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Chronique —Kroniek

Studies in Greek philosophy presented to Gregory Vlastos, ed. Lee, A. Mourelatos and R.


Rorty, Assen, Van Gorcum, , xviii, p. Architecturer l'invisible Architecturer l'invisible. Sciences Religieuse N ]. Bildrhetorik Bildrhetorik, hrsg. Lee, Berlin, de Gruyter, , viii, p. A collection of 15 articles, all but one of which previously published elsewhere. Estrategias discursivas en la antiqua Grecia Estrategias discursivas en la antiqua Grecia, ed. Norma Andrade, Buenos Aires, editorial Eudeba, , p. Collano di testi studi di filosopia antica 23]. Griechische Die Welt Die griechische Welt.

Erinnerungsorte der Antike, hrsg. Verlagsanstalt, , p. Madres y maternidades Madres y maternidades. Narziss und Eros Bild oder Text? Transformationen der Antike, hrsg. Mit Abbildungen. Index des noms propres. Index des notions. Philosophy and Culture Philosophy and Culture 2. Variazioni sul tema, a cura di Elisabetta Berard, Francisco L. Psyche and Soma Psyche and Soma. Cambridge: Cambridge UP , xliv, p.

Texte [Burnet]. Dialoghi spuri di Platone, introd. Classici della filosofia]. Carte de la Sicile. Index nominum noms anciens. Index verborum notabiliorum termes grecs. Anglais Parmenides Plato's Parmenides. Las divisiones del Sofista. Schleiermacher Index des noms propres anciens. Table de concordance. Table des illustrations.

Heiberg bearb. Diels und W. Schubart, Hildesheim, Weidmann, , xxxvii, 62 p. Berlin, Weidmann, Adluri, Vishwa [P. Benitez, Eugenio E. In margine alla traduzione commentata della Repubblica di M. Cooper, John M. A Note on Plato Plt. NS 5]. October Franco V. It is not subject. Article "Internationalization vs. Sun Management Center Change Manager 1. Alberto Voltolini. ZOE A. Mills Ave. Philosophical Study at Duquesne University a guide for seminarians 17 November contents Admissions 2 Requirements 3 of the usccb SunFDDI 6. Quel est l objectif?

Curriculum Vitae Dr. Clarity of organization. Have you ever heard of false friends? Well, let us fix that! False friends are words that are identical in English and in French and so mistakenly lead you to think. Teaching Plan: International Business History 1. LeBlanc Centre Ch. Most of these advancements are welcomed, but some people. Kenneth M. Rule N1 Grid Service Provisioning System 5. Barcelona, Ed. Circe, Letters from Burma]. ISBN The premices of a movement Log in Registration. Search for.

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Printing in Secret. Introduction au BIM. Accuracy More information. Evaluation report. Research unit : Troubles du comportement alimentaire de l adolescent. It is very true that philosophy was very much the only religion of ancient Hellenics. All their ideals were very much philosophical. But again, were many astronomers in ancient Greece, men who wanted to unravel the great mystery of the cosmos and of the space. Eudoxus of Cnidus c. Thus, beyond the Hellenic word for politics, there are many other words that we use today from the Hellenic past such as: aristocracy, democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, plutocracy, anarchy and many other that are very much used today in our daily vocabulary is based on Hellenic concepts.

This was mainly due to the fact that in ancient days Hellenics did not wanted to live only on island from the seas around Greece but as well on the continental life. We must remind the reader that in ancient Greece the concept of continental life did not existed. The geographical science which was founded in ancient Greece was not that developed as it is today. He refers to himself as a farmer in Boeotia, a region of central Greece, but other than that we know little. His poetry codified the chronology and genealogy of the Greek myths.

