As ruler, Tzimiskes crushed the Rus' in Bulgaria and ended the Bulgarian tsardom before going on to campaign in the East, where he died. Eldest son of Romanos II, Basil was born in The first decade of his reign was marked by rivalry with the powerful Basil Lekapenos, an unsuccessful war against Bulgaria, and rebellions by generals in Asia Minor. Basil solidified his position through a marriage alliance with Vladimir I of Kiev, and after suppressing the revolts, he embarked on his conquest of Bulgaria.
Bulgaria was finally subdued in after over 20 years of war, interrupted only by sporadic warfare in Syria against the Fatimids. Basil also expanded Byzantine control over most of Armenia. His reign is widely considered as the apogee of medieval Byzantium. During the rule of Basil II, he spent his time in idle pleasure. During his short reign he was an indifferent ruler, easily influenced by his courtiers and suspicious of plots to depose him, especially among the military aristocracy, many of whom were blinded and exiled.
On his deathbed, he chose Romanos Argyros as husband for his daughter Zoe. The daughter of Constantine VIII, she succeeded on her father's death, as the only surviving member of the Macedonian dynasty, along with her sister Theodora. Born in , the elderly aristocrat Romanos was chosen by Constantine VIII on his deathbed as Zoe's husband and succeeded on the throne after Constantine's death a few days later.
Born in , he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor. Aided by his older brother, John the Orphanotrophos, his reign was moderately successful against internal rebellions, but his attempt to recover Sicily failed.
He died after a long illness. Born in , he was the nephew and adopted son of Michael IV. During his reign he tried to sideline Zoe, but a popular revolt forced him to restore her as empress on 19 April , along with her sister Theodora. He was deposed the next day, dying on 24 August The younger sister of Zoe, born in , she was raised as co-ruler on 19 April After Zoe died in and Constantine in , Theodora assumed full governance of the Empire and reigned until her death.
She nominated Michael VI as her successor. Constantine supported the mercantile classes and favoured the company of intellectuals, thereby alienating the military aristocracy.
A pleasure-loving ruler, he lived an extravagant life with his favourite mistresses and endowed a number of monasteries, chiefly the Nea Moni of Chios and the Mangana Monastery. A court bureaucrat and military logothete hence his first sobriquet. Deposed by military revolt under Isaac Komnenos, he retired to a monastery where he died in A successful general, he rose in revolt leading the eastern armies and was declared Emperor; he was recognized after the abdication of Michael VI on 31 August He resigned in and died c.
Born in , he became a general and close ally of Isaac Komnenos, and succeeded him as emperor on his abdication. Named his sons Michael, Andronikos and Konstantios as co-emperors. Born in as the eldest son of Constantine X. Due to his minority he was under the regency of his mother, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, in —, and relegated to junior emperor under her second husband Romanos IV Diogenes in — Senior emperor in —, he named his son Constantine co-emperor alongside his brothers.
He abdicated before the revolt of Nikephoros Botaneiates, retired to a monastery and died c. Born in , a successful general he married empress-dowager Eudokia Makrembolitissa and became senior emperor as guardian of her sons by Constantine X. Deposed by the Doukas partisans after the Battle of Manzikert , blinded in June and exiled.
Constantine I (emperor)
He died soon after. Born in , he was the strategos of the Anatolic Theme. He rebelled against Michael VII and was welcomed into the capital. He weathered several revolts, but was overthrown by the Komnenos clan. He retired to a monastery where he died on 10 December of the same year Born in , a nephew of Isaac I Komnenos. A distinguished general, he overthrew Nikephoros III. His reign was dominated by wars against the Normans and the Seljuk Turks , as well as the arrival of the First Crusade and the establishment of independent Crusader states.
He retained Constantine Doukas as co-emperor until and named his eldest son John co-emperor in Born on 13 September as the eldest son of Alexios I. His reign was focused on wars with the Turks. A popular and frugal ruler, he was known as "John the Good".
