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Elphinstone merged into Madan Theatres Limited in , which had brought many of Bengal's most popular literary works to the stage. Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu was an Indian artist and a film pioneer. He was the first to build and own cinemas in Madras. He was credited as the father of Telugu cinema. Film steadily gained popularity across India. Tickets were affordable to the masses as low as an anna one-sixteenth of a rupee in Bombay with additional comforts available at a higher price.

Young producers began to incorporate elements of Indian social life and culture into cinema. Others brought ideas from across the world. Global audiences and markets soon became aware of India's film industry. Rangachari , a Madras lawyer. Their suggestions were shelved. Reddy released on 31 October Chittor V. He was known as India's Paul Muni. In , the name " Tollywood " was coined for the Bengali film industry because Tollygunge rhymed with "Hollywood". Tollygunge was then the centre of the Indian film industry. Bombay later overtook Tollygunge as the industry's center, spawning "Bollywood" and many other Hollywood-inspired names.

Pullaiah with stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam. Jyoti Prasad went to Berlin to learn more about films. Indramalati is another film he himself produced and directed after Joymoti. The film was directed by Y. Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi. Swamikannu Vincent , who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore , introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land to screen films.

Cinema of India -

The first of its kind was in Madras , called Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone. This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors. Choudhury produced Wrath , which was banned by the British Raj for its depiction of Indian actors as leaders during the Indian independence movement. The film was judged one of the three best films of the year. The Indian Masala film —a term used for mixed-genre films that combined song, dance, romance etc.

After Indian independence the film industry was investigated by the S. Patil Commission. The period from the late s to the early s is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Indian cinema. This period saw the emergence of the Parallel Cinema movement, mainly led by Bengalis, [67] which then accounted for a quarter of India's film output. The Apu Trilogy —, Satyajit Ray won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and firmly established the Parallel Cinema movement.

Pather Panchali , the first part of the trilogy, marked Ray's entry in Indian cinema. Cinematographer Subrata Mitra , who debuted in the trilogy, had his own important influence on cinematography globally. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting , to recreate the effect of daylight on sets.

He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito , the second part of the trilogy. During the s, Indira Gandhi 's intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India supported production of off-beat cinematic by FFC. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life.

Dilip Kumar Muhammad Yusuf Khan debuted in the s and rose to fame in the s and was one of the biggest Indian movie stars. He was a pioneer of method acting , predating Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Neecha Nagar won the Palme d'Or at Cannes, [70] putting Indian films in competition for the Palme d'Or for nearly every year in the s and early s, with many winning major prizes.

Neecha Nagar won, with nominations for Awaara and Pardesi Ray's contemporaries Ghatak and Dutt were overlooked in their own lifetimes, but generated international recognition in the s and s. Multiple films from this era are included among the greatest films of all time in various critics' and directors' polls. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam all tied at Kamal Haasan was introduced as child actor in Tamil language movie Kalathur Kannamma , Haasan's performance earned him the President's Gold Medal at the age of 6. Realistic Parallel Cinema continued throughout the s, [] practiced in many Indian film cultures.

The FFC's art film orientation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in , which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. By the early s, Hindi cinema was experiencing thematic stagnation, [] dominated by musical romance films. By the mids, crime-action films like Zanjeer and Sholay solidified Bachchan's position as a lead actor. Danny Boyle described it as "absolutely key to Indian cinema". In the late s, Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation, with a decline in box office turnout, due to increasing violence, decline in musical melodic quality, and rise in video piracy, leading to middle-class family audiences abandoning theaters.

The turning point came with Yash Chopra 's musical romance Chandni , starring Sridevi. It was instrumental in ending the era of violent action films in Indian Cinema and rejuvenating the romantic musical genre. Cult classic Bandit Queen , Shekhar Kapur received international recognition and controversy. In the late s, Parallel Cinema began a resurgence in Hindi cinema, largely due to the critical and commercial success of crime films such as Satya and Vaastav These films launched a genre known as Mumbai noir , [] urban films reflecting social problems there.

The three Khans have had successful careers since the late s, [] and have dominated the Indian box office since the s. Kareena Kapoor and Bipasha Basu are among the few working actresses from the s who successfully completed 15 years in the industry. Kannada film Samskara , Pattabhirama Reddy , pioneered the parallel cinema movement in south Indian cinema.

Malayalam cinema experienced its own Golden Age in the s and early s. Acclaimed Malayalam filmmakers industry, included Adoor Gopalakrishnan , G. Aravindan , T. Chandran and Shaji N. Telugu cinema has a history of producing internationally noted fantasy and mythological films such as the film Savitri having received an honorary diploma at the 2nd Venice International Film Festival , [45] as well as works such as Nartanasala , Mayabazar , and the Baahubali series having won the American Saturn Award for Best International Film.

