visual arts, narcissi are depicted in three different contexts, mythological Narcissus, Persephone , floral art, or landscapes.
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The Narcissus story has been popular with painters and the youth is frequently depicted with flowers to indicate this association. Narcissi first started to appear in western art in the late middle ages , in panel paintings , particularly those depicting crucifixion. Vincent van Gogh : Undergrowth with Two Figures , Waterhouse : Narcissus , In Chinese culture Narcissus tazetta subsp. Narcissi are one of the most popular garden plants in Islamic culture. Even the prophet Mohammed is said to have praised the narcissus. The word "daffodil" has been used widely in popular culture, from Dutch cars DAF Daffodil to Swedish rock bands The Daffodils to slurs against homosexuals and cross-dressers as in the film J.
Edgar , when Hoover's mother explains why real-life cross-dresser Barton Pinkus  was called "Daffy" short for "Daffodil" and the equivalent of a pansy  , and admonishes, "I'd rather have a dead son than a daffodil for a son". In some areas where narcissi are prevalent, their blooming in spring is celebrated in festivals. For instance, the slopes around Montreux , Switzerland and its associated riviera come alive with blooms each May May Snow at the annual Narcissi Festival.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the plant genus. For the mythological character, see Narcissus mythology. For other uses, see Daffodil disambiguation. Narcissus bulb with shoot and roots. Narcissus shoots emerging, with sheathed leaves. Narcissus floral morphology. Solitary Narcissus flower, prior to opening, emerging from spathe. Narcissus flower , showing outer white tepals with a central yellow corona paraperigonium.
Tazetta cultivar, showing stamens surrounding central stigma. Gynoecium and fruit. Longitudinal section of ovary with ovules. Narcissus capsule dispersing seed. Main article: Taxonomy of Narcissus. Main article: List of Narcissus species. See also: List of Narcissus species. Narcissus, Peter Lauremberg Daffodil trumpets. Main article: List of Narcissus horticultural divisions.
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My daughter is getting married May 25th next year and is SET on daffodils for her own bouquet. When can I plant in suburban Chicago to have them bloom later in May? I have just received 40 bulbs. You can put them into paper bags and store them in a cool, dark place. Touching is ok. I went to a spring harvest today June 5 of daffodils and tulip bulbs. Can I plant them now, or should I dry them out and plant them in the fall? Hi My husband is no longer fit to manage the huge area of garden we have so I am working really hard to make it as easy to maintain as possible.
In one area we had a magnificent show of daffodils this year. This was an area that had a lot of dense shrubbery but which I dug out with the intention of gravelling. However, as the display was so wonderful I do not now want to gravel this over and wonder if I can cover it in bark mulch? I don't want to smother the daffodils. Am I being idiotic to think that such a covering will smother weeds but not prevent our lovely 'show' next year? It is likely that weeds would peak through gravel as easily maybe easier than mulch but mulch would be easier to work with to remove them.
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We would go with the mulch. And consider that you might have to add more from time to time year to year. I've received a hydrangea from a Walmart garden center and it says it's an indoor plant I always thought you can plant them outside. Many people are misled. I bought and planted a few dozen bulbs around in my backyard almost a month ago.
Can I look forward to seeing ANY growth out of the ground before next year? How long does it normally take to see some green? Thank you! No, you will not likely see any growth from the bulbs until spring They generally need a cold spell in order to bloom. These include crocus, daffodil, iris, and tulip.
These include tuberous begonia, canna, dahlia, daylily, gladiolus, and Asiatic lily. I planted them after purchasing from local store, the were in bloom Now 2 years later and all i have from them is the greens It is now past normal bloomong time for them here Just because you purchased the bulbs in bloom from a local store that does not mean that they bloomed locally. I had to dig up my daffodil bulbs now in order to plant shrubs. I know this is the wrong time to dig them up but is there anything I can do to hopefully save them. Thank you.
You can probably save most of them if you plant them again as soon as possible. Even in a container. It does not have to be a permanent location. They will probably droop for most of this season, even if you water them which you should do, per normal. You are fine. Skip to main content. Google Tag Manager. How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Daffodils. See local frost dates and get more tips on planting fall bulbs. Select high-quality daffodil bulbs that have not been dried out.
It may help to sprinkle a little bulb fertilizer in the hole during planting. Learn more about preparing soil for planting. Resist the temptation to uncover spring-flowering plants such as daffodils and tulips. Get more tips for growing bulbs. Do NOT cut down earlier. If you must combine them, soak them by themselves for as long as possible, then rinse them and add them to the arrangement last. Learn more about keeping cut flowers fresh. Daffodils symbolize regard for someone.
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