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Her intervention helped secure his release from jail in He continued to see patients there until the terminal stages of his illness. He also worked on his last books, Moses and Monotheism , published in German in and in English the following year  and the uncompleted An Outline of Psychoanalysis which was published posthumously. By mid-September , Freud's cancer of the jaw was causing him increasingly severe pain and had been declared to be inoperable.
The last book he read, Balzac 's La Peau de chagrin , prompted reflections on his own increasing frailty and a few days later he turned to his doctor, friend and fellow refugee, Max Schur , reminding him that they had previously discussed the terminal stages of his illness: "Schur, you remember our 'contract' not to leave me in the lurch when the time had come. Now it is nothing but torture and makes no sense. This proposes that Schur was absent from Freud's deathbed when a third and final dose of morphine was administered by Dr Josephine Stross, a colleague of Anna Freud's, leading to Freud's death around midnight on 23 September Three days after his death Freud's body was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium in North London, with Harrods acting as funeral directors, on the instructions of his son, Ernst.
Freud's ashes were later placed in the crematorium's Ernest George Columbarium. They rest on a plinth designed by his son, Ernst,  in a sealed  ancient Greek krater painted with Dionysian scenes that Freud had received as a gift from Princess Bonaparte and which he had kept in his study in Vienna for many years. After his wife, Martha, died in , her ashes were also placed in the urn.
Freud began his study of medicine at the University of Vienna in He entered private practice in neurology for financial reasons, receiving his M. He intervened in the important debates about aphasia with his monograph of , Zur Auffassung der Aphasien , in which he coined the term agnosia and counselled against a too locationist view of the explanation of neurological deficits.
Like his contemporary Eugen Bleuler , he emphasized brain function rather than brain structure. Freud was also an early researcher in the field of cerebral palsy , which was then known as "cerebral paralysis". He published several medical papers on the topic, and showed that the disease existed long before other researchers of the period began to notice and study it.
He also suggested that William John Little , the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during birth being a cause. Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom. Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring repressed thoughts and feelings into consciousness in order to free the patient from suffering repetitive distorted emotions. Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging a patient to talk about dreams and engage in free association, in which patients report their thoughts without reservation and make no attempt to concentrate while doing so.
Transference was first seen as a regrettable phenomenon that interfered with the recovery of repressed memories and disturbed patients' objectivity, but by , Freud had come to see it as an essential part of the therapeutic process. The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Josef Breuer.
Freud credited Breuer with opening the way to the discovery of the psychoanalytical method by his treatment of the case of Anna O. In November , Breuer was called in to treat a highly intelligent year-old woman Bertha Pappenheim for a persistent cough that he diagnosed as hysterical. He found that while nursing her dying father, she had developed a number of transitory symptoms, including visual disorders and paralysis and contractures of limbs, which he also diagnosed as hysterical. Breuer began to see his patient almost every day as the symptoms increased and became more persistent, and observed that she entered states of absence.
He found that when, with his encouragement, she told fantasy stories in her evening states of absence her condition improved, and most of her symptoms had disappeared by April Following the death of her father in that month her condition deteriorated again. Breuer recorded that some of the symptoms eventually remitted spontaneously, and that full recovery was achieved by inducing her to recall events that had precipitated the occurrence of a specific symptom.
In the early s, Freud used a form of treatment based on the one that Breuer had described to him, modified by what he called his "pressure technique" and his newly developed analytic technique of interpretation and reconstruction. According to Freud's later accounts of this period, as a result of his use of this procedure most of his patients in the mids reported early childhood sexual abuse. He believed these stories, which he used as the basis for his seduction theory , but then he came to believe that they were fantasies.
He explained these at first as having the function of "fending off" memories of infantile masturbation, but in later years he wrote that they represented Oedipal fantasies, stemming from innate drives that are sexual and destructive in nature. Another version of events focuses on Freud's proposing that unconscious memories of infantile sexual abuse were at the root of the psychoneuroses in letters to Fliess in October , before he reported that he had actually discovered such abuse among his patients. The patients were subjected to considerable pressure to "reproduce" infantile sexual abuse "scenes" that Freud was convinced had been repressed into the unconscious.
He reported that even after a supposed "reproduction" of sexual scenes the patients assured him emphatically of their disbelief. As well as his pressure technique, Freud's clinical procedures involved analytic inference and the symbolic interpretation of symptoms to trace back to memories of infantile sexual abuse. As a medical researcher, Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant as well as analgesic.
