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Essays toward a Global Labor History

Formatting buttons are on the menu at the top of the screen. It is possible to cut and paste text from other documents. However, it is best if this text is unformatted. When the additional text has been added click on the Publish button at the top right of the screen. Either type in or paste in the image URL and add an image description. Then click on Insert. Or select the Your computer tab and choose an image from your own files. Add an image description and click on Insert. Bradford Cemetery Co.

Is still used as a cemetery today. Is a 25 acre site containing 23, graves. Victorians believed that in death, as in life, every man had his place. The cemetery contains two sections. The eastern section is unconsecrated for nonconformists. The western section is for Anglicans. The site is dramatic with a central promenade overlooking Bradford. The architect was William Gay of Leicester who was the first manager. Contains every variety of Victorian funerary art. The Burial Act Amendment of closed many graveyards of nonconformist chapels and Anglican churches.

The Society of Friends purchased plots for 97 graves in Note the plain, flat memorial stones. Proprietor of a puppet theatre which visited much of northern England and performed in front of Queen Victoria. Moulson was a monumental mason. The demand for such services is illustrated by the architecture of the cemetery.

Memorial takes form of a life-size female figure. Grey granite obelisk. Farrar was a hatter, a founder of the Bradford Mechanics Institute and Mayor from Memorial of rough, grey granite. One of first directors of cemetery, proprietor of Brown, Muffs department store in Market Street, Mayor from Impressive 20 foot high pillar surmounted by a Celtic cross.

Note highly flattering inscription. First Mayor of Bradford on and MP. Erected palazzo style worsted warehouse.


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Then friends, policemen and the undertaker. Then employees. Then the hearse drawn by six black plumed horses. Then four coaches containing the male members of the family. Then gentlemen in private carriages. Memorial is huge Baroque tablet. Leading member of German community connected with Little Germany. Massive stone obelisk. Elaborate Gothic edifice in the historic core of the cemetery, a sought after burial place. Heavily decorated stone sarcophagus surmounted by Gothic arches, topped by a steeple.

Anderton was wool baron. Is of grey granite in the form of an Egyptian temple. Its entrance was originally sealed with bronze doors. Note the sphinxes. Decorated with the insignia of the Sun God. Illingworth was a leader of Bradford Liberalism. A stepped pedestal decorated with bowl and torch the light of life.

Liberal MP and partner of Lister. Head of the Illingworth dynasty. Set up spinning mill in Tetley Street. Memorial is a tall marble column surmounted by a draped urn. Move to the consecrated part. Stone headstone of crossed sabres, crossed flags and the badge of the regiment. Erected by non-commissioned officers and men to the memory of 5 soldiers. Shows reclining lady holding small baby in her arms. Erected to memory of Anne Barlow and her daughter Sarah Elizabeth who survived for only a few weeks. Illustration of perils of childbirth.

Polished grey granite tombstone. Family were prominent nonconformists and local dignitaries. John set up Bradford public library. Joseph Smith was the land-agent who sold the burial plots. He had written into his contract the fact that he could occupy the cemeteries principal location. Housing and Welfare Modern Records Centre online resource. S Chapman, ed. For this seminar each group will be expected to give a short presentation on the population characteristics of an industrialised community of your choice.

The presentation should cover the following questions:. Anderson, Family Structure in nineteenth century Lancashire. Armstrong, Stability and change in an English country town. A social study of York — John Foster, Class struggle and the industrial revolution: early industrial capitalism in three English towns. Higgs, Making sense of the census: the manuscript returns for England and Wales, Lawton ed. The journal Local Population Studies also has a wealth of relevant articles and community studies.

Journal of Urban History Please choose one British city for a group presentation which will address the questions below. Town and city histories are found in the local history section of the library in the classmarks DA passim. For example: Yorkshire books are found under DA The Victoria County Histories are also a good general source of information and many cities have websites outlining their history.