Tamil language films appeared at multiple film festivals. Salim-Javed were highly influential in South Indian cinema. In addition to writing two Kannada films , many of their Bollywood films had remakes produced in other regions, including Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam cinema. Sridevi was widely considered as the first female superstar of Bollywood cinema due to her pan-Indian appeal and a rare actor who had an equally successful career in the major Indian film industries: Hindi , Telugu and Tamil.

She's also the only movie star in history of Bollywood to star in the top 10 highest grossers of the year throughout her active period Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped Indian popular cinema: []. In the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular performances across northern India, established in performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry and Parsi theater.

Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, thus Hindi-Urdu became the standardized language of early Indian talkies. One Thousand and One Nights Arabian Nights had a strong influence on Parsi theater, which adapted " Persianate adventure-romances" into films, and on early Bombay cinema where " Arabian Nights cinema" became a popular genre. Like mainstream Indian popular cinema, Indian Parallel Cinema was influenced by a combination of Indian theatre and Indian literature such as Bengali literature and Urdu poetry , but differs when it comes to foreign influences, where it is influenced more by European cinema particularly Italian neorealism and French poetic realism than by Hollywood.

During colonial rule Indians bought film equipment from Europe. Madan and Abdulally Esoofally traded in global cinema. Mainstream Indian movie stars gained international fame across Asia [] [] [] and Eastern Europe. Indian films frequently appeared in international fora and film festivals. Many Asian and South Asian countries increasingly found Indian cinema as more suited to their sensibilities than Western cinema.

Indian cinema more recently began influencing Western musical films, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the genre in the Western world. Baz Luhrmann stated that his successful musical film Moulin Rouge! Indian cinema has been recognised repeatedly at the Academy Awards. Indian films Mother India , Salaam Bombay! For example, one film can portray action , comedy , drama , romance and melodrama.

These films tend to be musicals, with songs filmed in picturesque locations. Plots for such movies may seem illogical and improbable to unfamiliar viewers. The genre is named after masala , a mixture of spices in Indian cuisine. Parallel Cinema, is also known as Art Cinema or the Indian New Wave, is known for its realism and naturalism, addressing the sociopolitical climate. This movement is distinct from mainstream Bollywood cinema and began around the same time as the French and Japanese New Waves. The movement began in Bengal led by Ray, Sen and Ghatak and then gained prominence in the regions.

The movement was launched by Roy's Do Bigha Zamin , which was both a commercial and critical success, winning the International Prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Its three films won major prizes at the Cannes , Berlin and Venice Film Festivals , and are frequently listed among the greatest films of all time.

Some Indian films are known as "multilinguals", filmed in similar but non-identical versions in different languages. This was done in the s. According to Rajadhyaksha and Willemen in the Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema , in its most precise form, a multilingual is. Rajadhyaksha and Willemen note that in seeking to construct their Encyclopedia , they often found it "extremely difficult to distinguish multilinguals in this original sense from dubbed versions, remakes, reissues or, in some cases, the same film listed with different titles, presented as separate versions in different languages The demands of a multicultural, increasingly globalized Indian audience led to a mixing of local and international musical traditions.

Balasubrahmanyam and Yesudas drew crowds to film music stage shows. In filmmaking, a location is any place where acting and dialogue are recorded. Sites where filming without dialog takes place is termed a second unit photography site. Filmmakers often choose to shoot on location because they believe that greater realism can be achieved in a "real" place.

Location shooting is often motivated by budget considerations. The most popular locations are the main cities for each regional industry. More than production organizations operate in the Indian film industry, but few are successful. AVM Productions is the oldest surviving studio in India. The Assamese language film industry traces its origin to the works of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala , who was a distinguished poet, playwright, composer and freedom fighter. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese film Joymati [] in , under the banner of Critrakala Movietone.

Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, while making his maiden film, had to shoulder the added responsibilities as the screenwriter, producer, director, choreographer, editor, set and costume designer, lyricist and music director. The film, completed with a budget of 60, rupees, was released on 10 March The picture failed miserably.

Like many early films, the negatives and prints of Joymati are missing. Some effort has been made privately by Altaf Mazid to restore and subtitle what is left of the prints. Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati , a second picture, Indramalati , was released in The 21st century has produced Bollywood-style Assamese movies.

Rituparno Ghosh [] Bengal has produced science fiction and issue films. Bengali cinema dates to the s, when the first " bioscopes " were shown in theatres in Calcutta. Madan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie. In , the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry because Tollygunge rhymes with "Hollywood" and because it was then the centre of the Indian film industry. Bengali stalwarts such as Ray, Mrinal Sen , Ghatak and others earned international acclaim.