He believed that cocaine was a cure for many mental and physical problems, and in his paper "On Coca" he extolled its virtues. Between and he wrote several articles recommending medical applications, including its use as an antidepressant. He narrowly missed out on obtaining scientific priority for discovering its anesthetic properties of which he was aware but had mentioned only in passing. Freud also recommended cocaine as a cure for morphine addiction.
His claim that Fleischl-Marxow was cured of his addiction was premature, though he never acknowledged he had been at fault. Fleischl-Marxow developed an acute case of "cocaine psychosis" , and soon returned to using morphine, dying a few years later after more suffering from intolerable pain. The application as an anesthetic turned out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine, and as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world, Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished.
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After the "Cocaine Episode"  Freud ceased to publicly recommend use of the drug, but continued to take it himself occasionally for depression, migraine and nasal inflammation during the early s, before discontinuing in The concept of the unconscious was central to Freud's account of the mind. Freud believed that while poets and thinkers had long known of the existence of the unconscious, he had ensured that it received scientific recognition in the field of psychology.
Freud states explicitly that his concept of the unconscious as he first formulated it was based on the theory of repression. He postulated a cycle in which ideas are repressed, but remain in the mind, removed from consciousness yet operative, then reappear in consciousness under certain circumstances. The postulate was based upon the investigation of cases of hysteria , which revealed instances of behaviour in patients that could not be explained without reference to ideas or thoughts of which they had no awareness and which analysis revealed were linked to the real or imagined repressed sexual scenarios of childhood.
Here Freud is drawing on observations from his earliest clinical work in the treatment of hysteria. Whereas both these former perspectives focus on the unconscious as it is about to enter consciousness, the topographical perspective represents a shift in which the systemic properties of the unconscious, its characteristic processes and modes of operation such as condensation and displacement, are placed in the foreground.
In his later work, notably in The Ego and the Id , a second topography is introduced comprising id, ego and superego , which is superimposed on the first without replacing it. Freud believed that the function of dreams is to preserve sleep by representing as fulfilled wishes that would otherwise awaken the dreamer. In Freud's theory dreams are instigated by the daily occurrences and thoughts of everyday life. Because of the disturbing nature of the latter and other repressed thoughts and desires which may have become linked to them, the dream-work operates a censorship function, disguising by distortion, displacement and condensation the repressed thoughts so as to preserve sleep.
In the clinical setting Freud encouraged free association to the dream's manifest content, as recounted in the dream narrative, so as to facilitate interpretative work on its latent content — the repressed thoughts and fantasies — and also on the underlying mechanisms and structures operative in the dream-work. Freud's theory of psychosexual development proposes that, following on from the initial polymorphous perversity of infantile sexuality, the sexual "drives" pass through the distinct developmental phases of the oral , the anal , and the phallic.
Though these phases then give way to a latency stage of reduced sexual interest and activity from the age of five to puberty, approximately , they leave, to a greater or lesser extent, a "perverse" and bisexual residue which persists during the formation of adult genital sexuality. Freud argued that neurosis or perversion could be explained in terms of fixation or regression to these phases whereas adult character and cultural creativity could achieve a sublimation of their perverse residue. After Freud's later development of the theory of the Oedipus complex this normative developmental trajectory becomes formulated in terms of the child's renunciation of incestuous desires under the phantasised threat of or phantasised fact of, in the case of the girl castration.
Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material arguing that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict. Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle , and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id , in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema i. The id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, childlike portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and is the source of basic impulses and drives; it seeks immediate pleasure and gratification.
Freud acknowledged that his use of the term Id das Es , "the It" derives from the writings of Georg Groddeck.
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The rational ego attempts to exact a balance between the impractical hedonism of the id and the equally impractical moralism of the super-ego; it is the part of the psyche that is usually reflected most directly in a person's actions. When overburdened or threatened by its tasks, it may employ defence mechanisms including denial , repression, undoing, rationalization, and displacement.
This concept is usually represented by the "Iceberg Model". Freud compared the relationship between the ego and the id to that between a charioteer and his horses: the horses provide the energy and drive, while the charioteer provides direction. Freud believed that the human psyche is subject to two conflicting drives: the life drive or libido and the death drive. The life drive was also termed "Eros" and the death drive "Thanatos", although Freud did not use the latter term; "Thanatos" was introduced in this context by Paul Federn.