Please could each group post up a summary of their presentation on the module forum. Pollock ' The visual representation of the early nineteenth-century industrial city ', in J. Seed eds , The Culture of Capital. An analysis of the writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. Mitch, J. Brown, M. Van Leeuwen eds , Origins of the Modern Career. Tiersten 'Redefining consumer culture', Radical History Review , This painting may be viewed at Birmingham Art Gallery.

For more information see their Pre-Raphaelite Online Resource. J Gillis, 'The evolution of juvenile delinquency', Past and Present , Andrew Mangham, Violent women and sensation fiction : crime, medicine and Victorian popular culture. Roger Swift, 'Urban policing and social control', History , Business History , Re-visited', Journal of Transport History, F C Mather, 'The railways, the electric telegraph and public order during the Chartist period, ', History, Leisure, respectability and the male middle classes in Victorian England', Journal of Social History , E Yeo and S Yeo, Popular culture and class conflict, an exploration in the history of labour and leisure, esp.

C Hamlin, 'Muddling in Bumbledon: on the enormity of large sanitary improvements in four British towns', Victorian Studies, Wear ed. Melling, B. Forsythe and R. Bartlett and D. Mathias ed. Waddington, Charity and the London Hospitals , Scull ed. Please note that this module was available until , but has since been withdrawn and is no longer available.

Did the role of working-class women in Chartism challenge or reinforce the dominant gender ideologies? Was Chartism primarily a local or a national movement? Why did Chartism ultimately fail to meet its objectives? Context This option focuses on nineteenth century urban history and complements courses in the area of nineteenth century British and European history. Syllabus During the reign of Queen Victoria Britain became more extensively urbanised than ever before.

Expected Learning Outcomes a the further development of development of essay-writing and seminar participation skills b an ability to conduct and to critically assess comparative analysis of historical trends and to engage with interdisciplinary approaches to the study of history c to provide the opportunity, through writing a word essay to develop … A critical evaluation of sources for the study of urban history A reflective study of historical and theoretical interpretations The presentation of research in an imaginative and concise manner Written communication skills Bibliographic and research including ICT mediated skills.

Which factors influenced the literacy levels of the working class? What role did the state have in the development of British universities? Please use seminar questions as essay titles in term 2 or discuss alternative ideas with me. Source-based Essay Write a critical assessment of the value, for the study of urban history of a particular source or sources. The title of the essay can be tailored to meet your own requirements, but could follow the pattern of the examples below: How useful a historical source is the newspaper press? General Topics These are suggestions only, please discuss any alternatives with me.

How different are Victorian cities? Were the landed elite excluded from the government of Victorian cities? In which areas of society could Victorian women participate? Assess the levels of social mobility in Victorian cities. To what extent did urban migration disrupt traditional patterns of life in Victorian cities?

How adequate was the response in this period to the housing problems of the urban poor? How important was early state housing in improving living conditions for the masses? Did the manufacturing middle class possess a distinctive and dominant ideology of their own? How did members of the middle-classes seek to establish their position within Victorian cities? Examine the occupational structure of Victorian cities. Account for the prevalence of sweated labour in Victorian Britain.

Thompson ed. What were the roles of the Victorian mother and father? How big a problem was juvenile crime and what measures were introduced to deal with it? How healthy were Victorian children? What opportunities were there for women to participate in the public sphere? Did the role of mothers change in the Victorian period? How important were housewives in the Victorian economy? Is there a distance between public rhetoric and the actual experiences of women?

Explore with reference to one or more women's lives in Victorian Britain. See the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Daunton ed. How effective were public health reforms in the Victorian City? How did understandings of disease causation alter during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Morris and Richard Trainor eds , Urban governance R. Woods and J. Does working-class leisure and recreation express a class identity and culture under attack from the repressive and manipulative forces of middle class authority?