Works and Days and the Theogony are the only two complete works we have of Hesiod, other than the first few lines of a poem called the Shield of Heracles. In Works and Days Hesiod divided time into five agesthe Golden age, ruled by Cronos, when people lived extremely long lives 'without sorrow of heart'; the Silver age, ruled by Zeus; the Bronze age, an epoch of war; the Heroic age, the time of the Trojan war; and lastly the Iron age, the corrupt present.

This is similar to Hindu and Buddhist concepts of the Kali Yuga.

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The idea of a Golden Age has likewise had a profound impact on western thought. Works and Days also discusses pagan ethics, extols hard work, and lists lucky and unlucky days of the month for various activities. The Theogony presents the descent of the gods, and, along with the works of Homer, is one of the key source documents for Greek mythology; it is the Genesis of Greek mythology. It gives the clearest presentation of the Greek pagan creation myth, starting with the creatrix goddesses Chaos and Earth, from whom descended all the gods and men; it mentions hundreds of individual gods, goddesses, demi-gods, elementals and heroes.

The mathematical construct he developed uses two counter-rotating concentric spheres with offset axes of rotation. The combined motion of these spheres causes a planetary motion called a "hippopede", which when combined with the planet's normal easterly track across the backdrop of the fixed stars, causes the planet to move briefly in the opposite direction, as demonstrated here. Anaximader is considered in Greece as the founder of geography.

We must still bear in mind that Greece made for us the geographical universe at our reach. Our science is very much developed today, based in ancient Hellenic efforts and study. Ancient Greece was a land that has favored scientific study and investigation. My book is an investigation on the date that we have from ancient Greece. Today we need more than ever to investigate the past and be aware of the achievements of the past and where we are going to go. Astronomy, geography, geometry, metrics, music are all words related with the ancient Hellenic ideals there are only few that are aware that ancient Hellenic was the language that has created for us the word music.

The Olympics were period games made to make peace among the different societies that disputed their supremacy in leading the social life of Hellenics. The origins of the Olympics is not certain. This rituals show to us that sport was a cult in ancient Greece. Olympic sport are not the sports of today. Athletics was one of the first and main sports of Ancient Greece. It is very sure that the sports practices in ancient Greece are not our sports. At the time of the founding of ancient Greece there were not football and basket ball.

Spear sports were very much present in ancient Greece. The main events of the ancient Hellenics were the sport competitions in the Olympics. These competitions were assimilated into today scale of values. The Greeks believed that a healthy body was very important. Most men and boys practised sports every day because they enjoyed them and wanted to keep fit.

Sport was a good preparation for war too. The Greek armies had to be fit enough to march long distances, carrying all their heavy equipment, and then begin the fight with the enemy. The Greeks had four national sports festivals, where athletes from different city states competed against one another. The most important of the sports contests was the Olympic Games. These were played at Olympia, every four years, in honour of Zeus. On the first day of the Olympics, sacrifices of grain, wine, and lambs were made to Zeus.

Men did practiced spots in Greece. The cult of the body was very much spread and very much in great place. Some persons have considered that ancient Greece was a culture detrimental to the role of the women and their implications into the social and state life. It is very true that women did not played a very singnifical role in the life of the state and the state affairs.

Women were considered unapt for the state life. Women were considered equal to men but were not in the same capable to have leading position on the social and state life. We know of many Hellenic kings and rulers but not of too many queens. We can think very much that Hellenics did not have presidents as we have. Some of the most know opinions agree with this but the word in itself was a Hellenic one. Muses were sources of inspiration for poets and literates. Today Olympics sport are grouped into two categories: summer and winter. I must mention here that is is not many aim to present a full list of all the ancient Hellenic kings and emperors.

We know for sure that Alexander the Great was in many instances eventually the first Hellenic emperor. The period of Alexander the Great is eventually one of the most known and most controversial periods in the past of Greece.

