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A better world through these following steps. The promotion and the improvement of "intra-African" training exchanges, the promotion of science and industry. The support of education systems in order to promote engineers and technical staff education. Also propose to African decision-makers the use of aeronautics and space sciences for the welfare of populations. Finally the last but non the least to implement partnership projects in aeronautical or space sciences thanks to local expertise and those of the African diaspora in favor of Africa.

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Hairdryer Bathroom features shower, bathtub, etc. This was a catastrophic defeat that brought an end to the French colonial adventure in Indochina. The following day, the Geneva Conference opened to negotiate an end to the conflict. Resolutions included an exchange of prisoners; the temporary division of Vietnam into two zones at the Ben Hai River near the 17th Parallel until nationwide elections could be held; the free passage of people across the 17th Parallel for a period of days; and the holding of nationwide elections on 20 July In the course of the Franco—Viet Minh War, more than 35, French fighters had been killed and 48, wounded; there are no exact numbers for Vietnamese casualties, but they were certainly far higher.

After the Geneva Accords were signed and sealed, the South was ruled by a government led by Ngo Dinh Diem, a fiercely anticommunist Catholic. His power base was significantly strengthened by , refugees, many of them Catholics, who had fled the communist North during the day free-passage period. Nationwide elections were never held, as the Americans rightly feared that Ho Chi Minh would win with a massive majority. During the first few years of his rule, Diem consolidated power fairly effectively, defeating the Binh Xuyen crime syndicate and the private armies of the Hoa Hao and Cao Dai religious sects.

As time went on Diem became increasingly tyrannical in dealing with dissent. Running the government became a family affair. In the early s the South was rocked by anti-Diem unrest led by university students and Buddhist clergy, which included several highly publicised self-immolations by monks that shocked the world.

The US decided Diem was a liability and threw its support behind a military coup. A group of young generals led the operation in November Diem was to go into exile, but the generals got over-excited and both Diem and his brother were killed. He was followed by a succession of military rulers who continued his erratic policies. The Geneva Accords allowed the leadership of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to return to Hanoi and assert control of all territory north of the 17th Parallel.

The new government immediately set out to eliminate those elements of the population that threatened its power. In , the party, faced with widespread rural unrest, recognised that things had got out of control and began a Campaign for the Rectification of Errors. The Ho Chi Minh Trail, which had been in existence for several years, was expanded. In April universal military conscription was implemented in the North. As the NLF launched its campaign, the Diem government rapidly lost control of the countryside. To stem the tide, the Strategic Hamlets Program was implemented in , based on British tactics in Malaya.

This programme was abandoned with the death of Diem, but years later the VC admitted that it had caused them major problems. And for the South it was no longer just a battle with the VC. By early the Saigon government was on its last legs. Desertions from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam ARVN , whose command was notorious for corruption and incompetence, had reached per month.

The South was losing a district capital each week, yet in 10 years only one senior South Vietnamese army officer had been wounded. Vietnam was the next domino and could not topple. Subsequent research indicates that there was plenty of provocation; the first attack took place while the Maddox was in North Vietnamese waters assisting a secret South Vietnamese commando raid and the second one never happened. Until its repeal in , the resolution was treated by US presidents as carte blanche to do whatever they chose in Vietnam without any congressional control.

As the military situation of the Saigon government reached a new nadir, the first US combat troops splashed ashore at Danang in March By December the figures had risen to , US soldiers in country and 16, dead. There were 1. Pacification involved developing a pro-government civilian infrastructure in each village, and providing the soldiers to guard it. To protect the villages from VC raids, mobile search-and-destroy units of soldiers moved around the country hunting VC guerrillas. In some cases, villagers were evacuated so the Americans could use heavy weaponry such as napalm and tanks in areas that were declared free-fire zones.

These strategies were only partially successful: US forces could control the countryside by day, while the VC usually controlled it by night. Even without heavy weapons, VC guerrillas continued to inflict heavy casualties in ambushes and by using mines and booby traps. Although free-fire zones were supposed to prevent civilian casualties, plenty of villagers were nevertheless shelled, bombed, strafed or napalmed to death — their surviving relatives soon signed up to join the VC.

This battle, the single largest of the war, was in part a massive diversion to draw attention away from the Tet Offensive. The Tet Offensive marked a decisive turning point in the war. On the evening of 31 January, as the country celebrated the Lunar New Year, the VC launched a series of strikes in more than cities and towns, including Saigon.

Although utterly surprised — a major failure of US military intelligence — the South Vietnamese and Americans immediately counterattacked with massive firepower, bombing and shelling heavily populated cities as they had the open jungle. The counterattack devastated the VC, but also traumatised the civilian population. In addition, some American and 10, North Vietnamese troops had died at the battle of Khe Sanh the preceding week. The VC may have lost the battle, but this was the critical turning point on the road to winning the war.

The military had long been boasting that victory was just a matter for time. Watching the killing and chaos in Saigon beamed into their living rooms, many Americans stopped believing the hype. While US generals were proclaiming a great victory, public tolerance of the war and its casualties reached breaking point. For the VC the Tet Offensive ultimately proved a success: it made the cost of fighting the war unbearable for the Americans. Simultaneously, stories began leaking out of Vietnam about atrocities and massacres carried out against unarmed Vietnamese civilians, including the infamous My Lai Massacre.

This helped turn the tide and a coalition of the concerned emerged that threatened the establishment. Antiwar demonstrations rocked American university campuses and spilled onto the streets.

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In the Americans began secretly bombing Cambodia in an attempt to flush out Vietnamese communist sanctuaries across the border. Given the choice between facing US troops and pushing deeper into Cambodia , they fled west. The North Vietnamese moved deeper into Cambodian territory and together with their Khmer Rouge allies controlled half of the country by the summer of , including the world-famous temples of Angkor.

This new escalation provoked yet more bitter antiwar protests. A peace demonstration at Kent State University in Ohio resulted in four protesters being shot dead by National Guard troops. It was clear that the war was tearing America apart. The agreement failed to mention the , North Vietnamese troops still in South Vietnam. In total, 3. Officially, 58, Americans were killed in action or are listed as missing in action MIA. Pentagon figures indicate that by , fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters had been lost and 15 million tonnes of ammunition had been expended. By the end of , , South Vietnamese soldiers had been killed in action; North Vietnamese and VC fatalities have been estimated at one million.

US teams continue to search Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia for the remains of their fallen comrades. Individual family members often use mediums to try and locate the remains of their loved ones. Sound familiar? There were 46, Australian military personnel that served in the war; the Australian casualties totalled dead and wounded.


Still the war raged on, only now the South Vietnamese were fighting alone. In January the North Vietnamese launched a massive ground attack across the 17th Parallel using tanks and heavy artillery. The invasion provoked panic in the South Vietnamese army, which had always depended on the Americans. This proved to be a spectacular military blunder.

Whole brigades of ARVN soldiers disintegrated and fled southward, joining hundreds of thousands of civilians clogging Hwy 1. Nguyen Van Thieu, in power since , resigned on 21 April and fled the country, allegedly carting off millions of dollars in ill-gotten wealth.

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General Duong Van Minh, president for just 42 hours, formally surrendered, marking the end of the war. Just a few hours before the surrender, the last Americans were evacuated by helicopter from the US embassy roof to ships stationed just offshore. Iconic images of US Marines booting Vietnamese people off their helicopters were beamed around the world. And so more than a quarter of a century of American military involvement came to a close. As the South collapsed, , Vietnamese also fled the country; in the next five years, at least half a million of their compatriots would do the same.