What was the balance between large-scale, organised and informal, family based recreations - ie public versus private? Was there a sexual division of leisure pursuits? Colin Wilkinson. Edenfield Through Time. John Simpson. Burnley Through Time. Roger Frost. Caledonia Dreaming. John Kv Eunson. Widnes At Work. Leicester in the s. Stephen Butt. Woolton Through Time. David Paul. Gough Whitlam. John Faulkner. Birkenhead From Old Photographs.

Scotland's Lost Industries. Michael Meighan. Steven Dickens. Norman Watson. Anglesey Towns and Villages. Geraint Jones. The Country Shows of North Yorkshire. Ian Forsyth. Eula Apo. Anna Jell. Rhondda Colleries Through Time. David Swindenbank.

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John Kerr. Little Book of Beeching. Robin Jones. Coal Mining in Britain. Mr Richard Hayman. Paul Middleton. Derby at Work. Maxwell Craven. A History of Luton. Anne Allsopp. Hearthlands: A memoir of the White City housing estate in Belfast. Marianne Elliott. Derek Mills. Witchcraft in early modern Germany. Faites part de votre avis aux autres lecteurs en notant ce livre et en laissant un commentaire. Vous avez soumis la note et la critique suivantes. Votre panier est vide Votre panier ne contient actuellement aucun article. Continuer les achats.

Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. Prix : PHP Choisir sa boutique. Ignorer la liste. Note globale Aucune note 0. Non, annuler Oui, la signaler Merci! OK, fermer. Harrison , the author of The Common People disagrees: "Contrary to older opinions, this decline in mortality is not to be attributed to progress in medical knowledge or techniques, but to a general improvement in standards of living, which strengthened people's resistance to disease and mitigated some of the worst harshness of life.

In particular there was some improvements in infant mortatility, which was where the greatest waste of human life occured. Wages improved steadily in the second-half of the 18th century. Inventions by James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny and Samuel Crompton Spinning Mule meant that weavers were assured of a plentiful supply of yarn, and the s became the golden age of handloom weaving, when work was plentiful and wages high.

One observer pointed out: "Their little cottages seemed happy and contented It was seldom that a weaver appealed to the parish for relief Peace and content sat upon the weaver's brow. This enabled weavers and other artisans to live in better homes and by the s they began buying their own homes. A study of Birmingham by John G. Rule , the author of The Labouring Classes in Early Industrial England , showed that artisans in the city began joining together in clubs that allowed them to buy houses over a fourteen-year period.

This was a very popular venture as it cost less to buy a house than to rent one. The prosperity of the handloom weavers was short-lived. With the invention of the steam-engine by James Watt , factories no longer had to be built by the side of fast-flowing rivers. Businessmen now tended to build factories where there was a good supply of labour. The obvious place to build a factory was therefore in a town.

Manchester is a good example of how a town was changed by the Industrial Revolution. In Manchester was a market-town with a population of 27, Businessmen began building factories in the town because of Manchester's large population and local coal deposits. By , Manchester had fifty-two textile factories and the population had grown to 95, This attracted others who wanted to sell their goods and services to this large population. This caused further growth, and by the population of Manchester was over , The people who moved to Manchester needed somewhere to live.

Builders realised that good profits could be made by quickly building cheap housing. One way of doing this was to make sure that the houses shared as many walls as possible. The result was rows and rows of back-to-back, terraced houses. The gaps between the rows were often as narrow as eight or nine feet. The journalist, Henry Mayhew , argued that the government needed to know the scale of the problem that existed.

He wrote a series of articles for the newspaper, The Morning Chronicle. He later described himself as a "social explorer" and saw his role "as supplying information concerning a very large body of persons, of whom the public had less knowledge than of the most distant tribes of the earth".

James P. Kay-Shuttleworth was a doctor in Manchester and in he reported: "Frequently, the inspectors found two or more families crowded into one small house and often one family lived in a damp cellar where twelve or sixteen persons were crowded. Children are ill-fed, dirty, ill-clothed, exposed to cold and neglect; and in consequence, more than one-half of the off-spring die before they have completed their fifth year.