Bhojpuri language films predominantly cater to residents of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh and also have a large audience in Delhi and Mumbai due to migration of Bhojpuri speakers to these cities. Films such as Bidesiya Foreigner , , S. Tripathi and Ganga Ganges, , Kumar were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not common in the s and s.

Both did much better business in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits, and both earned more than ten times their production costs. That film and Ghar Dwar , Niranjan Tiwari bombed.

Cinema of India

No Chhollywood movie was produced for nearly 30 years thereafter. Before the arrival of talkies , several silent films were closely related to Gujarati culture. Many film directors, producers and actors associated with silent films were Gujarati and Parsi. Twenty leading film company and studios were owned by Gujaratis between and They were mostly located in Mumbai.

At least forty-four major Gujarati directors worked during this period. Gujarati cinema dates to 9 April , when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta , was released. More than one thousand films were released. Gujarati cinema ranges from mythology to history and from social to political. Gujarati films originally targeted a rural audience, but after its revival catered to an urban audience. The Hindi language film industry of Bombay—also known as [] Bollywood—is the largest and most powerful branch.

Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3—4 films. In Hindi cinema audiences participate by clapping, singing and reciting familiar dialogue. The Kannada film industry, also referred to as Sandalwood , is based in Bengaluru and caters mostly to Karnataka. Gubbi Veeranna — was an Indian theatre director and artist and an awardee of the Padma Shri award conferred by the President of India.

He was one of the pioneers and most prolific contributors to Kannada theatre. Kannada actor Rajkumar began working with Veeranna and later became an important actor. Veeranna founded Karnataka Gubbi Productions. He produced Sadarame , Raja Chandrasekar , in which he acted in the lead role.

He then produced Subhadra and Jeevana Nataka He took the lead role in Hemareddy Mallamma Veeranna was the lead, accompanied by his wife, Jayamma. Veeranna produced Bedara Kannappa , H. Simha which received the first Certificate of Merit. Nagendra Rao. Kannada Directors include H. Simha, R. Nagendra Rao , B. Panthulu , M. Sathyu , Puttanna Kanagal , G. Iyer , Karnad, T. Nagabharana Siddalingaiah , B. Karanth , A K Pattabhi, T.

Singh Thakur, Y. Swamy , M. Vittal , Sundar Rao Nadkarni , P. Moorthy, S. Other noted film personalities in Kannada are, Bhargava, G. Jayagopal , M. Ranga Rao and Yogaraj Bhat. Kannada cinema contributed to Indian parallel cinema. Polytechnic is believed to be the first government institute in India to start technical film courses.

Konkani language films are mainly produced in Goa. It is one of India's smallest film regions, producing four films in An immense body of Konkani literature and art is a resource for filmmakers. The Malayalam film industry, India's fourth largest, is based in kerala. Malayalam films are known for bridging the gap between parallel cinema and mainstream cinema by portraying thought-provoking social issues with technical flair and low budgets.

Filmmakers include Gopalakrishnan, Karun, Aravindan, K. The first full-length Malayalam feature was Vigathakumaran , J. Daniel is considered the father of the Malayalam film industry. Balan , S. Nottani was the first Malayalam " talkie ". Malayalam films were mainly produced by Tamil producers until , when the first major film studio, Udaya Studio , opened in Kerala. Scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist, Uroob P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat is often considered the first authentic Malayali film.

The first neorealistic film Newspaper Boy P. Unnikrishnan [] of India were made in Malayalam. Notable filmmakers such as I. Sasi , Bharathan , Padmarajan , K. George , Sathyan Anthikad , Priyadarshan , A. Lohithadas , Siddique-Lal , T. Rajeev Kumar and Sreenivasan. Meitei cinema is a small industry in the state of Manipur. This region's debut was a full-length black and white film Matamgee Manipur Meitei cinema started in the s. Langlen Thadoi was Meitei cinema's first full-length colour film. Meitei cinema gained momentum following a ban on the screening of Hindi films in entertainment houses in Manipur.

Screening of Hindi movies came to a halt despite reiterated appeals made by successive Chief Ministers. The first full-length Meitei movie was made in , followed by a boom in A nationwide French telecast of Imagi Ningthem expanded the audience. Maipak, Son of Manipur was the first Meitei documentary film.

Marathi films are produced in the Marathi language in Maharashtra. It is one of the oldest efforts in Indian cinema. Shwaas and Harishchandrachi Factory , became India's official Oscar entries. Today the industry is based in Mumbai, but it began in Kolhapur and then Pune.

