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In view of the various correspondences between factual and literary information, these novels help us grasp the problems and perspectives that have shaped his personal form of life. He taught at Callander, Stonehaven and Perth. In , at the age of 23, Malcolm was admitted to the relatively newly opened Theological College at Glenalmond near Perth. He had hopes to be able to support Hugh to study at Oxford.

However, Malcolm was already the outspoken controversialist for which he achieved fame in later life. Consequently, the Bishop dismissed him from his post at Castle Douglas. He was therefore incapable of providing for Hugh as he had hoped, and too proud to accept offers of help from others. In MacColl moved to France. For the rest of his life he settled at Boulogne-sur-Mer. Little is known about the kind of life he was leading there; but even less is known about his intellectual development or his personal circumstances during the first three decades of his life.

But it seems to have been well thought out. Especially in Britain, Boulogne was known for its prosperity and the refined way of life it could offer to well off or, perhaps, to educated persons. No other town on the French side of the Channel adapted technological progress to its geographical condition in so comprehensive a manner.

Since Boulogne had been connected to the French railway network. Five years earlier the South Eastern Railway had been extended to Folkestone. When MacColl lived at Boulogne it took five and a half hours to reach London; in Paris was at a distance of three hours. At the turn of the century after continuous improvements of its docks the seaport regained its former superiority.

MacColl was living in a prospering town with close economic and cultural links with Britain:. At this time, English shops and pubs, various Protestant churches, English surgeons and undertakers, local newspapers and regular theatre productions in English were natural facets of a balanced and liberal form of urban life. It provided not just general tourist information but also specific references to various colleges or schools at Boulogne offering a French education under Protestant conditions.

Here, already in Europe but still close to the UK, a young person of some standing could receive a schooling sufficiently French to acquire or to preserve a higher-ranking social position in British society. Professional and intellectual aspiration let him become a part of the local, continental enclave of British society.

Gradually, time turned his decision into a definite form of life. Even as late as , MacColl when 64 years old recommended himself to Bertrand Russell as a lecturer in logic [MacColl a]. Apparently, MacColl got to know about these changes. Two years younger than Hugh, she accompanied him to Boulogne where their family soon started to grow. All five children, four girls and a boy were born there. In April MacColl reported to W.

Miller, then mathematical editor of the Educational Times , on the birth of his first daughter, Mary Janet [MacColl b]. Peirce intended to visit MacColl at Boulogne. We have five of a family—four girls besides the little boy already mentioned. We live a very quiet life. I wish I could say the same about my wife; still, she too is much better than she was when I wrote to you last. She went out the day before yesterday in a bath-chair—her first going out for more than eight months.

I hope the coming warm weather will do much to set her up again. The beginning of her illness was a severe cold which the 15 doctor who then attended has culpably neglected as of no importance. Mary Janet, the eldest daughter, was 22 years old, while her youngest sister Annie Louise was still a girl of 11 years. In Mr. In Ednor Whitlock Mrs. Nora Kent, the mother of the main female character, repeatedly suffers from inflammation of the lungs. When the second attack is imminent Mr.

Kent, the worried husband, says to her:. Still as small things may become serious if neglected, I will send at once for Dr. Peirce it is highly probable that MacColl is drawing here on personal experience. An official announcement of the event was sent to Peirce [MacColl ]. In several respects this union was a mutually thoughtful choice; the couple built up a harmonious family life never lacking a solid economical basis. Both were Protestants, and both had a keen interest in teaching [Anonymous ]. The marriage certificate indicates that the parents of Hortense Marchal were living on a private income, while her brother Jules Marchal, and her brother-in-law Gustave Busch, were shopkeepers at Boulogne.

The fact that a marriage contract was put up might point to some prosperity to be dealt with; however, there is no evidence that MacColl ever owned property at Boulogne [Ville de Boulogne ]. Her main work was to teach English to the French pupils, of whom there were altogether fifteen, including the eight externes. With the English girls she had little to do, at least during school hours. She gave them a short English dictation every day, and three lessons a week in arithmetic—that was all.

Her very imperfect knowledge of French, coupled with her youth and inexperience, exposed her to some trials at first, but as she and her pupils got to understand each other better these gradually diminished. Human nature is pretty much the same everywhere, and French girls, like English girls, have their good as well as their bad points.