The strongest survive; but the same causes which destroy the weakest, impair the vigour of the more robust; and hence the children of our manufacturing population are proverbially pale and sallow. The large number of factories in Manchester caused a considerable amount of pollution. Alexis de Tocqueville was a French aristocrat who visited the city in The sun seen through it is a disc without rays. Under this half daylight , human beings are ceaselessly at work From this foul drain the greatest stream of human industry flows out to fertilize the whole world.

From this filthy sewer pure gold flows. Here humanity attains its most complete development and its most brutish; here civilisation works its miracles, and civilised man is turned back almost into a savage. London was probably the most polluted city in England: "It was noon, and an exquisitely bright and clear spring day; but the view was smudgy and smeared with smoke.

Clumps of building and snatches of parks looked through the clouds like dim islands rising out of the sea of smoke. It was impossible to tell where the sky ended and the city began; and as you peered into the thick haze you could, after a time, make out the dusky figures of tall factory chimneys plumed with black smoke; while spires and turrets seemed to hang midway between you and the earth, as if poised in the thick grey air.

Houses were also severely overcrowded. Friedrich Engels was shocked when he visited Liverpool in the s. A full fifth of the population, more than 45, human beings, live in narrow, dark, damp, badly ventilated cellar dwellings, of which there are 7, in the city. Besides these cellar dwellings there are 2, courts, small spaces built up on all four sides and having but one entrance, a narrow-covered passage-way, the whole ordinarily very dirty and inhabited exclusively by proletarians.

In Bristol, on one occasion, 2, families were visited, of whom 46 per cent occupied but one room each. The conditions outside the homes were also extremely bad. There was no system of refuse collection and most people just dumped their rubbish in the streets. Working-class homes did not have inside lavatories and people therefore had to share communal privies. These privies were often just holes in the ground covered by a wooden shed. When the privies were not cleaned out on a regular basis, the cesspits overflowed and the sewage ran down the streets.

According to a report carried out in Leeds : "The privies are invariably in a filthy condition, and often remain without the removal of any portion of filth for six months. A magazine published in October pointed out the problems experienced by the people of Edinburgh : "These streets are often so narrow that a person can step from the window of one house into that of its opposite neighbour, while the houses are piled so high, storey upon storey, that the light can scarcely penetrate into the court or alley that lies between.

There are neither sewers or drains, nor even privies belonging to the houses. In consequence, all refuse, garbage, and excrements of at least 50, persons are thrown into the gutters every night, so that, in spite of all the street sweeping, a mass of dried filth and four vapous are created, which not only offend the sight and smell, but endanger the health of the inhabitants in the highest degree. Nottingham was another town that had changed dramatically.

It had a population of about 10, in the middle of the 18th century and it was described as "a garden city, with well laid out houses, surrounded by orchards and gardens in the midst of parkland and open spaces".

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By the population had risen to about 50, but the people were packed into very much the same ground area as had been occupied a hundred years before. It was now "a chequer board of mean streets, alleyways and courts".


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This was supported by an official report published in "I believe that nowhere else shall we find so large a mass of people crowded into courts as in Nottingham The courts are almost always approached through a low-arched tunnel of some 30 or 36 inches wide, about 8 feet high, and from 20 to 30 feet long In these confined quarters, the refuse is allowed to accumulate It is common to find the privies open and exposed to the public gaze of the inhabitants The houses are three stories high, side by side, back to back.

The worst slums were in London. The journalist, Henry Mayhew , carried out an investigation into the problem in A strange incongruous chaos of wealth and want - of ambition and despair - of the brightest charity and the darkest crime, where there is more feasting and more starvation, than on any other spot on earth - and all grouped round the one giant centre, the huge black dome, with its ball of gold looming through the smoke and marking out the capital, no matter from what quarter the traveller may come".