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In the past of Greece the period of Alexander the Great was so to say the climax period of the Hellenic culture. This period was on many instances one of the most famous of the Hellenic period. Alexander the Great was for many a forerunner of the Byzantine Empire. Alexander the Great has done for the first time what later Byzantine emperors were to make the Byzantine Empire. The empire of Alexander Macedon as we know was in many instances an empire that made Greece one of the most know countries in the ancient days. The most inconvenient fact was that Alexander the Great wanted to change the name of all the Hellenics and of Greece only with Macedonia.

The overall Macedonian identity was in many ways considered as a treat to the life of Greece. This is so due to the fact that Alexander the Great did not care in his last days for the good of his own country but wanted to extend his influence on other land more that to care for his own land.

This was the case as well as with the rest of eastern European migrations of the gypsies. Gypsies migrated in Greece starting with the Middle Ages. As I have shown in my above line, ancient Greece identity was a philosophical one. Schools of the philosophy and of philosophical inquiry were very much typical for ancient Hellenics. Ancient Hellenic philosophers were sure that they can find the wisdom of God in philosophy. In one of the these struggles, one of the most famous Athenian philosophers, Socrates killed himself.

No one who studies the past of ancient Greece can pass beyond the schools and thinking of Socrates. Some considered that Socrates was just a imaginary figure of the Hellenics. Socrates was one of the most intelligent and profound Athenian philosophers from all the times. The great intellectual capabilities of Socrates have created a great unknown around his trial and death sentence. The circumstances of his death are extremely unsure. It seem that Socrates was forced to take his own life during the some debates with the Athenians. As history recalls Socrates killed himself other than to obey the rules imposed by the Athenians.

No question there is a great mystery concerning Socrates, a figure that we can consider central for ancient Greece. The main ideas of Hellenic life for ancient Greece came from Socrates. He created a system of philosophical way of life that was very much agreed by all in his times. Today, Socrates is just a memory in the books of history of philosophy. This is a not a real fact. Socrates was in a way the cofounder of the European principles of life. The present paper wants to show that we can consider Socrates not just a Hellenic figure but as well an ancient European figure. It is no question that Socrates was a leading figure in ancient Greece.

He wrote and he has defined some of the most important concerned of his age. He was a herald of Hellenic and European philosophy. Today we need to remember and to rethink Socrates and his ideas of life and philosophy. He left no writings, and what is known is derived largely from Plato and Xenophon. Socrates was a stone cutter by trade, even though there is little evidence that he did much to make a living. However, he did have enough money to own a suit of armor when he was a hoplite in the Athenian military. Socrates' mother was a midwife.

He was married and had three sons. Throughout his life he claimed to hear voices which he interpreted as signs from the gods. It appears that Socrates spent much of his adult life in the agora or the marketplace conversing about ethical issues. He had a penchant for exposing ignorance, hypocrisy, and conceit among his fellow Athenians, particularly in regard to moral questions.

In all probability, he was disliked by most of them. However, Socrates did have a loyal following. He was very influential in the lives of Plato, Euclid, Alcibiades, and many others. As such, he was associated with the undemocratic faction of Athens. Although Socrates went to great lengths to distinguish himself from the sophists, it is unlikely that his fellow Athenians made such a distinction in their minds. Socrates is admired by many philosophers for his willingness to explore an argument wherever it would lead as well as having the moral courage to follow its conclusion.

This culture was rich in architecture, science and culture these are values that today are very much questioned. Greece was in many way the start of European life. This start was as we can see extremely essential and was exploited by others mostly by Roman Empire. In the year there was a great bathe in Corinth when Roman rules invaded and conquered Greece. Roman Empire was againt the Hellenic ideals as a whole although Italy the cradle of Roman Empire was formed by Hellenic ideals. Around B. Feeling the threat of the Roman Empire, Greeks allied with their former enemies against Rome.

Wars started between these two Empires, called the Punic Wars. These Wars lasted 45 tears. The Greeks were involved in this campaign against Rome. Hannibal, the Carthaginian leader, allied with Philip V of Macedonia, the most important power of the Balkans. The Achaean confederacy started a rebellion in B. Severe and oppressive restrictions were set. Rome had no consistent policy about the Greek states. They demanded only security and revenue.