Mademoiselle Lacour, Ethel, the German governess, and all the boarders were present. Let us If we read out histories, be we French, German or English we shall all find things to blush at as well as things to be proud of. Possibly, MacColl took his second wife as a model for M lle Lacour. The building was large enough to house even all members of the new family.

It has not been possible to identify MacColl as one of its professors. His professional condition is that of MacColl himself:. This Mr. He prepared young men for the English competitive examinations, especially the examinations for the Army and Indian Civil Service. He had selected Blouville for his scholastic establishment in order to give his pupils greater facilities for learning the French language, for which a good many marks were allotted in the said examinations.

Nevertheless, and foremost in this very context, he was able to reflect upon his professional condition from an ironical, if not depressing point of view:. He allows men to commit errors, and he allows them to commit crimes which are the most grievous of errors in order that the discomforts and sufferings which those errors and crimes sooner or later entail, here or hereafter, may in the long-run purify their souls and accelerate their progressupwards.

It is thus difficult to know that the specific reasons for his emigration or to understand the various conditions that obstructed the intended academic career. At the very least, economic difficulties prevented him from studying as a young man. In a letter from to W. Miller he writes:. The words of Prof. I left one of these with my friend Mr. Karcher about a year ago, but I had no idea that he had shown it to Prof.

He shared a keen interest in poetry with his colleague, Prof. Kent at Blouville. It has not so far been possible to locate a copy of this text. He participated in these discussions until Then, for about five years, he abandoned this public forum of mathematical investigation, most likely in order to prepare for the BA in mathematics he took in at the University of London.

The pass list published in the Oxford University Gazette in December records that he satisfied the examiners in the School of Literae Humaniores in Michaelmas Term but was not awarded honours. The degree of BA was conferred on him in He worked hard as a teacher in the school, and still harder out of school hours as a student for the London University. He passed all his examinations creditably, taking mathematical honours in the final examination.

His place on the honours list was not quite so high as he had hoped; but considering what a small margin his school duties allowed him for study, it was no small achievement to take honours at all. He owed much of his success to the help which Mr.

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Kent occasionally gave him, and especially to the judicious course of reading which the latter had recommended. Left entirely to himself, Ednor would no doubt have wasted much time and energy in mastering things which seldom turn up in examinations, while he might be neglecting things which Mr. Kent knew from experience to be more paying. As soon as Ednor had taken his degree, Mr. Kent allowed his probationary engagement with their daughter to terminate in the way which all had hoped, namely, in the intimate, life long union of marriage.

Hence, it was for good reason that he interrupted his work for the mathematical section of the Educational Times where his academic teachers were competing with one another. As the Calendar of London University reports, 17 of the 25 candidates above the age of 30 failed in the BA exams of July In October of the same year 25 of the 33 elder candidates were not successful. Sporadically, its reports mention him participating in decisions. But, apparently, he could not impress influential academics like Sylvester sufficiently. The rule for fixing the sign absolutely of perpendiculars to lines and planes appears to me at first blush sound.

Karcher I desired him to thank Prof. Young I cannot help thinking that the worthy professor has a somewhat peppery disposition. On the other hand MacColl seems to have been supported by the Rev. Robert Harley Through his work on the Stanhope Demonstrator he influenced the history of logical machines [Harley, ]. In , four years after his graduation, MacColl wrote to W. It seems to me that Mr. This kind of criticism does not seem to me either just or generous. I am not surprised that with Mr. Venn for examination I was plucked in logic in Either MacColl was wrong about the year of his BA examination, or he did not refer to it.

In these years not only Venn, but likewise Karcher and Sylvester were examiners of the University of London. Once again, he participated in the discussions published in the Educational Times. In a series of papers, read at the London Mathematical Society , MacColl designed a first, apparently non-classical propositional calculus. A letter of to Bertrand Russell describes this period of hisdevelopment as follows:. When I found that my method could be applied to purely logical questions unconnected with the integral calculus or with probability, I sent a second and a third paper to the Mathematical Society , which were both accepted, and also a paper to Mind published January I sent a fourth paper in to the Math.

This I thought would be my final contribution to logic or mathematics During this second period without research MacColl wrote a number of literary works: probably five novels, two of which were published, 26 a short story, 27 and, anonymously, a first essay on the religious impact of evolution theory. At least he says so in the already quoted letter to Bertrand Russell,. Then a friend sent me Mr. My articles since then I believe to be far more important from the point of view of general logic than my earlier ones; but unfortunately the views which they express are far more subversive of the orthodox or usually accepted principles in symbolic logic.

