ALS in French: summary of his military career since , and application for a pension, endorsed by Muller, Moncey, and Lannes. Gaudin,Martin, to M. Gay, Sophie, to M. Georges-Weymer, Marguerite, a. ALS in French: invitation to come and see one [out of twelve] full-length portrait of Napoleon in imperial costume in his atelier.
Gosse, and twelve other Republicans from Bricquebec, to the Minister of War. ALS in French, containg interesting information about Bricquebec Manche and the civil war: "a band of Chouans and brigands has invaded our Department, where they have brought terror by assassinations, fire and pillaging We beg you, Citizen, to send us arms and ammunitions Gouges, Olympe de, to Mr. ALS in French [part? ALS in French, plus an administrative document signed by the same, plus portraits.
ALS in French, plus translation: "The decent deputies of the Left congratulate me for having been declared unworthy by the scoundrels [who] wish to bring France back under the yoke of oligarchy. Grobert, Commissaire des guerres, to the Administrators of Cremona. ALS in French, plus a second letter, plus translation, and a portrait.
ALS in French, plus translation: laissez-passer for an American citizen. ALS in French, asking for info about Hoche, plus translation and portrait. ALS in French, about the Dpt.
Hohenloe-Bartenstein, Prince von, to the Minister of War. ALS in French: about foreign desertors, and their willingness to join the regiment raised by Hohenloe, plus a portrait. ALS in French draft? Isabey, Jean-Baptiste, to M. Carbonel, Directeur de la Musique de la Reine Hortense. ALS in French, regarding the exchange of a naval officer; plus five portraits. ALS in French, signed "J.
Napoleon", plus translation, and portraits of Murat. Joubert, General, to the Minister of War [Bernadotte]. Ladmirault, General, to "Le Moniteur Universel". Laffite, Jacques, to Mr. Poingestre, in London. Laplace, Pierre-Simon de, to Marshall Kellermann. Larrey, Dominique Jean, to Dr. Cugnot, Surgeon-General. Sauvage 1, livres anually; plus translation. Leblond [Conseil de conservation des objets de sciences et d'art], to the Bureau du Domaine National.
Le Pelletier, Commissaire des Guerres, to M. Lerouge, to the Citoyens Administrateurs de la Monnaie. Lespinasse, General, to the Cdt. Antoine, member of Council of the Isle of France [Mauritius]". ALS in French: assignation of Mr. Gennaio ", plus a note by Prof.
Mario Einaudi Cornell. ALS in French: order to attend the opening of the Parliament, co-signed by Adolphe Thiers, pl;su portraits of both men. Malartic, Amable [French Governor of Mauritius].
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ALS in French [authentic? Marchand, Louis-Joseph-Narcisse, former valet de chambre of Napoleon, to? Maret, duc de Bassano, to the Minister of Finance. ALS in French: deposition concerning officers' behavior on the 10th of August, , during the attack of the Tuileries. ALS in French, with translation: asks D. Monge, Gaspard, to the Administrateurs des Postes. ALS in French [draft]: pension of 20, francs for la duchesse de Frioul. Montbrun, General, to a Commissaire-Ordonnateur. Mortier, general Edouard, to the Minister of War. Necker, Jacques, to? Thierry, baker in Versailles.
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Necker [? Authenticity is difficult to establish. White on the back: "This autograph was given to me in while I was attached to the Am[erican] legation at St. Petersburg - just after my interview with the old statesman, who in his day played with great inspiration the part of jackal to the lion Metternich. White,Cornell University, Sept. Ney requests his agent to proceed at once to Vienna Austria , where the Congress had just assembled and would open on November 1. His fellow-marshalls agree to a similar arrangement. Roi, ministre des Finances" [in fact, Antoine Roy].
ALS in French, plus translation and graphics [portraits and pictures of the family chapel at Dreux]. Paris, Commune, Section [subunit] des Tuileries. ALS in French, on monetary compensation voted to the Committee members. Paris, Commune, Section [subunit] des Sans-Culottes. Pelletier or Peltier [? Photocopies and translations [poems, letters to Bernardin de Saint-Pierre]. Petitguillaume, General, to a Commissaire-Ordonnateur en Chef. ALS in French, on the supply of food and ustensils for troups, plus translation.