Greece under the Roman Empire, from 31 B. This period is described as a period of peace and security which permitted an economical and cultural progress, especially in the cities such as Athens, Corinth, Alexandria, Miletus, Thessalonica, and Smyrna. Due to a decentralized Roman provincial administration, a urban Greek elite re-appeared, which also had the right to participate to the Roman Senate.

The Romans welcomed the Greek culture and Latin and Greek became the dominant languages of the Empire. A Greco-Roman Empire was born. Roman Empire that was a leading empire in the Mediterranean sea was a empire that in many ways was detrimental to the Hellenic life. This is so due to the fact that in the period Roman Oppression used the so called gladiatorial games for the pleasure of the Latin specking population.

During the Roman days, Greece had many small buildings for gladiatorial fights. This empire promoted just one union with Rome and nothing else. This is was eventually one of the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire. Greece was already an identity before Roman invaded Greece. The ideals of many Hellenics were in ancient times by far away from the Roman world view. Roman world view was very much a legalistic one and not at all a philosophical one as was the case of Greece. The rise of the Roman Empire was in many was detrimental to the Hellenic philosophical ideal.

Roman were not so much cultivators of wisdom [philosophy] but very much they were cultivators of justice. Thessaloniki, Patras and some other hellenic cities hads to invest in gladiatorial games for this period. Roman are recllaed in the hellenic history as great lovers of public gladiatorial games. Some of these games were extremly dangerous and made for the great ovations of the Roman Aermies. The imposing of this idea in Greece was not a very successful thing. Greece had already and identity that was dominant in the country. The ideals of epistemology, gnoselology, science and philosophy were dominant in the Hellenic understanding.

The battle of Corinth was a great defeat for Greece. We know that Greece felled under the Roman Empire. European past remembers this day as a shameful day. What was famous Corinth for? According to myth, the city was founded by Corinthos, a descendant of the god Helios the Sun , while other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra, a daughter of the titan Oceanus, thus the ancient name of the city also Ephyra. While at first they failed, their second attempt was successful when their leader Aletes followed a different path around the Corinthian Gulf from Antirio.

Some ancient names for the place, such as Korinthos, derive from a pre-Greek, "Pelasgian" language; it seems likely that Corinth was also the site of a Bronze Age Mycenaean palace- city, like Mycenae, Tiryns or Pylos. According to myth, Sisyphus was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth. It was also in Corinth that Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, abandoned Medea. During the Trojan War Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon. It was a known city for its special and original sculptures. Although the world wide community does not agree, ancient Greece was a interest for all.

The architecture, the philosophy and the thinking of ancient Hellenics have influenced in many ways the way we see and understand life and reality. This books aim is too question the way we see and understand today Greece and what was Greece doing in the past. I have entitled the present chapter of my book ancient Greece in order to reaffirm a need to define the ancient civilization of Hellenics.

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This civilization is not over yet. Greece of today is probably the same attractive for us just that we the contemporaries have forgotten to have a very definite attitude for the past and the history. Greece is as we have shown a great deal of history. It is not question why at the beginning of the Christian age, Saint Paul addressed two epistles to the Corinthians. In most of our Church we hear these epistles that were addressed 54 This is no question why after the passing of the ancient times, during Middle Ages the main Church Cathedaral from Constatinople was name the Aghia Sophia.

Aghia Sofia meant in helllenic world view that the world is a way for attaining wisdom and philosophy. This was not a very welcomed fact for the Roman Empire and its Emperors. This was actually one of the reasons of the falls of the Roman Empire. Greece was thus in a great period of disturbance with the Roman Empire.