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Named his eldest son Alexios co-emperor in , but he died before him. Born on 28 November as the third and youngest son of John II, he was chosen as emperor over his elder brother Isaac by his father on his deathbed. An energetic ruler, he launched campaigns against the Turks, humbled Hungary , achieved supremacy over the Crusader states, and tried unsuccessfully to recover Italy. His extravagance and constant campaigning, however, depleted the Empire's resources. Born on 14 September as the only son of Manuel I. In — under the regency of his mother, Maria of Antioch. A general, he was imprisoned for conspiring against John II, but escaped and spent 15 years in exile in various courts in eastern Europe and the Middle East.
He seized the regency from Maria of Antioch in and subsequently throne from his nephew Alexios II. An unpopular ruler, he was overthrown and lynched in a popular uprising. Born in September , Isaac came to the throne at the head of a popular revolt against Andronikos I.
His reign was marked by revolts and wars in the Balkans, especially against a resurgent Bulgaria. He was deposed, blinded and imprisoned by his elder brother, Alexios III. Born in , Alexios was the elder brother of Isaac II. His reign was marked by misgovernment and the increasing autonomy of provincial magnates.
He was deposed by the Fourth Crusade and fled Constantinople, roaming Greece and Asia Minor, searching for support to regain his throne. He died in Nicaean captivity in Restored to his throne by the Crusaders, actual rule fell to his son Alexios IV. Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands, he was deposed by Alexios V Doukas in January and died on 28 January , perhaps of poison. Born in , the son of Isaac II. He enlisted the Fourth Crusade to return his father to the throne, and reigned alongside his restored father.
Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands, he was deposed by Alexios V Doukas in January , and was strangled on 8 February. He tried to repel the Crusaders, but they captured Constantinople forcing Mourtzouphlos to flee. He joined the exiled Alexios III, but was later blinded by the latter. Captured by the Crusaders, he was executed in December His brother Constantine Laskaris was elected emperor by the citizens of Constantinople on the day the city fell to the Crusaders; he later fled to Nicaea, where Theodore organized the Greek resistance to the Latins.
Proclaimed emperor after Constantine's death in , Theodore was crowned only in He managed to stop the Latin advance in Asia and to repel Seljuk attacks, establishing the Empire of Nicaea as the strongest of the Greek successor states. A capable ruler and soldier, he expanded his state in Bithynia, Thrace and Macedonia at the expense of the Latin Empire, Bulgaria and the rival Greek state of Epirus. His reign was marked by his hostility towards the major houses of the aristocracy, and by his victory against Bulgaria and the subsequent expansion into and Albania.
Born on 25 December as the only son of Theodore II, he succeeded on his father's death. Due to his minority, the regency was exercised at first by George Mouzalon until his assassination, and then by Michael Palaiologos, who within months was crowned senior emperor. After the recovery of Constantinople in August , Palaiologos sidelined John IV completely, had him blinded and imprisoned.
John IV died c. Senior emperor alongside John IV in , sole emperor since 25 December Named co-emperor in September , crowned in , he succeeded as sole emperor on Michael's death. Favouring monks and intellectuals, he neglected the army, and his reign saw the collapse of the Byzantine position in Asia Minor. He named his son Michael IX co-emperor. In a protracted civil war, he was first forced to recognize his grandson Andronikos III as co-emperor and was then deposed outright.
He died on 13 February Son of Michael IX, he was born on 25 March and named co-emperor in Rival emperor since July , he deposed his grandfather Andronikos II in and ruled as sole emperor until his death. Supported by John Kantakouzenos, his reign saw defeats against the Ottoman emirate but successes in Europe, where Epirus and Thessaly were recovered. Only son of Andronikos III, he had not been crowned co-emperor or declared heir at his father's death, a fact which led to the outbreak of a destructive civil war between his regents and his father's closest aide, John VI Kantakouzenos, who was crowned co-emperor.