An eighth paper with the familiar title was rejected in October Alfred Bray Kempe , a close cooperator of Sylvester remembered for his work on the four colour problem and multisets, and Alfred North Whitehead had been appointed referees. MacColl reacted to the decision with a revised and extended version of the paper. M, at any rate for the present ATPs view their incarceration to be more of oppression than relating to accused offences. Ulonna reflects the frustration and feeling of not having a person to sought out his issue:.

Perhaps the prolonged stay for these ATPs contribute to the reason for distancing themselves from accused offences and now focus on a perceived cruelty of the CJS. Comments by Ulonna demonstrate the uncertainty and frustration experienced by inmates, concerning the difficulties in navigating and getting the right treatment from officials of the CJS. Thus ATPs appear to increasingly consider their incarceration to be unrelated to any accused offence, rather a product of a shady and oppressive system.

Hence, in addition to the mental burden of incarceration, subtle themes of powerlessness and being oppressed can be drawn from the ATPs narratives. We were drawn to the little concern shown by the ATPs for their accused offences. It was noticed that as the inmates became more settled in the discussion, subtle omissions and acknowledgements suggesting culpability surfaced opposing their stance in the socio-demographic questionnaire.

It is particularly striking and worthy of note that none of the inmates raised their personal stories of innocence regarding the offences for which they were detained rather, the ATPs continued to make external references. Another reflection of experience, comparative guilt to be discussed later as a coping measure where inmates compare their offences to others perceived to be innocent, is yet another hint to a conspicuous silence by the ATPs regarding their accused offences.

This reflection of experience seems to suggest that prolonged stay in detention may have a tendency to, in cases of true culpability increase denial while reducing feelings of guilt and sombreness which are important in offender behaviour change. It is important for us to state clearly that we are not in any way suggesting that ATPs are more often than not, guilty of the crimes for which they are detained. Our interpretation may indeed be limited to the few people who were engaged in discussions and indeed the Nigerian CJS. Inmates expressed their dissatisfaction for authority figures in the CJS.

ATPs communicate that they are already viewed and treated as convicted prisoners and perhaps treated with less regard. The warders are part of the everyday lives of inmates, yet they are perceived to be cold and distant and to be of little help in addressing the concerns and ameliorating the pains of the ATPs. Reid identifies that those who work within the CJS appear to be most desensitized about the wellbeing of prison inmates. We see here the need that ATPs equally indicate a need for psychological help and that this need can only be picked up by informed personnel. There is hence a need to pay adequate attention to the psychological health and wellbeing of inmates convicted or awaiting trial.

ATPs accounts reflect not only a sense of lost time and desired life goods, but also their prolonged indefinite stay put them in a situation where they query their ability to reconnect with their worlds and follow their aspirations- raising self-doubts and compromising their self-concepts.

We can deduce that their prison status impacts their self-concept especially self-efficacy and self-worth. The GLM posits a positive approach to the management of incarcerated persons. The model considers the pursuance of primary goods that are naturally rewarding and necessary in attaining wellbeing to be basic to humanity, imprisoned or not. Inmates communicated their desired goods of excellence in work and agency, relatedness, etc. ATPs therefore consider their prolonged imprisonment to impede their active pursuance of human goods and this feeling of being limited breed self-doubt which may affect how they see themselves fit for the larger society upon release.

A punctured self-concept and feeling impeded in their pursuance of primary goods underscore a sense of humiliation experienced when they take a broader look at their situation in the broader social context—finding themselves almost always on the lower end of the social ladder. Building from the negative self evaluation upon assessing denied achievements, the ATPs talked of feeling ashamed of their place in the society compared to their mates. I am here and my mates are climbing… it pains me so much… the shame is…big.

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So if I think about it it pains me and I feel ashamed. It also portrays that their status as prisoners though non-convicted is shameful for the ATPs and brings some form of pain or psyche ache. Though most of the experiences communicated by the ATPs were lamentations and expression of poor wellbeing, inmates reported drawing from different sources to cope with their experiences. With the broad compass of hope, inmates accepted their situations, compared themselves with other inmates, found consolation in religious beliefs as expressed in their use of biblical anecdotes, and talks of self-stamina and optimistic living to relate their experiences of surviving imprisonment without trial.

Inmates discussed their struggles to put up with their prolonged stay in prison as ATPs to be sustained by maintaining a hopeful attitude and outlook. As inmates struggle to facilitate the judicial procedures, and face repeated frustrations, they report hanging up to hope that they will one day become free. Kelechi captures how he puts up with the daily living routine and how he handles the expectation of release:.