Pichegru, General Charles, to General Taponnier. Polignac, Jules de, to M. Fayau, Argentier des Ecuries du Comte d'Artois. Notes in French: draft manuscript concerning the divorce in the Civil Code Titre VI, chapitre 2, "Des formes du divorce" with corrections in Portalis's hand. Pradel, Commissaire-Ordonnateur, to Citizen Pary.
Quenault, du Conseil d'Etat, to M. ALS in French, on a commission of three Councillors of State entrusted to visit the Paris prisons and investigating possible improvements, plus translation. ALS in French, with the printed seal of the Ministry of Justice, about the situation of customs officers drafted into military service. Reynier, to the People's Representatives to the North Army.
Documents the "White Terror" July September , during which royalist militia exacted retribution against Jacobins and the "traitors" who had rallied around Napoleon. ALS in French: petition for discharge and pension, plus translation. ALS in French: certifixcate for a leave of absence in teh Army, plus translation. ALS in French, on his being unable to find a means to join the army of Egypt. Rostollant, General, to the Director of Posts.
Rovere de Fontvielle, Joseph, to the Minister of War. Santerre, Antoine Joseph, to Citizen Trimaille. ALS in French: Draft of a circular letter to the Prefects on the "spirit of opposition and disobedience in parts of the Empire The principal basis of all the disorders is to be found in desertion. I cannot hide from His Majesty the fact that this condition of affairs is due to the weakness of the local administration I wish to present a report which contains precise facts and statistics.
I beg you, Monsieur, to be good enough to drawn up a table, according to the model attached, of the deserters and refractory cases which are found in your department. ALS in French, on requisitions imposed on the locals by the French military. ALS in French: informing Sireuil that the King has approved giving him the pension earned by his brother, who fought for the American side in the Revolutionary War.
Semonville, Charles Louis Huguet de, to M. Senaux, Jean Pierre de, to the Prince de Lamballe. Barbier, Librarian. ALS in French, on his school for the deaf, plus bibliographical notes and portraits. Sijas, Prosper, to the Adminsitrators of Paris. ALS in French, letterhead illustrated with a a red liberty cap, plus translation. ALS in French [duplicata], regarding investments issues; the intrigues between General Moreau, then banished in New York, and General Bernadotte, now crown prince of Sweden and at the head of an army opposing Napoleon; and on the prospect of having her son Albert appointed diplomat to the USA he would be killed in a duel in July Suchet, Marshall, to the Treasurer of the Legion of Honor.
ALS in French: report dealing with the events of a tour of duty at sea. ALS in French, plus translation and notes: on domestic issues, with mentions of several children of the actor. Tilly, General, to the Director of Posts in Belgium. ALS in French re: la publication de la liste des citoyens composant le jury d'accusation et de jugement au tribunal criminel de Paris pour les mois de juin, juillet et aout Vernier, to Citizen Gaudin, Minister of Finance.
Vignon, Barthelemy, to the Treasurer of Holland. Villetard, Alexandre, to the Minister of Finance. Villetard, Alexandre, to to the Minister of Finance. Journal Manuscrit of Claude-Charles Coster, vol. Autograph manuscript in French. He pursued a distinguished administrative career, especially under Necker. His information generally comes straight out of the minutes of the Assembly's meetings.
Follow-up of the journal, plus transcription of revolutionary songs, plus letters sent to Coster between and December Set of documents, with pages numbered Contains, e. Contains a list of the twelve members of this royalist committee as well as a list of the prisoners kept in the fort.
Manuscript copy of a revolutionary pamphleet. A note indicates that the copyist was the famous Parisian bibliographer Jacques Charles Brunet Strategic instructions for the early stages of the campaign in Germany which culminated in the French victory of Wagram. Includes a letter from Necker to Beaumarchais on the arms-for-tobacco deal with America, , another from Calonne to Beaumarchais about a favor made by court banker Micault d'Harvelay, n. Anonymous volume of "souvenirs" and historical notations, most about ancient Rome, confirming that "the French Revolution was played in Roman clothes" Karl Marx.
Contains original documents assembled by A. White, mostly related to the judicial system of Old Regime France: lettres de cachet i. They contained orders directly from the king, often to enforce arbitrary actions and judgements that could not be appealed; passports and special authorizations to sojourn in Paris e. Ameilhon, Hubert Pascal, to Suard. General d'Anglemont, to Alexandre Berthier. Aubert-Dubayet, General Francois, to Lauchere.
