Educational assessment of Students. Oates, K. The American Biology Teacher, 64 3 , Oliva, P. Developing the Curriculum. Pallant, J. SPSS Survival. Parnell, D. Contextual Teaching Works. Paul, R. Pedrotti, L. Philips, J. Developing critical and creative thinking in children. Selangor: Lingua Publications. Piaget, J. Psychology of Intelligence. Totowa New York: Littlefield and Adams. Pintrich, P.
Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Application. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Richmond, G.
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Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33 8 , Rowntree, D. Teaching through self-instruction: How to develop open learning materials Revised edition. Rustaman, N. Teaching Science to develop scientific abilities in Science Education. Proceeding of the 2nd International Seminar of Science Education, Schlechty, P. Inventing better schools an action plan for educational reform. New York: Jossey-Bass. Shayer, M. Towards a Science of Science Teaching.
London: Heineman Educational. Slavin, R. Educational Psychology: Theory into Practice. Sternberg, R. Teaching Critical Thinking: Eight ways to fail before you begin. Phi Delta Kappan, 68 6 , Thiagarajan, S. Instructional Development for training Teachers of Exceptional Children. Source book. Bloomingtoon: Center for Innovation on Teaching the Handicapped. Tuckman, B.
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Conducting Educational Research, 5th ed. Von Glasserfeld, E. Cognition, construction of knowledge and teaching system. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Vygotsky, L. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Wolfensberger, B. Of those indicated by the changed attitude of the children I shall indeed have something to say in my next talk, when speaking directly of the relationship of the school to the child. But the point of view is, upon the whole, unnecessarily narrow. We must conceive of work in wood and metal, of weaving, sewing, and cooking, as methods of life not as distinct studies.
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We must conceive of them in their social significance, as types of the processes by which society keeps itself going, as agencies for bringing home to the child some of the primal necessities of community life, and as ways in which these needs have been met by the growing insight and ingenuity of man; in short, as instrumentalities through which the school itself shall be made a genuine form of active community life, instead of a place set apart in which to learn lessons. A society is a number of people held together because they are working along common lines, in a common spirit, and with reference to common.
The common needs and aims demand a growing interchange of thought and growing unity of sympathetic feeling. The radical reason that the present school cannot organize itself as a natural social unit is because just this element of common and productive activity is absent. Upon the playground, in game and sport, social organization takes place spontaneously and inevitably.
There is something to do, some activity to be carried on, requiring natural divisions of labor, selection of leaders and followers, mutual cooperation and emulation. In the schoolroom the motive and the cement of social organization are alike wanting. Upon the ethical side, the tragic weakness of the present school is that it endeavors to prepare future members of the social order in a medium in which the conditions of the social spirit are eminently wanting.
The difference that appears when occupations are made the articulating centers of school life is not easy to describe in words; it is a difference in motive, of spirit and atmosphere. As one enters a busy kitchen in which a group of children are actively engaged in the preparation of food, the psychological difference, the change from more or less passive and inert recipiency and restraint to one of buoyant outgoing energy, is so obvious as fairly to strike one in the face.
Indeed, to those whose image of the school is. But the change in the social attitude is equally marked. The mere absorption of facts and truths is so exclusively individual an affair that it tends very naturally to pass into selfishness.
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There is no obvious social motive for the acquirement of mere learning, there is no clear social gain in success thereat. Indeed, almost the only measure for success is a competitive one, in the bad sense of that term -- a comparison of results in the recitation or in the examination to see which child has succeeded in getting ahead of others in storing up, in accumulating the maximum of information.
So thoroughly is this the prevalent atmosphere that for one child to help another in his task has become a school crime. Where the school work consists in simply learning lessons, mutual assistance, instead of teeing the most natural form of cooperation and association, becomes a clandestine effort to relieve one's neighbor of his proper duties. Where active work is going on all this is changed.
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Helping others, instead of being a form of charity which impoverishes the recipient, is simply an aid in setting free the powers and furthering the impulse of the one helped. A spirit of free communication, of interchange of ideas, suggestions, results, both successes and failures of previous experiences, becomes the.
So far as emulation enters in, it is in the comparison of individuals, not with regard to the quantity of information personally absorbed, but with reference to the quality of work done -- the genuine community standard of value. In an informal but all the more pervasive way, the school life organizes itself on a social basis.
Within this organization is found the principle of school discipline or order. Of course, order is simply a thing which is relative to an end. If you have the end in view of forty or fifty children learning certain set lessons, to be recited to a teacher, your discipline must be devoted to securing that result. But if the end in view is the development of a spirit of social cooperation and community life, discipline must grow out of and be relative to this.
There is little order of one sort where things are in process of construction; there is a certain disorder in any busy workshop; there is not silence; persons are not engaged in maintaining certain fixed physical postures; their arms are not folded; they are not holding their books thus and so. They are doing a variety of things, and there is the confusion, the bustle, that results from activity. But out of occupation, out of doing things that are to produce results, and out of doing these in a social and cooperative way,. In critical moments we all realize that the only discipline that stands by us, the only training that becomes intuition, is that got through life itself.