The anchor of hope seems to be the substrate upon which inmates find meaning and the strength to put up with their distress. On this hopeful outlook, all other measures of coping seem to arise. Inmates compared themselves with significant others within and outside the FGD group in terms of how much years they have spent awaiting trial. Identifying individuals who have stayed longer years seem to give inmates a sort of consolation that they are not the worst of all after all.

P10 demonstrates the feeling that this strategy appears to minimize distress among inmates:. They have stayed here for something years …yes [laughs] 20 something years. So when you remember that, you come back and know that there are people you are better off. See this papa an elderly participant here. How many years have you been here? Being through distress with others and seeing other people go through even more distress help to make the situation more bearable for the ATPs.

Inmates tended to evaluate their sufferings with that of others in apparently similar or worse conditions and draw consolation from their experiences thus helping them become more resilient and have a better outlook regarding their experiences. This is yet another comparative position helpful in coping with the long years of imprisonment without trial. The ATPs appeared to draw relative consolation from the experiences of people they perceived as not being guilty, yet imprisoned for long periods.

If you find that you have done something, then there is some justice in it and you, you take consolation… [Int: Even if you are here without trial? Taking into consideration biblical stories and the consideration of guilt in accused offences, the distress of being remanded in prison seem to whittle a bit for ATPs. In addition, ATPs talked about taking consolation on the perceived innocence of some colleagues held in the prison as well as narrating biblical anecdotes of people who were innocently imprisoned.

Isiaka recalls a seeming counter to an innocence stance:.

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Despite the suffering and anguish of imprisonment and long stay awaiting trial, the participants find some justice in their being detained if they perceive they share some guilt in the offence for which they are being held and prosecuted. Inmates, all identifying as Christians, made reference to their religious beliefs and activities as a source of hope and encouragement. They equally interpret their relative wellbeing and survival in prison to the belief in the presence of God. This steady hope was communicated in such a way that even the number of years spent in awaiting trial in prison tended to be somewhat casual in the narrations given by Theodore:.

You have patience and hope…. We examined the lived experiences of persons awaiting trial for prolonged periods. Findings from this study suggest that ATPs share in the pains of imprisonment, possibly in the same manner as convicted prisoners. Accounts of the inmates suggest a significant breach of human rights which corroborate reports of high abuse of human rights in low income countries ref.

Similar to findings reported on the effects of incarceration e. We received reports of stricter restrictions, poorer diets, absence of recompense following exoneration unless prosecuted by the concerned victim and further abuse of human rights. ATPs felt cut off from the outside society and alienated from their cultural identity. The wellbeing of inmates is further threatened by an awareness of the devastating impact of ruminations as evident in witnessing inmates who break down with mental health problems.

The prolonged years without a sentence seem to make the ATPs loose connect with the offence for which they were incarcerated and consider their imprisonment a result of powerlessness, oppression, and cruelty of the CJS hence they consider their imprisonment to be unrelated to accused offences. They further develop wariness for the CJS and its insensitive agents who already consider them guilty and deserving their lot. The period spent in detention is then regarded to be lost time and the ATPs feel denied the opportunity to pursue desired primary goods. They equally experience shame when they make social comparisons.

Though all the ATPs indicated innocence regarding their accused offenses, subtle omissions and admissions on course the FGD may suggest otherwise. However, their uncertain condition underlined by feelings of powerlessness and oppression shifts more and more the issue of guilt. Some may take solace in making subtle recognition of their culpability especially when they consider the pains of truly innocent figures.

Religious anecdotes, beliefs and symbols were also commonly used by the inmates. What then have we learnt about ATPs? First, this study adds to the sparse research available on ATPs. We found in the narrations of the ATPs that they experience the pains of incarceration and that their wellbeing is affected with a pronounced impact on mental wellbeing as well as their self concept.

Awaiting trial for long and indefinite periods can pile up enormous mental pressure that could impair the wellbeing of individuals. Worse still they can be at the brink of developing severe psychopathology as communicated in the experiences of the respondents. Green thinks it possible, albeit an unpopular perspective, that people can think themselves into insanity. Comparative studies are needed to see how their pains and experiences differ in magnitude from convicted prisoners—so are they possibly in more pain or distress than sentenced inmates?