In Beyond the Pleasure Principle , Freud inferred the existence of a death drive. Its premise was a regulatory principle that has been described as "the principle of psychic inertia", "the Nirvana principle", and "the conservatism of instinct". Its background was Freud's earlier Project for a Scientific Psychology , where he had defined the principle governing the mental apparatus as its tendency to divest itself of quantity or to reduce tension to zero.
Freud had been obliged to abandon that definition, since it proved adequate only to the most rudimentary kinds of mental functioning, and replaced the idea that the apparatus tends toward a level of zero tension with the idea that it tends toward a minimum level of tension. Freud in effect readopted the original definition in Beyond the Pleasure Principle , this time applying it to a different principle. He asserted that on certain occasions the mind acts as though it could eliminate tension entirely, or in effect to reduce itself to a state of extinction; his key evidence for this was the existence of the compulsion to repeat.
Examples of such repetition included the dream life of traumatic neurotics and children's play. In the phenomenon of repetition, Freud saw a psychic trend to work over earlier impressions, to master them and derive pleasure from them, a trend was prior to the pleasure principle but not opposed to it. In addition to that trend, there was also a principle at work that was opposed to, and thus "beyond" the pleasure principle. If repetition is a necessary element in the binding of energy or adaptation, when carried to inordinate lengths it becomes a means of abandoning adaptations and reinstating earlier or less evolved psychic positions.
By combining this idea with the hypothesis that all repetition is a form of discharge, Freud reached the conclusion that the compulsion to repeat is an effort to restore a state that is both historically primitive and marked by the total draining of energy: death. In his essay "Mourning and Melancholia", Freud drew a distinction between mourning, painful but an inevitable part of life, and "melancholia", his term for pathological refusal of a mourner to " decathect " from the lost one.
Freud claimed that, in normal mourning, the ego was responsible for narcissistically detaching the libido from the lost one as a means of self-preservation, but that in "melancholia", prior ambivalence towards the lost one prevents this from occurring. Suicide, Freud hypothesized, could result in extreme cases, when unconscious feelings of conflict became directed against the mourner's own ego.
Initiating what became the first debate within psychoanalysis on femininity, Karen Horney of the Berlin Institute set out to challenge Freud's account of the development of feminine sexuality. Rejecting Freud's theories of the feminine castration complex and penis envy , Horney argued for a primary femininity and penis envy as a defensive formation rather than arising from the fact, or "injury", of biological asymmetry as Freud held. Horney had the influential support of Melanie Klein and Ernest Jones who coined the term " phallocentrism " in his critique of Freud's position.
In defending Freud against this critique, feminist scholar Jacqueline Rose has argued that it presupposes a more normative account of female sexual development than that given by Freud. She notes that Freud moved from a description of the little girl stuck with her 'inferiority' or 'injury' in the face of the anatomy of the little boy to an account in his later work which explicitly describes the process of becoming 'feminine' as an 'injury' or 'catastrophe' for the complexity of her earlier psychic and sexual life.
According to Freud, "Elimination of clitoral sexuality is a necessary precondition for the development of femininity, since it is immature and masculine in its nature. In , he stated that clitoral orgasms are purely an adolescent phenomenon and that, upon reaching puberty, the proper response of mature women is a change-over to vaginal orgasms, meaning orgasms without any clitoral stimulation.
This theory has been criticized on the grounds that Freud provided no evidence for this basic assumption, and because it made many women feel inadequate when they could not achieve orgasm via vaginal intercourse alone. Freud regarded the monotheistic God as an illusion based upon the infantile emotional need for a powerful, supernatural pater familias. He maintained that religion — once necessary to restrain man's violent nature in the early stages of civilization — in modern times, can be set aside in favor of reason and science.
Freud argues the belief of a supernatural protector serves as a buffer from man's "fear of nature" just as the belief in an afterlife serves as a buffer from man's fear of death. The core idea of the work is that all of religious belief can be explained through its function to society, not for its relation to the truth.
This is why, according to Freud, religious beliefs are "illusions". In Civilization and Its Discontents , he quotes his friend Romain Rolland , who described religion as an "oceanic sensation", but says he never experienced this feeling. Moreover, he perceived religion, with its suppression of violence, as mediator of the societal and personal, the public and the private, conflicts between Eros and Thanatos , the forces of life and death. In a footnote of his work, Analysis of a Phobia in a Five year old Boy , Freud theorized that the universal fear of castration was provoked in the uncircumcised when they perceived circumcision and that this was "the deepest unconscious root of anti-Semitism ".