The conflict ended in with Kantakouzenos recognized as senior emperor, but he was deposed by John V in , during another civil war. Matthew Kantakouzenos, raised by John VI to co-emperor, was also deposed in John V appealed to the West for aid against the Ottomans, but in he was forced to recognize Ottoman suzerainty. He was deposed in by his son Andronikos IV. A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi, he was declared co-emperor on 26 October , and was recognized as senior emperor for ten years after the end of the civil war on 8 February Deposed by John V in , he became a monk, dying on 15 June He deposed his father on 12 August and ruled until overthrown in turn in He was again recognized as co-emperor in and given Selymbria as an appanage , dying there on 28 June Restored to senior emperor, he was reconciled with Andronikos IV in , re-appointing him co-emperor.
He was overthrown again in by his grandson, John VII. Son of Andronikos IV, he was born in , and named co-emperor under his father in — He usurped the throne from his grandfather John V for five months in , but with Ottoman mediation he was reconciled with John V and his uncle, Manuel II. He held Constantinople against the Ottomans in —, and was then given Thessalonica as an appanage, which he governed until his death on 22 September His son Andronikos V Palaiologos ruled alongside him as co-emperor.
Second son of John V, he was born on 27 June The Historia Augusta, whose testimony is not to be trusted unreservedly, claims he was a blacksmith. Lupercus of Berytus was a Greek grammarian. References stoa. Tiberius Clodius Pupienus Pulcher Maximus c. He was appointed Consul Suffectus in or , or perhaps in July Ofilius Calavius Ovi f. Following the disaster of the Caudine Forks, where both Roman consuls were obliged to surrender their army and pass under the yoke, opinions in Campania were divided as to whether the defeat would forever halt the progress of Roman arms down the Italian peninsula.
Calavius, one of the most distinguished men of Capua, the greatest city of Campania, witnessed the grim procession of the defeated Romans, who were escorted to the borders of the country and allowed to return home with their lives. His view of the Roman attitude to their defeat was less sanguine; he predicted that the humiliation of their defeat foreshadowed the eventual return of Roman arms, and grim days ahead for the people of Campania.
Olympius was a minister of the Western Roman Empire, in the court of the emperor Honorius. Olympius orchestrated the fall and execution of the capable general Stilicho, who had effectively been ruling the Western Roman Empire as regent of Honorius for over twelve years. Germanic tribes invaded Italy in Honorius and the court took refuge in Ravenna, now the capital of the Western Roman Empire.
The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi poured over the Rhine into the interior of Gaul, followed by Franks, Burgundians, and Alemanni, who settled permanently on the left bank of the Rhine. Stilicho entered into negotiations with Alaric, holding out promises of Eastern Illyria to secure his aid.
Thereupon the Roman general Constantine, who had crossed over from Britain, appeared in Gaul, and proclaimed himself Emperor. The negotiations with Alaric failed and Alaric demanded an indemnity of pounds in gold; Stilicho, who had twi. They conspired to mount an insurrection against the Romans, but when their conspiracy was discovered, and steps taken to prevent their plan from coming to fruition, they did away with themselves rather than face arrest. The Romans were escorted to the borders of Campania and allowed to return home with their lives. Ofilius Calavius, father of the two brothers, warned that the sting of their defeat would likely be erased only with the return of Roman arms and the renewal of the war.
In B. These may have been encouraged by the harsh treatment of Luceria, whos. In the aftermath of the Battle of Lake Trasimene, he prevented the people of Capua from surrendering the city to Hannibal. When the Capuans finally capitulated, he dissuaded his son from a rash attempt on the life of the Carthaginian general.
He was connected by marriage with some of the leading families at Rome. He may have had a brother, Sthenius, but the historian Livius states that he was one of the Ninnii Celeres. Orobius identified as Lucius Orbius was a Roman general, who defeated the supporters of Mithridates at Delos. Battle of Delos He heard that the Athenians soldiers, under the command of Apellicon of Teos, had been placed in a very careless manner on the side of Delos, leaving all of the back of the island unguarded.