That we learn from experience, and from books or the sayings of others only as they are related to experience, are not mere phrases. But the school has been so set apart, so isolated from the ordinary conditions and motives of life' that the place where children are sent for discipline is the one place in the world where it is most difficult to get experience -- the mother of all discipline worth the name.
It is only where a narrow and fixed image of traditional school discipline dominates, that one is in any danger of overlooking that deeper and infinitely wider discipline that comes from having a part to do in constructive work, in contributing to a result which, social in spirit, is none the less obvious and tangible in form -- and hence in a form with reference to which responsibility may be exacted and accurate judgment passed.
The great thing to keep in mind, then, regarding the introduction into the school of various forms of active occupation, is that through them the entire spirit of the school is renewed. It has a chance to affiliate itself with life, to become the. It gets a chance to be a miniature community, an embryonic society. This is the fundamental fact, and from this arise continuous and orderly sources of instruction. Under the industrial regime described, the child, after all, shared in the work, not for the sake of the sharing, but for the sake of the product.
The educational results secured were real, yet incidental and dependent.
But in the school the typical occupations followed are freed from all economic stress. The aim is not the economic value of the products, but the development of social power and insight. It is this liberation from narrow utilities, this openness to the possibilities of the human spirit that makes these practical activities in the school allies of art and centers of science and history. The unity of all the sciences is found in geography. The significance of geography is that it presents the earth as the enduring home of the occupations of man.
The world without its relationship to human activity is less than a world. Human industry and achievement, apart from their roots in the earth, are not even a sentiment, hardly a name.
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The earth is the final source of all man's food. It is the great field, the great mine, the great source of the energies of heat, light, and electricity; the great scene of ocean, stream, mountain, and plain, of which all our agriculture and mining and lumbering, all our manufacturing and distributing agencies, are but the partial elements and factors. It is through occupations determined by this environment that mankind has made its historical and political progress. It is through these occupations that the intellectual and emotional interpretation of nature has been developed.
It is through what we do in and with the world that we read its meaning and measure its value. In educational terms, this means that these occupations in the school shall not be mere practical devices or modes of routine employment, the gaining of better technical skill as cooks, sempstresses, or carpenters, but active centers of, scientific insight into natural materials and processes, points of departure whence children shall be led out into a realization of the historic development of man.
The actual significance of this can be told better through one illustration taken from actual school work than by general discourse. If we look at this from the standpoint of preparation of the boys for sewing on buttons and making patches, we get a narrow and utilitarian conception -- a basis that hardly justifies giving prominence to this sort of work in the school. But if we look at it from another side, we find that this work gives the point of departure from which the child can trace and follow the progress of mankind in history, getting an insight also into the materials used and the mechanical principles involved.
In connection with these occupations, the historic development of man is recapitulated. Then a study is made of these materials from the standpoint of their adaptation to the uses to which they may be put. For instance, a comparison of the cotton fiber with wool fiber is made.
I did not know until the children told me, that the reason for the late development of the cotton industry as compared with the woolen is, that the cotton fiber is so very difficult to free by hand from the seeds. The children in one group worked thirty minutes freeing cotton fibers. They could easily believe that one person could only gin one pound a day by hand, and could understand why their ancestors wore woolen instead of cotton clothing.
Among other things discovered as affecting their relative utilities, was the shortness of the cotton fiber as compared with that of wool, the former being one-tenth of an inch in length, while that of the latter is an inch in length; also that the fibers of cotton are smooth and do not cling together, while the wool has a certain roughness which makes the fibers stick, thus assisting the spinning.
The children worked this out for themselves with the actual material, aided by questions and suggestions from the teacher. They then followed the processes necessary for working the fibers up into cloth. They re-invented the first frame for carding the wool -- a couple of boards with sharp pins in them for scratching it out. They re-devised the simplest process for spinning the wool -- a pierced stone or some other weight through which the wool is passed, and which as it is twirled draws out the fiber; next the top, which was spun on the floor, while the children kept the wool in their hands until it was gradually drawn out and wound upon it.
Then the children are introduced to the invention next in historic order, working it out. I need not speak of the science involved in this -- the study of the fibers, of geographical features, the conditions under which raw materials are grown, the great centers of manufacture and distribution, the physics involved in the machinery of production; nor, again, of the historical side -- the influence which these inventions have had upon humanity.
You can concentrate the history of all mankind into the evolution of the flax, cotton, and wool fibers into clothing. I do not mean that this is the only, or the best, center. But it is true that certain very real and important avenues to the consideration of the history of the race are thus opened -- that the mind is introduced to much more fundamental and controlling influences than usually appear in the political and chronological records that pass for history. Now, what is true of this one instance of fibers used in fabrics and, of course, I have only spoken of one or two elementary phases of that is true in its measure of every material used in every occupation, and of the processes employed.
It does all this, but in addition it is liberalized throughout by translation into its historic values and scientific equivalencies. With the growth of the child's mind in power and knowledge it ceases to be a pleasant occupation merely, and becomes more and more a medium, an instrument, an organ -- and is thereby transformed. This, in turn, has its bearing upon the teaching of science.
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