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In around a fifth of the population lived in towns of more than 5, inhabitants; by around three-fifths did. This caused serious health problems for working-class people. Friedrich Engels agreed with Mayhew that they rich and poor lived very close together but they rarely visited each other's territory: "Every great city has one or more slums, where the working-class is crowded together.

True poverty often dwells in hidden alleys close to the palaces of the rich; but, in general, a separate territory has been assigned to it, where removed from the sight of the happier classes, it may struggle along as it can A person may live in it for years, and go in and out daily without coming into contact with a working people's quarter This arises from the fact Carrier Street was considered to be one of the worst places to live in London and was described as "an almost endless intricacy of courts and yards crossing each other, rendered the place like a rabbit-warren.

We ain't got no privies, no dustbins, no drains, no water supplies, and no sewers in the whole place We are living like pigs, and it ain't fair We hope you will let us have our complaints put into your influential paper, and make the landlords Obtaining clean water was a constant problem in industrial towns. Some people used buckets to collect rain-water. However, the air was so polluted that this water would soon turn black.

In the bright light it appeared the colour of strong green tea, and positively looked as solid as black marble in the shadow - indeed it was more like watery mud than muddy water; and yet we were assured this was the only water the wretched inhabitants had to drink. George R. Sims was another journalist who urged the government to take action to improve living conditions. Her wretched apartment was on the street level, and behind it was a common yard of the tenement.

For this room, the widow paid four and sixpence a week; the walls were mildewed and steaming with damp; the boards as you trod upon them made the slushing noise of a plant spread across a mud puddle in a brickfield. Of all the evils arising from this one room system there is perhaps none greater than the utter destruction of innocence in the young. A moment's thought will enable the reader to appreciate the evils of it.

But if it is bad in the case of a respectable family, how much more terrible is it when the children are familiarised with actually immorality. Thomas Carlyle wrote that England seemed an "enchanted" land that had been "cursed by the gods, flowing with wealth from improved agriculture and industrial invention" but had the terrible problem of poverty that such wealth had brought with it. Who is it that it blesses; makes happier, wiser, beautifuler, in any way better? We have more riches than any Nation ever had before; we have less good of them than any Nation ever had before.

Our successful industry is hitherto unsuccessful; a strange success, if we stop here! In the midst of plethoric plenty, the people perish; with gold walls, and full barns, no man feels himself safe or satisfied. In , James P. Kay-Shuttleworth , a doctor in Manchester , carried out an investigation into the health of working-class people in the city. In this street also, cesspools with open grids have been made close to the doors of the houses, in which disgusting refuse accumulates, and whence its noxious effluvia constantly exhale.

In Parliament-passage about thirty houses have been erected, merely separated by an extremely narrow passage a yard and a half wide from the wall and back door of other houses. These thirty houses have one privy. Kay-Shuttleworth then went on to speculate that these conditions were the cause of a recent outbreak of cholera : "A more unhealthy spot than Allen's Court it would be difficult to discover, and the physical depression consequent on living in such a situation may be inferred from what ensued on the introduction of cholera here.

A match-seller, living in the first story of one of these houses, was seized with cholera, on Sunday, July 22nd: he died on Wednesday, July 25th; and owing to the wilful negligence of his friends, and because the Board of Health had no intimation of the occurrence, he was not buried until Friday afternoon, July 27th.

On that day, five other cases of cholera occurred amongst the inhabitants of the court. On the 28th, seven, and on the 29th two. The cases were nearly all fatal. Thomas Southwood Smith , a doctor working in Bethnal Green in London also argued that there was a link between sanitation and disease: "Into this part of the ditch the privies of all the houses of a street called North Street open; these privies are completely uncovered, and the soil from them is allowed to accumulate in the open ditch.