Corinth was not just the location for two epistles of Saint Paul. One other person who wrote to the Corinthians was Saint Clement of Rome. Corinth was thus one of the most significant cities in the ancient Greece and in the ancient world as a whole. No appeal seems to have been made to Rome, but a letter was sent in the name of the Church of Rome by St. Clement to restore peace and unity. He begins by explaining that his delay in writing has been caused by the sudden calamities which, one after another, had just been falling upon the Roman Church. The reference is clearly to the persecution of Domitian.

The former high reputation of the Corinthian Church is recalled, its piety and hospitality, its obedience and discipline. Jealousy had caused the divisions; it was jealousy that led Cain, Esau, etc. The Corinthians are urged to repent after the example of the Patriarchs, and to be humble like Christ himself.

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Let them observe order, as all creation does. A curious passage on the Resurrection is somewhat of an interruption in the sequence: all creation proves the Resurrection, and so does the phoenix, which every five hundred years consumes itself, that its offspring may arise out of its ashes Let us, Clement continues, forsake evil and approach God with purity, clinging to His blessing, which the Patriarchs so richly obtained, for the Lord will quickly come with His rewards, let us look to Jesus Christ, our High-Priest, above the angels at the right hand of the Father Discipline and subordination are necessary as in an army and in the human body, while arrogance is absurd for man is nothing.

The Apostles foresaw feuds, and provided for a succession of bishops and deacons; such, therefore cannot be removed at pleasure. The just have always been persecuted. Read St. Paul's first epistle to you, how he condemns party spirit. It is shocking that a few should disgrace the Church of Corinth. Let us beg for pardon; nothing is more beautiful than charity; it was shown by Christ when He gave His Flesh for our flesh, His Soul for our souls; by living in this love, we shall be in the number of the saved through Jesus Christ, by Whom is glory to God for ever and ever, Amen But if any disobey, he is in great danger; but we will pray that the Creator may preserve the number of His elect in the whole world.

The conclusion follows: "We have said enough, on the necessity of repentance, unity, peace, for we have been speaking to the faithful, who have deeply studied the Scriptures, and will understand the examples pointed out, and will follow them. We shall indeed be happy if you obey. We have sent two venerable messengers, to show how great is our anxiety for peace among you" Jesus Christ, through whom unto Him be glory and majesty, might and honour, both now and for ever and ever, Amen.

Now send ye back speedily unto us our messengers Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, together with Fortunatus also, in peace and with joy, to the end that they may the more quickly report the peace and concord which is prayed for and earnestly desired by us, that we also may the more speedily rejoice over your good order. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you and with all men in all places who have been called by God and through Him, through whom is glory and honour, power and greatness and eternal dominion, unto Him, from the ages past and for ever and ever.

The style of the Epistle is earnest and simple, restrained and dignified, and sometimes eloquent. The Greek is correct, though not classical. The quotations from the Old Testament are long and numerous. The version of the Septuagint used by Clement inclines in places towards that which appears in the New Testament, yet presents sufficient evidence of independence; his readings are often with A, but are less often opposed to B than are those in the New Testament; occasionally he is found against the Septuagint with Theodotion or even Aquila see H.

Swete, Introd. The New Testament he never quotes verbally. Corinth was to become a sacred spot of ancient world. It was one of the most common cities in the ancient Eastern Europe. Corinth was famous for its religious interest and its spirituality. This city was in many ways one of the first cities who became Christian and later one orthodox Christian. It is interesting to note that the state relation of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire were not the relations between Greece and Roman Empire from the religious point of view. Greece was thus in a very delicate positions.

This was during the ancient days. Thus in the present chapter I was trying to make a summary of ancient Greece and its main events. Some of these events were to become known into the world history. In all the world history books we speck today of ancient Greece and its implications. From the Olympics to the religious persons addressing the communities of Corinth Greece was in many ways a great accomplishment not only of Greece in itself. On the Hellenic soil we for the first time have meet with the Christian religion and the preaches of some great saints. One of it was saint Paul the Apostle, an apostle that was converted to Christianity on his way to Damascus in Syrian.