Audouin, Xavier, to? Bachelu, Gilbert, to Prince Louis Bonaparte. ALS in French, plus translation, a portrait, and notes. ALS in French, plus translation, and portraits of Bailly. Baird, David, , to [Evans? Balland, General, to General Chabran.
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Barbaroux, Charles, to a Lady. Beaufort, General, to the Citoyen Dufresnoy. Beauharnais, Augusta-Amelie, to Mme Lefebvre. ALS in French, plus a second letter and a portrait of Belliard. ALS in French, plus a second letter and biographical notes. Bernard, General, to Mr. Berthier, General Alexandre, to General Dumas. Bertrand, General Henri Gratien, to? ALS in French, plus portraits of Bertrand. Beurnonville, Marquis de, to M. Biron, Armand Louis, Duc de Lauzun. Boissy d'Anglas, Francois de, to?
Bonaparte, Lucien. ALS in French, plus translation, and portraits of the Princess. Bouchotte, Jean-Baptiste. Botta, Carlo, to his wife Antonietta. ALS in French, plus biographical notes and a portrait. ALS in French, plus portraits of Bougainville and notes. ALS in French about "domaines nationaux". Brissac, Duc de, to M.
ALS in French, plus translation and notes. ALS in French, plus a portrait of Broussier. ALS in French, plus a portrait and notes. Cabanis, Pierre, to M. ALS in French, plus translation and note. Cambon, Auguste, to General Paillard. Campan, Madame, to Mme Hottinguer. Carnot, Lazare, to? ALS in French, plus portraits of Carnot. Carnot, Lazare, to Fontanes. Caulaincourt, Baron. Passport delivered for M. Barral, plus portraits of Caulaincourt. ALS in French, plus a second letter [also ], plus translation. General Cervoni, to the Minister of Finance.
Champagny, Jean Baptiste de, to? General Championnet. Championnet, General Jean-Antoine.
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Charbonnel, Comte Joseph, to Marshall Ney. Charlet, Nicolas Toussaint, to? Chasset, to the Minister of Finance. Chaumette, Procureur de la Commune. Chemineau, Colonel. Clauzel, Bertrand, comte. Colli, General, to "his friend Luciano". Couthon, Georges, to the Minister of War. Le Baron Gros. Histoire de la peinture militaire en France. Paris, , p.
Rosenthal, L. La peinture romantique Paris, , pp. Lemonnier, H. Schneider, R. Delacroix, E. Montgailhard, D. Toulouse, , pp. Escholier, R. Barnard, G. Bonaparte en Egypte. Pach, W. New York. San Francisco, , p. Springfield, , cat. European and American Paintings New York, , p. Delestre, G. Paris, , pl. Cunningham, C. The Romantic Circle. Hartford, , cat. Richardson, E. Catalogue of the Paintings and Sculpture given by Edgar B. Detroit, , p. Bazin, G. Capolavori della pittura francese dell'Ottocento.
Rome and Florence, , cat. What a miserable and vulgar reality availed my eyes. What a blanket of icy water doused my white heated curiosity.
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Instead of gold and silk cloth [ I saw the slave, and not the slave garlanded with flowers. Pitying the women of the harem, she concludes: "We, their sisters of the Occident, we have to pity them and we have to forcefully demand that they quit their state of moral degradation [ Hommaire de Hell , 63 Impressions de voyage d'une Parisienne : "The condition of women in the Orient is truly lamentable; condemned by polygamy to be nothing more than an instrument of man's pleasure. This list of quotations could be continued as you like. What has to be emphasized is that, instead of demonstrating solidarity with Oriental women, the woman traveler underlines the difference.
Cultural differences are constructed as opposites, often to the detriment of the foreign women. The harem descriptions function to prove their cultural backwardness and anachronistic domestication. By despising Oriental women, women travelers have contributed to the propagation of prejudices and stereotypes.
Not only their colonial background, but also their own departure makes demonstrating solidarity with the foreign woman very difficult. This extreme reduction in status of the Oriental woman also indicates a defensive reaction from the side of the woman traveler. In the Orient, European women encounter a form of life from which they have just managed to distance themselves with some effort: the woman traveler reencounters her own problems of emancipation.