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Marathi films feature the work of actors including Durga Khote , V. Nagpuri films produced in the Nagpuri language in Jharkhand. Gorkha cinema consists of Nepali language films produced by Nepali -speaking Indians. The Odia language film industry operates in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack. Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. Sheela was made in Calcutta and released in Lahore; it was a hit across the province. Its success led many more producers to make Punjabi films. As of , Punjabi cinema had produced between and 1, movies.

The average number of releases per year in the s was nine; in the s, eight; and in the s, six. In the s Punjabi cinema revived with more releases every year featuring bigger budgets. The Sindhi film industry produces movies at intervals. The first was Abana , which was a success throughout the country.

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Sherdukpen is native to the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh. Chennai once served as a base for all South Indian films. The first south Indian talkie film Kalidas H. Reddy was shot in Tamil and Telugu. Sivaji Ganesan became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won Best Actor at the Afro-Asian film festival in and the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour by the French Government in AVM studios is the oldest surviving studio in india.

Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter a state legislature in India. Rajnikanth is referred to as " Superstar " and holds matinee idol status in South India. With seven submissions, Kamal Haasan has starred in the highest number of Academy Award submissions. Today actors like Ajith Kumar and Vijay are some of the most popular names across south india. Critically acclaimed composers such as Ilaiyaraaja and A. Rahman work in Tamil cinema. Art film directors include Santosh Sivan. Sridevi , Vyjayanthimala , Hema malini were debuted in tamil films and became as female superstars ever in indian cinema.

India's most number of theaters are located in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana known for producing feature films in Telugu. The annual Raghupati Venkaiah Award was incorporated into the Nandi Awards to recognize contributions to the industry. Nagaiah was the first multilingual Indian film actor, thespian, composer, director, producer, writer and playback singer. Nagaiah made significant contributions to Telugu cinema, and starred in some two hundred productions. His forte was intense characters, often immersing himself in the character's traits and mannerisms.

Ranga Rao was one of the first Indian actors to receive the international award at the Indonesian Film Festival, held in Jakarta, for Narthanasala in Rama Rao was one of the most successful Telugu actors of his time. Narsing Rao , K. Sastry and Pattabhirama Reddy garnered international recognition for their pioneering work in Parallel Cinema. Rama Rao was an Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician who earned three National Film Awards. He served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms.

Bhanumathi Ramakrishna was a multilingual Indian film actress, drector, music director, singer, producer, author and songwriter. Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao was an Indian film , composer , playback singer known for his works predominantly in South Indian cinema. Balasubramanyam holds the Guinness World Record of having sung the most number of songs for any male playback singer; the majority were in Telugu.

Ranga Rao, N. Narayana received the National Film Award for the best performance in acting. Tailor and Machchendra nath Pandeshwar are Tulu icons. Usually Tulu films are released in theatres across the Kanara region of Karnataka. Enna Thangadi , was the first, released in Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the "Father of Indian cinema". Government-run and private institutes provide formal education in various aspects of filmmaking. Some of the prominent ones include:. Filmmaking industry in India. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore Indian epic poetry Vedic mythology Buddhist mythology.

Architecture Sculpture Painting. Indian poetry. Music and performing arts. Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms. The screenwriting duo Salim-Javed , consisting of Salim Khan l and Javed Akhtar r , revitalised Indian cinema in the s, [] and are considered Bollywood 's greatest screenwriters.

Further information: Mumbai underworld film and Dacoit film. Main article: Masala film genre. Main article: Parallel Cinema. See also: Filmi. Main article: List of film production companies in India. Main article: Cinema of Assam. Main article: Cinema of West Bengal. Main article: Bhojpuri cinema.

Yeh par ganga bahe woh par jamuna ho song by Tandan Balmuwa

Main article: Chhollywood. Main article: Gujarati cinema. Main article: Bollywood. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Cinema of Karnataka. Main article: Konkani cinema. Main article: Malayalam cinema. Main article: Meitei cinema.

Main article: Marathi cinema. Main article: Nagpuri cinema. Main article: Cinema of Odisha. Main article: Punjabi cinema. Main article: Sindhi cinema. Main article: Tamil cinema. Main article: Telugu cinema. Bollywood portal Film portal. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 2 June Film Federation of India.

Retrieved 6 May The Hindu. Retrieved 1 November Times of India. Retrieved 25 March Archived from the original PDF on 7 February Retrieved 6 February United Nations. Retrieved 26 March The Times of India. Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 21 April Business Line.

Archived from the original on 8 October The Times Of India. Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. National Book Trust. New Delhi: Sage Publications. Chennai, India. Retrieved 29 June Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. Arts of transitional India twentieth century, Volume 1. Popular Prakashan. Retrieved 16 December Chennai: Vijaya Publications. Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 21 September Cultural Dynamics.

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