Though not the first methodology in the practice of individual verbal psychotherapy,  Freud's psychoanalytic system came to dominate the field from early in the twentieth century, forming the basis for many later variants. While these systems have adopted different theories and techniques, all have followed Freud by attempting to achieve psychic and behavioral change through having patients talk about their difficulties.
Psychoanalysis also remains influential within many contemporary schools of psychotherapy and has led to innovative therapeutic work in schools and with families and groups. The neo-Freudians , a group including Alfred Adler , Otto Rank , Karen Horney , Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm , rejected Freud's theory of instinctual drive, emphasized interpersonal relations and self-assertiveness, and made modifications to therapeutic practice that reflected these theoretical shifts.
Adler originated the approach, although his influence was indirect due to his inability to systematically formulate his ideas. Neo-Freudian analysis places more emphasis on the patient's relationship with the analyst and less on exploration of the unconscious. Carl Jung believed that the collective unconscious , which reflects the cosmic order and the history of the human species, is the most important part of the mind.
It contains archetypes , which are manifested in symbols that appear in dreams, disturbed states of mind, and various products of culture. Jungians are less interested in infantile development and psychological conflict between wishes and the forces that frustrate them than in integration between different parts of the person.
The object of Jungian therapy was to mend such splits. Jung focused in particular on problems of middle and later life. His objective was to allow people to experience the split-off aspects of themselves, such as the anima a man's suppressed female self , the animus a woman's suppressed male self , or the shadow an inferior self-image , and thereby attain wisdom. Jacques Lacan approached psychoanalysis through linguistics and literature. Lacan believed that Freud's essential work had been done prior to and concerned the interpretation of dreams, neurotic symptoms, and slips, which had been based on a revolutionary way of understanding language and its relation to experience and subjectivity, and that ego psychology and object relations theory were based upon misreadings of Freud's work.
For Lacan, the determinative dimension of human experience is neither the self as in ego psychology nor relations with others as in object relations theory , but language. Lacan saw desire as more important than need and considered it necessarily ungratifiable.
Wilhelm Reich developed ideas that Freud had developed at the beginning of his psychoanalytic investigation but then superseded but never finally discarded. These were the concept of the Actualneurosis and a theory of anxiety based upon the idea of dammed-up libido. In Freud's original view, what really happened to a person the "actual" determined the resulting neurotic disposition. Freud applied that idea both to infants and to adults. In the former case, seductions were sought as the causes of later neuroses and in the latter incomplete sexual release.
Unlike Freud, Reich retained the idea that actual experience, especially sexual experience, was of key significance. By the s, Reich had "taken Freud's original ideas about sexual release to the point of specifying the orgasm as the criteria of healthy function. The key idea of gestalt therapy is that Freud overlooked the structure of awareness, "an active process that moves toward the construction of organized meaningful wholes Gestalt therapy usually takes place in groups, and in concentrated "workshops" rather than being spread out over a long period of time; it has been extended into new forms of communal living.
Arthur Janov 's primal therapy , which has been an influential post-Freudian psychotherapy, resembles psychoanalytic therapy in its emphasis on early childhood experience, but has also differences with it. While Janov's theory is akin to Freud's early idea of Actualneurosis, he does not have a dynamic psychology but a nature psychology like that of Reich or Perls, in which need is primary while wish is derivative and dispensable when need is met.
Despite its surface similarity to Freud's ideas, Janov's theory lacks a strictly psychological account of the unconscious and belief in infantile sexuality. While for Freud there was a hierarchy of danger situations, for Janov the key event in the child's life is awareness that the parents do not love it.
Ellen Bass and Laura Davis, co-authors of The Courage to Heal , are described as "champions of survivorship" by Frederick Crews , who considers Freud the key influence upon them, although in his view they are indebted not to classic psychoanalysis but to "the pre-psychoanalytic Freud Research projects designed to test Freud's theories empirically have led to a vast literature on the topic. In , when the psychologist Saul Rosenzweig sent Freud reprints of his attempts to study repression, Freud responded with a dismissive letter stating that "the wealth of reliable observations" on which psychoanalytic assertions were based made them "independent of experimental verification.