Not only are these inmates impacted by the negative effects of incarceration, an indefinite incarceration with accounts of human rights abuses, the insensitivity and hostility of officials worsen the wellbeing of inmates. This is troubling especially where there is little provision for trained mental health personnel. There are studies that corroborate this hostility in similar populations. Jenkins found in a discourse study in the UK, that the prison service put immense undue pressure on inmates who are appealing their cases to admit guilt.

Reid also identified that CJS workers close to the inmates are quite insensitive to the distressful experiences of inmates. Fisher gave a graphic description of the grumpiness, hostility, and harassment that staff including counsellors in a facility for children awaiting trial meted out on the inmates. Interestingly, Fisher traces the source of this hostility up to the legislative cadre.

However, we are yet to comprehend why authority figures go beyond demanding absolute compliance to prison rules to accepting and treating inmates no matter the category as guilty. Though Zimbardo explained the prison guard-prisoner grind and persistence in roles to emanate from pressures to conform to group norms and deindividuation processes, perhaps another process is at play.

Else the hostility recounted by the ATPs may also indicate that prison systems in the setting studied, are still operating or hopefully evolving out of the dominantly punitive rather than rehabilitative framework. This highlights the need for workers within the CJS to, at least be aware, as well as be able to recognize, and respond to the psychological needs of prisoners.

Early detection of distress could improve the detection of mental difficulties and help save costs and even prevent more extreme events common in forensic settings e. Third, we identified the potentials of the qualitative approach in identifying denial. As seen in the results above, while all participants indicated innocence in the self-report styled questionnaires, the dynamics of an interactional style to data collection with focus on experience led to utterances that raise doubts in the original stance of the ATPs.

Also in discussing coping experiences e. Though we distance ourselves as much as possible from adjudicating their cases, we consider the dynamics of the discussion to be quite insightful and to hold potentials in navigating denial. Lastly, it was interesting to see that amid the distress and mental burden, the ATPs indicated that maintaining a hopeful outlook gave them the pull to tarry in their uncertain situation.

The ATPs habitually ended their comments on a hopeful note. This study is not alone in identifying that the discussion of inmates regarding their incarceration experience tilted towards a positive pole. Qouta, Pumanaki, and Sarraj identified from interviewing political prisoners who experienced torture in the Middle East that recounted experiences were more of positive prison experience than negative ordeals.

Though this could, however, be related to the background of the prisoners and their political perception of their being held. Putting up against these conditions is suggestive of post traumatic growth. The chunking of years spent in prison into bits reflects rescheduling- using different intervals to estimate the passage of time. In the case of inmates awaiting trial, they re-interpreted their conditions to result from a cruel CJS and they also found succour in religious references which they perceive to approximate their experiences.

Global prison records recognize that nearly all countries of the globe have a significant proportion of prisoners who await trial and that in some cases their stay in prisons are prolonged especially in developing regions. Nonetheless, the findings of this study suggest that the pains of imprisonment and its impact on psychological wellbeing are equally experienced by ATPs and hence they require and deserve psychological help. Best practice will be to advocate for the quicker processing of individuals through the CJS thus avoiding the negative effects of prolonged incarceration.

But limited resources are blamed for the lag in processing cases. With the high ratio of ATPs in proportion to convicted offenders in some mostly developing countries, there is a dire need for policy makers in these regions to develop alternatives to incarceration or for the sake of the wellbeing of detained individuals structure programs that will at least maintain an optimal level of wellbeing while seeking feasible alternatives to incarceration. Human rights activists and researchers could put more pressure to improve activities on the CJS in these regions.

Offending literature is rife with offence-specific treatments e. But with less developed countries having a larger proportion of non-convicted persons, for which this study provides evidence of distress and poor wellbeing, a framework addressing their needs is critically needed. Perhaps interventions for incarcerated persons could be designed to be more inclusive or specifically tailored to the needs of ATPs.

As it may not be technically and morally adequate to include ATPs in offender rehabilitation programs, they could benefit from programs designed to maintain wellbeing. Studies e. Glorney et al. Early programs could be introduced to cushion the emotional effects of incarceration which could benefit inmates who are not yet sentenced. Psychological programs as well as engagements that could help inmates stay off the cycle of depressive and anxious ruminations can help alleviate mental distress and prevent further degeneration of mental state in ATPs.