Nothing can be conceived more disgusting than the appearance of this ditch for an extent of from to feet, and the odour of the effluvia from it is at this moment most offensive. Lamb's Fields is the fruitful source of fever to the houses which immediately surround it, and to the small streets which branch off from it. Particular houses were pointed out to me from which entire families have been swept away, and from several of the streets fever is never absent. This granted permission for the setting up of town councils.

It was also decided that all ratepayers should have a vote in council elections. These councils were also given the power to take over such matters as the town's water supply. For the first time the working-class had a vote in elections but as they had not created their own political party they rarely bothered to vote and local councils refused to take action concerning sanitation. In , Parliament passed a Registration Act ordering the registration of all births, marriages and deaths that took place in Britain. Parliament also appointed William Farr to collect and publish these statistics.

In his first report for the General Register Office, Farr argued that the evidence indicated that unhealthy living conditions were killing thousands of people every year. Farr argued that urban growth in the s and s had resulted in insanitation and poor water supplies and was probably responsible for an increase in epidemic and endemic disease.

Most houses did not have pipes to take the sewerage away. Human waste was piled up in the street called dunghills before being taken away by people called nightmen because by law it could only be performed after twelve o'clock at night. A doctor reported what happened in the town of Greenock : "In Market Street is a dunghill A man who deals in dung sells it The smell in summer is horrible There are many houses, four stories in height, in the area Private firms were responsible for cleaning the privies and dunghills.

William Thorn worked for a firm that carried out this work and he was asked by a parliamentary committee what happened to it: "We sell it to the farmers, who use it on their land Water consumption in towns per head of population remained very low. In most towns the local river, streams or springs, provided people with water to drink. These sources were often contaminated by human waste.

The bacteria of certain very lethal infectious diseases, for example, typhoid and cholera , are transmitted through water, it was not only unpleasant to taste but damaging to people's health. As Alexis de Tocqueville pointed out: "The fetid, muddy waters, stained with a thousand colours by the factories they pass, of one of the streams Henry Mayhew was a journalist who carried out an investigation into working-class living conditions: "As we passed along the reeking banks of the sewer the sun shone upon a narrow slip of the water.

As we gazed in horror at it, we saw drains and sewers emptying their filthy contents into it; we saw a whole tier of doorless privies in the open road, common to men and women, built over it; we heard bucket after bucket of filth splash into it, and the limbs of the vagrant boys bathing in it seemed, by pure force of contrast, white as Parian marble. And yet, as we stood doubting the fearful statement, we saw a little child, from one of the galleries opposite, lower a tin can with a rope to fill a large bucket that stood beside her.

In each of the balconies that hung over the stream the self-same tub was to be seen in which the inhabitants put the mucky liquid to stand, so that they may, after it has rested for a day or two, skim the fluid from the solid particles of filth, pollution, and disease. As the little thing dangled her tin cup as gently as possible into the stream, a bucket of night-soil was poured down from the next gallery.

In their report published in , the Commission made several recommendations to Parliament. As a result, the Poor Law Amendment Act was passed. The act stated that: a no able-bodied person was to receive money or other help from the Poor Law authorities except in a workhouse; b conditions in workhouses were to be made very harsh to discourage people from wanting to receive help; c workhouses were to be built in every parish or, if parishes were too small, in unions of parishes; d ratepayers in each parish or union had to elect a Board of Guardians to supervise the workhouse, to collect the Poor Rate and to send reports to the Central Poor Law Commission; e the three man Central Poor Law Commission would be appointed by the government and would be responsible for supervising the Amendment Act throughout the country.

Thomas Attwood argued that workhouses would become "prisons from the purpose of terrifying applicants from seeking relief". Daniel O'Connell , said that as an Irishman, he would not say much, but he objected to the bill on the grounds that it "did away with personal feelings and connections. Cobbett particularly objected to the separation of families, and to workhouse inmates being forced to wear badges or distinctive clothing. In the Poor Law Commission became concerned that a high proportion of all poverty had its origins in disease and premature death. Men were unable to work as a result of long-term health problems.