Greenberg concluded in that some of Freud's concepts were supported by empirical evidence. Their analysis of research literature supported Freud's concepts of oral and anal personality constellations, his account of the role of Oedipal factors in certain aspects of male personality functioning, his formulations about the relatively greater concern about loss of love in women's as compared to men's personality economy, and his views about the instigating effects of homosexual anxieties on the formation of paranoid delusions. They also found limited and equivocal support for Freud's theories about the development of homosexuality.
They found that several of Freud's other theories, including his portrayal of dreams as primarily containers of secret, unconscious wishes, as well as some of his views about the psychodynamics of women, were either not supported or contradicted by research. Reviewing the issues again in , they concluded that much experimental data relevant to Freud's work exists, and supports some of his major ideas and theories.
Other viewpoints include those of Hans Eysenck , who writes in Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire that Freud set back the study of psychology and psychiatry "by something like fifty years or more",  and Malcolm Macmillan, who concludes in Freud Evaluated that "Freud's method is not capable of yielding objective data about mental processes". Cohen regards Freud's Interpretation of Dreams as a revolutionary work of science, the last such work to be published in book form. William Domhoff has disputed claims of Freudian dream theory being validated. The philosopher Karl Popper , who argued that all proper scientific theories must be potentially falsifiable , claimed that Freud's psychoanalytic theories were presented in unfalsifiable form, meaning that no experiment could ever disprove them.
Scruton nevertheless concluded that psychoanalysis is not genuinely scientific, on the grounds that it involves an unacceptable dependence on metaphor. In a study of psychoanalysis in the United States, Nathan Hale reported on the "decline of psychoanalysis in psychiatry" during the years — Research in the emerging field of neuropsychoanalysis , founded by neuroscientist and psychoanalyst Mark Solms ,  has proved controversial with some psychoanalysts criticising the very concept itself.
Psychoanalysis has been interpreted as both radical and conservative. By the s, it had come to be seen as conservative by the European and American intellectual community. Critics outside the psychoanalytic movement, whether on the political left or right, saw Freud as a conservative. Fromm had argued that several aspects of psychoanalytic theory served the interests of political reaction in his The Fear of Freedom , an assessment confirmed by sympathetic writers on the right.
In Freud: The Mind of the Moralist , Philip Rieff portrayed Freud as a man who urged men to make the best of an inevitably unhappy fate, and admirable for that reason. Brown in Life Against Death Marcuse criticized neo-Freudian revisionism for discarding seemingly pessimistic theories such as the death instinct, arguing that they could be turned in a utopian direction.
Freud's theories also influenced the Frankfurt School and critical theory as a whole. Freud has been compared to Marx by Reich, who saw Freud's importance for psychiatry as parallel to that of Marx for economics,  and by Paul Robinson, who sees Freud as a revolutionary whose contributions to twentieth century thought are comparable in importance to Marx's contributions to nineteenth century thought. Fromm nevertheless credits Freud with permanently changing the way human nature is understood.
They believe this began with Freud's development of the theory of the Oedipus complex, which they see as idealist. Jean-Paul Sartre critiques Freud's theory of the unconscious in Being and Nothingness , claiming that consciousness is essentially self-conscious. Sartre also attempts to adapt some of Freud's ideas to his own account of human life, and thereby develop an "existential psychoanalysis" in which causal categories are replaced by teleological categories.
Adorno considers Edmund Husserl , the founder of phenomenology, to be Freud's philosophical opposite, writing that Husserl's polemic against psychologism could have been directed against psychoanalysis. Several scholars see Freud as parallel to Plato , writing that they hold nearly the same theory of dreams and have similar theories of the tripartite structure of the human soul or personality, even if the hierarchy between the parts of the soul is almost reversed.
Whereas Plato saw a hierarchy inherent in the nature of reality, and relied upon it to validate norms, Freud was a naturalist who could not follow such an approach. Both men's theories drew a parallel between the structure of the human mind and that of society, but while Plato wanted to strengthen the super-ego, which corresponded to the aristocracy, Freud wanted to strengthen the ego, which corresponded to the middle class. Thomas's belief in the existence of an "unconscious consciousness" and his "frequent use of the word and concept 'libido' — sometimes in a more specific sense than Freud, but always in a manner in agreement with the Freudian use.