In short, the GLM model could form a good theoretical framework in designing programs that can be accommodating for persons who await trial. The effect is likely to add to the economic and personnel costs of running prisons as well as stretching the resources of the prison system. Efforts should therefore be made reduce the length of time people spend in detention awaiting trial or as remand prisoners.

Again, inmates showed concerns for re-engaging in pursuing personal goods as soon as they leave the prison system suggesting that they should be included in education and skill acquisition programs that could improve their chances of engagement in gainful employment upon exiting the prison system. Branaman and Gottlieb have suggested that pre-trial therapy may have implications for victims. This study, like most qualitative studies is inherently confronted with a limited generalizability of findings due to fewness and characteristics of the sample utilized.

The situation is similar for many countries in the developing world. However, to be able to sample a wider range of people would require funds which were not at the disposal of the researchers. In addition, the lived experiences of ATPs in Western, developed economies may well be different, though literature already acknowledge significant distress in some e.

Indeed, the experiences of the participants in this study may be in excess or even an underrepresentation of conditions obtainable in other prisons. Another limitation is the nature of the sample used in this study. Individuals with significant mental distress may be argued to manifest the extreme effects of imprisonment and so their experiences would have given an enriched the data and as well the resulting interpretation of experience of imprisonment without trial. Mentally distressed inmates awaiting trial will indeed make a good case for future studies.

Viktor Frankl in describing the ability to weather the tough dehumanising situations such as concentration camps, identified that few have the ability to adopt a positive outlook in dire, hopeless situations. Maybe we have selected those few and processed through their experiences and by doing so, have put aside those severely impacted by imprisonment without trial.

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However, severe psychopathology impairs judgement, thought processes and speech and hence will raise doubts in the quality of information derived. The use of interviews may have yielded richer information over the adopted FGD. However limited resources and restrictions on the activities of the ATPs in accordance with the prison rules made FGDs more practical. Additionally, in translating the discussion transcripts from Igbo, the native language of the participating inmates to English, there is a chance of losing some meaning as originally communicated by the participants in their native language Igbo.

In addition, the presence of a prison staff may have inhibited the openness of participants in the discussion. However, we judged the proceeds of the discussion to be adequate and meaning-filled. This research highlights the trauma of imprisonment as experienced by ATPs and also featured how they put up with their prolonged incarceration. A disturbing level of uncertainty characterizes the situation of the ATPs and fuels anxiety, destructive ruminations and a cascade of mental burden. This study highlights the need for more researchers to pay closer attention to the needs and experiences of inmates awaiting trial, a group largely absent in literature.

Practitioners and policy makers are challenged to be more sensitive to the needs of this largely neglected category of prisoners and campaign for alternative measures to institutionalisation, particularly for this group. Further studies could also probe similar concerns in other settings in areas where they may be in lower proportion to convicted inmates.

Though rehabilitation programmes may sound far-fetched for ATPs, general interventions designed to alleviate the traumatic experiences of imprisonment will be beneficial. On this backdrop, we stand with contemporary researchers and practitioners e. We wish to acknowledge and appreciate Dr. He is also a lecturer at the same University. His current research interests are on aggression as well as offender behaviour and rehabilitation. In addition he heads ThinkScope, a research group for young students who learn research methods by working on diverse solution-oriented research projects.

Dorothy I. She obtained her Ph. D in majoring in Public Health. She has published in many impact- rated journals. John E. He trained as a clinicalpsychologist and obtained the Doctor of Philosophy PhD degree in clinical psychology in He has published articles in reputable journals, contributedchapters in edited books; and is currently the Assistant Editor-in-Chief of the Nigerian Journal ofClinical Psychology.

Leonard I. His research interests relate to stress, work-family conflict, burnout, and employee wellbeing. She has vast experience that spans over twenty years in child and adolescent developmental management. She has researched and published 40 papers on infant development, infant-orphans, premature children, and breast and bottle feeding, in reputable journals. Her research interest relate to adolescents'' reproductive health which yielded the chapter on International Encyclopedia of Adolescents, which was published in by Taylor and Francis New York USA.

We are gathered to discuss experiences as inmates who have spent long years in prison, awaiting trial. Tell me about your experience in prison. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Nov 5. Charles T. Orjiakor , Dorothy I. Ugwu , John E. Eze , Leonard I. Ugwu , Peace N. Ibeagha , and Desmond U.

Peace N. Desmond U. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Orjiakor gn.