He led his force of Romans and Delians against the Athenians on that moonless night, falling on Apellicon and his soldiers, who were all asleep and drunk, he cut the Athenians and all those who were in the army with them to pieces, like so many sheep, to the number of six hundred, and he took four hundred alive. Apellicon fled away without being perceived, and came to Delos; and Orobius seeing that many of those who fled with him had escaped to the farmhouses round about, burnt them in the houses, houses and all; and he destroyed by fire also all the engines for besieging cities together with the Helepolis which Apellicon had made when he came to Delos.
And Orobius having erected in that place. See also Cloelia gens References Unless otherwise noted, dates, offices and citations of ancient sources are from T. Livy Valerius Maximus 1. Cloelius Siculus, M. Cornelius Cethegus and C. Claudius were bidden and compelled to resign a [or, the] flaminate because the guts had been less carefully put to the altars of the gods" consimili rationne P. Cornelius C. Engraving facing the title page of an 18th-century edition of Plutarch's Lives Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
It is a work of considerable importance, not only as a source of information about the individuals described, but also about the times in which they lived. Motivation As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, but with exploring the influence of character, good or bad, on the lives and destinies of famous men.
He wished to prove that the more remote past of Greece could show its men of action. Publius Claudius Pulcher c. He turned out badly: a lethargic nonentity who only rose to the Praetorship after 31 BC under the Second Triumvirs and died amid scandals of luxurious excess and an obsessive attachment to a common prostitute. References Tatum Patrician Tribune p.
Valerius Maximus III. AR Denarius, struck BC. Triumvir monetalis: Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancius and Q. Appius Claudius Pulcher c. He was Triumvir Monetalis c. He married an unknown woman and had a son Claudius Pulcher, born c. Claudius Pulcher, born c. References Christian Settipani. He is known for his role unsuccessfully combating the early uprising phase of the Jews under Simon bar Kokhba and Elasar.
The Church Fathers and rabbinic literature emphasize his role in provoking the revolt. Annio Rufo. Salomies identifies Quintus Tineius Rufus' place of origin as the Etruscan town of Volterra, despite an inscription mentioning Q. Tineius Q. Her[mes] in Nicomedia. A few years after he held the fasces, Rufus was appointed consular legate of Judaea, during which time he is said to have ordered the execution of the Jewish leader Rabbi Akiva in Caesarea.
In Rome's early semi-legendary history, Tarquinia was the daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, and sister to Rome's seventh and final king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. She was the mother of Lucius Junius Brutus, who overthrew the monarchy and became one of Rome's first consuls in BC. She had another son, who was put to death by Superbus. References Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1. Sextilia from Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum Sextilia c. Family Sextilia came from a distinguished family and lived intimately with imperial intrigue, daughter of Marcus Sextilius, Triumvir Monetalis around 15, and Fabia, daughter of Publius Fabius, and paternal granddaughter of Quintus Sextilius, himself the son of Senator Publius Sextilius, mentioned in 39 BC and 35 BC, paternal grandson of another Publius Sextilius and great-grandson of yet another Publius Sextilius.
Sextilia married the successful politician and friend of the emperor Claudius, Lucius Vitellius. Although he left Galeria in straitened financial circumstances with creditors at her door,.
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Saevius Nicanor is mentioned by Suetonius as the first grammarian who acquired fame and honour as a teacher among the Romans. He probably lived in the 3rd or 2nd century BCE. He was the author of commentaries, the greater portion of which was said to have been suppressed intercepta dicitur , and of a satire where he declares himself to have been a freedman; and to have been distinguished by a double cognomen: Sevius Nicanor Marci libertus negabit: Sevius Nicanor Pothos idem ac Marcus docebit.
Saevius Nicanor, freedman of Marcus, will deny he's the same person as Saevius Pothos, even if Marcus says so. Suetonius adds that according to some accounts, because of a bad reputation he retired to Sardinia and there died. References Suetonius de grammaticis et rhetoribus 5. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
The Trinity doctrine was well understood during the time of the apostles and church fathers. The Trinity doctrine did not originate from the Nicene Creed; it originated from and was the result of careful study of the Bible. Lastly the formal doctrine of the Trinity was the direct response to Arian hearsay. Let us trust His skill and thank Him for the prescription". All rights to this material are reserved.
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