Auden in his collection Another Time. Literary critic Harold Bloom has been influenced by Freud. The decline in Freud's reputation has been attributed partly to the revival of feminism. Freud is also criticized by Shulamith Firestone and Eva Figes. In The Dialectic of Sex , Firestone argues that Freud was a "poet" who produced metaphors rather than literal truths; in her view, Freud, like feminists, recognized that sexuality was the crucial problem of modern life, but ignored the social context and failed to question society itself.
Firestone interprets Freud's "metaphors" in terms of the facts of power within the family. Figes tries in Patriarchal Attitudes to place Freud within a " history of ideas ". Juliet Mitchell defends Freud against his feminist critics in Psychoanalysis and Feminism , accusing them of misreading him and misunderstanding the implications of psychoanalytic theory for feminism. Mitchell helped introduce English-speaking feminists to Lacan. Gallop compliments Mitchell for her criticism of feminist discussions of Freud, but finds her treatment of Lacanian theory lacking.
Irigaray, who claims that "the cultural unconscious only recognizes the male sex", describes how this affects "accounts of the psychology of women". Psychologist Carol Gilligan writes that "The penchant of developmental theorists to project a masculine image, and one that appears frightening to women, goes back at least to Freud. Gilligan notes that Nancy Chodorow , in contrast to Freud, attributes sexual difference not to anatomy but to the fact that male and female children have different early social environments. Chodorow, writing against the masculine bias of psychoanalysis, "replaces Freud's negative and derivative description of female psychology with a positive and direct account of her own.
Toril Moi has developed a feminist perspective on psychoanalysis proposing that it is a discourse that "attempts to understand the psychic consequences of three universal traumas: the fact that there are others, the fact of sexual difference, and the fact of death". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Freud disambiguation. Sigmund Freud by Max Halberstadt, c. Hampstead , London , United Kingdom. List of psychoanalysts List of psychoanalytical theorists.
Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Main article: Unconscious mind. Main article: The Interpretation of Dreams. Main article: Psychosexual development. Main article: Id, ego and super-ego. Main articles: Libido , Death drive , and Repetition compulsion.
Main article: Freud and religion. Main article: Sigmund Freud bibliography. Psychology portal. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 8 June Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society.
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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology. New York: Random House , pp. For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist , December Archived 31 December at the Wayback Machine For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J. For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. Freud and Psychoanalysis. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. BJPsych International. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, , pp. Sigmund Freud London: Routledge , p.
SUNY Press. For the date of the marriage, see Rice , p. Margolis, M. Psychoanal : 37— Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 17 January Edited and abridged by Lionel Trilling and Stephen Marcus. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books p. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May In this period he published three papers: Freud, Sigmund Freud, Sigmund Freud, Sigmund April For a more in-depth analysis: Gamwell, Lynn; Solms, Mark The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 4 November The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. February Int J Psychoanal.
A close study of Schopenhauer's central work, 'The World as Will and Representation', reveals that a number of Freud's most characteristic doctrines were first articulated by Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer's concept of the will contains the foundations of what in Freud became the concepts of the unconscious and the id. Schopenhauer's writings on madness anticipate Freud's theory of repression and his first theory of the aetiology of neurosis. Schopenhauer's work contains aspects of what become the theory of free association.
And most importantly, Schopenhauer articulates major parts of the Freudian theory of sexuality. These correspondences raise some interesting questions about Freud's denial that he even read Schopenhauer until late in life. New York and London: Routledge Press, , pp. Once Freud reached England, it was immediately placed directly over the analytical couch in his London rooms. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought". Thought : — Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 20 May The Assault on Truth.
Untreed Reads. Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, Drafts and Notes — Reflecting Psychoanalysis.
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Penguin Books Limited. Affiliated Professor seems to me to be the best translation of professor extraordinarius, which position has the rank of full Professor, but without payment by the University. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Cassandra's daughter: a history of psychoanalysis. London: Karnac. New York: Basic Books. In it, he declared that Freud's work heralded "a new era in psychology". Rose, Louis Psychoanalytic Quartery. Archived from the original on 9 March Makari, George Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis Australian ed.
Carlton, Vic. Jap Bos trans. In Japp Boss and Leendert Groenendijk eds. New York. See Gay , page. Jung — A Biography. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books pp. Six other members of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society who attempted to retain links to both the Adlerian and Freudian camps were forced out after Freud insisted that they must choose one side or another.
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Freud at 21st century Essays on a Man of Genius. A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. The Life and Work of Josef Breuer. Remembering Anna O. London: Routledge, Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc.
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