The faces and stories of 221 Essex criminals jailed in 2018

Accepted Oct Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Method Phenomenological design The approach adopted in exploring the experiences of prolonged incarceration by ATPs was hermeneutic phenomenology. Table I. Names used in the table above are pseudonyms. Participants Male inmates held in a medium security prison in South-Eastern Nigeria no female inmate was held in the facility participated in the study. Findings ATPs started off discussing their experiences upon imprisonment. Traumatized by imprisonment Disbelief Many of the participants recalled their early reaction to being committed to prison as ATPs.

Depressive emotions The expression of shock and disbelief gradually distilled into more lucid accounts of negative feelings. Kelechi ATPs describe their experiences with tones of deep psycho-somatic experiences. Living in limbo—experiences as ATPs in prolonged stay Cut off from society In addition to the negative emotions of imprisonment, inmates expressed feeling separated and alienated from general society. Intense preoccupations and ruminations Cut off from society and residing in prison for relatively long periods constrains the life engagements of inmates. Ruminating cycles—a threat to mental wellbeing Beyond considering preoccupations and mental ruminations potentially damaging to mental health, ATPs further recall witnessing fellow inmates breakdown with mental illness which they link to the intense mental pressure coming from worrying.

The realities of mental illness resulting from the pressures of imprisonment are so lucid to inmates resulting in some kind of anxiety in inmates as demonstrated by Ifeanyi: …they are there [pointing towards the holding area for people with serious mental distress] … they were not like this when they came in…when you think too much about what you are going through…their minds could not carry it…so their heads have gone bad…it is a fearful thing. Re-interpreting incarceration It was interesting to see how offences were discussed in the FGD. Perceived insensitivity of authority figures Inmates expressed their dissatisfaction for authority figures in the CJS.

Shame Building from the negative self evaluation upon assessing denied achievements, the ATPs talked of feeling ashamed of their place in the society compared to their mates. Coping—looking forward in hope Though most of the experiences communicated by the ATPs were lamentations and expression of poor wellbeing, inmates reported drawing from different sources to cope with their experiences. Inexhaustible hope Inmates discussed their struggles to put up with their prolonged stay in prison as ATPs to be sustained by maintaining a hopeful attitude and outlook.

Kelechi captures how he puts up with the daily living routine and how he handles the expectation of release: … at a time, you just stay… worry, you think, you endure it, sometimes you cry…, when you wake up, you sometimes feel and hope that some good news will come but the day ends with nothing… but you always think how it will happen, maybe one day, a person picks your case and piam!

Comparative consolation Inmates compared themselves with significant others within and outside the FGD group in terms of how much years they have spent awaiting trial. Weighing comparative guilt This is yet another comparative position helpful in coping with the long years of imprisonment without trial. Isiaka recalls a seeming counter to an innocence stance: …some of the inmates here did nothing but have stayed for a long while and seeing that, you take consolation that looking at it, you know, in what you have done, you soothe yourself… some people are here and they did nothing.

Religion as a source of hope and consolation Inmates, all identifying as Christians, made reference to their religious beliefs and activities as a source of hope and encouragement. Discussion We examined the lived experiences of persons awaiting trial for prolonged periods. Implications for practitioners Global prison records recognize that nearly all countries of the globe have a significant proportion of prisoners who await trial and that in some cases their stay in prisons are prolonged especially in developing regions.

Limitations This study, like most qualitative studies is inherently confronted with a limited generalizability of findings due to fewness and characteristics of the sample utilized. Recommendations This research highlights the trauma of imprisonment as experienced by ATPs and also featured how they put up with their prolonged incarceration. Acknowledgment We wish to acknowledge and appreciate Dr. Appendix Discussion Guide Introductory Statement: We are gathered to discuss experiences as inmates who have spent long years in prison, awaiting trial.

Tell me about your experience in prison In the years you have been here what has it been like? When you talk about or consider how long you have stayed here, what issues come up with fellow inmates with staff What are your daily worries and concerns about your stay here?

How are you managing to keep on. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. References American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author. Amnesty International , September. The psychology of criminal conduct 4th ed. The psychology of criminal conduct 5th ed. A study of psychiatry morbidity and co-morbid physical illness among convicted and awaiting trial inmates in Jos prison. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine , 20 , — The mental health of prisoners.

Advances in Psychiatric Treatment , 9 , — Ethical and legal considerations for treatment of alleged victims: When does it become witness tampering? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice , 44 5 , — Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in New Zealand prisons: A national study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry , 35 , — The Psychologist , 28 8 , —