I conclude that women travelers of the 19 th Century are to be found in an extraordinary relationship of opposites: on the one hand, the liberation of roles in response to discrimination, and on the other, colonial thinking due to their privileged status. I would now like to pass on to women travelers of the 20 th Century, that is the traveler of the desert. Whereas the desert as a symbol represents a place of liberty, of solitude, of marginality, and a place free of conventions, the harem represented a foreign but yet familiar place at the same time.
This exile, chosen freely by women travelers, could be interpreted as a flight from the patriarchal norm. The desert is a place predestined for dreams of departure, and for new beginnings. The desert becomes a place of refuge, of asylum and exile all at the same time. It is also a place of experiential extremes, a loss of orientation, which is typical for the modern individual. In other words, the subject of a mythical return to the roots, to a pre-civilization, is discovered here: "The desert is non-civilization, negation, lack of progress; [ The idea of civilization creates the idea of the desert as its negative projection, as its necessary contrast".
At the end of the 20 th Century, the hunt for the last bastions of retreat of the pre-modern requires an ever larger degree of effort see Wolfzettel : The vacuum of the desert particularly serves as a projection of the sufferings and desires of the soul. The experience of the "end of the world" Paul Virilio is transformed into the conclusive travel experience here. According to the opinion of most women travelers, the women of the desert dispose of an extraordinary authority and a liberty greater than the women of the harem. In their eyes, nomadic women are approaching a hypothetical society which is known as matriarchy.
Having destroyed the image of the exotic Oriental woman, the woman traveler creates a new and contrasting image of the nomadic woman as the self-determining woman. Is this a new ideal of female liberation?
Do we transfer our dreams and utopias onto other societies? Madame Jean Pommerol, who spent two years with the women of the Sahara at the turn of the century, treats them all with condescension, except for the Tuareg women: "Tuareg women are much freer then their companions from other tribes". The Tuareg woman enjoys great independence and influence. She goes out alone on a dromedary through the immensities of the desert. She is admitted to the councils, she benefits from the powers of her husband as the chief if she is widowed. Furthermore, the Tuareg system of heritage is passed down through the woman; one becomes heir through one's uncle and not through one's father[ Pommerol : The distribution of the gender role is apparently in opposition to the usual concept of the sexes.
The veil covering the face belongs to men's clothing. They can all read whereas their husbands remain in complete ignorance. They are free to go out without covering their faces; the men remain veiled and very rarely agree to show their faces. The men sew and wash. A formulation of their traditional laws states that 'It is the belly that colors the child'. The woman disposes of a liberty and prestige which cannot be found in any other country of Europe or Asia.
The Targia bears a great social responsibility by watching over traditional values: "All those who know the Tuareg and who have studied their customs state unanimously: 'Over there, the women are the ones who govern'. In fact, I don't feel like a stranger at all in their society. And, humbly dodging under their tent, I encounter a relationship of the heart which, wherever we go in the world, brings human beings closer to each other through the common experience of parts of joy and grief.
Furthermore, she has the right to retain a servant who may console her in case of her husband's absence, and who discreetly retires on her husband's return. If he is lovesick, he goes out into the desert and sings of his pain.
How can we explain the strong social position of the Targia? The Islamic influence was much more important in the cities; Islam was forced to integrate pre-Islamic traditions in the villages and among the people of the Sahara. With regard to the Tuareg, it has to be mentioned that they do not form a nation or a homogenous ethnicity. The Tuareg are cattle owning nomads and belong to the linguistic community of the Berbers. Their social rank has always been transmitted through a matriarchy. Patriarchal tendencies, even with the Tuareg, have been reinforced through the adoption of Islam.
But it has to be remembered that the colonial empire has strongly contributed to the nomads' decline. In spite of the fact that Islamization, colonialism and capitalism have reduced the power of the Tuareg, and especially that of the women, some spheres of influence still practice pre-colonial and pre-Islamic traditions. To summarize: the hypothesis that the Tuareg live in an "matriarchal original" appears to be the idea contradicting the dogma of female submission represented by the women of the harem. Travel in the desert is reminiscent of a search for a "new starting point".
The desert and its women inhabitants express their desire for a totally new beginning, for a utopia. Beyond the self-confirming presumption concerning failing female self-consciousness or its opposite, the romanticization of earlier matriarchal cultures, it is important to record the fact that, both travelling as well as traveled women retain a plural identity.