This apostle was welcomed well by the Corinthians of his day who were eager to find new things from the wisdom of Asia. Corinthians knew that their origins came from orient and from Asia. They were highly pious persons. Corinth was one of the first cities in the past of mankind where for the first time the good news of the resurrection of Christ was heard.

This makes ancient Greece and Greece in itself a great location. Those who travel to Corinth would remember out the pain of making Orthodox Christianity and giving birth to the Church. The first notions of Church appeared in Corinth area in ancient Greece. The pagan cult were abolished in Corinth for the receiving of Christianity. In Corinth ancient Hellenics practiced strange ritual and faith such as the cult of goddess Aphrodite. It cannot be proved, therefore, that he used any one of the Synoptic Gospels.

He mentions St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, and appears to imply a second. He knows Romans and Titus, and apparently cites several other of St. Paul's Epistles. But Hebrews is most often employed of all New Testament books. James, probably, and I Peter, perhaps, are referred to. Fathers", by a Committee of the Oxford Society of Hist. Theology, Oxford, The tone of authority with which the letter speaks is noteworthy, especially in the later part 56, 58, etc. And yet undoubtedly this is the case.

The temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, stood atop the Acrocorinth. A famous temple to Aphrodite had stood on the summit of Acrocorinth in the Classical Age It had fallen into ruins by Paul's time, but successors to its 1, cult prostitutes continued to ply their profession in the city below. Many of them were no doubt housed in the lofts above the 33 wine shops uncovered in the modern excavations. Corinth was a city catering to sailors and traveling salesmen.

Even by the Classical Age it had earned an unsavory reputation for its libertine atmosphere; to call someone 'a Corinthian lass' was to impugn her morals. It may well be that one of Corinth's attractions for Paul was precisely this reputation of immorality. The city was filled with sailors who gladly spent their money there. The name "Corinth" became a synonym for immorality. This temple gave Corinth it's reputation for gross immorality of which Paul often spoke 1 Cor. This conflict was about the end in the year AD when Emperor Constantine the Great has give freedom for Christians in European and Mediterranean world.

Constantine the Great and his imperial reign can be considered one of the end periods of the times of Ancient Greece. Together with Constantine we can speck of the entrance of Greece into the Middle Age times. All the pagan temples were burned and were destroyed. It is necessary for us today to meditate to these past facts so we know what the main challenges of the ancients were.

Aelian, the late Greek writer, tells us that if ever a Corinthian was shown upon the stage in a Greek play he was shown drunk. The very name Corinth was synonymous with debauchery and there was one source of evil in the city which was known all over the civilized world. Above the isthmus towered the hill of the Acropolis, and on it stood the great temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love. To that temple there were attached one thousand priestesses who were sacred prostitutes, and in the evenings they descended from the Acropolis and plied their trade upon the streets of Corinth, until it became a Greek proverb, 'It is not every man who can afford a journey to Corinth.

Of equal fame in Corinth was the temple of Poseidon, ruler of the sea on which Corinth's commercial life depended and maker of earthquakes a frequent danger in the area. Poseidon had a very large temple at a nearby village where the biennial Isthmian Games were held. On the slopes of the Acrocorinth was the sanctuary of Demeter, which dates from the 6th and 7th centuries B.

In Corinth, as often found in other parts of ancient Greece, there was a shrine dedicated to Asklepios, the god of healing, and his daughter, Hygieia. The museum at Corinth has hundreds of terra-cotta votive offerings presented to Asklepios by pilgrims who sought a cure or who wanted to thank the god for a healing they attributed to him.

Among these votives can be seen limbs, hands, feet, breasts and genitals. In a time-honored tradition, petitioners to Asklepios had dedicated replicas of the particular parts of the body in which they were afflicted. These clay copies of human body parts, which were hung around the temple by worshippers, might have given special power to Paul's image of the church as the "body" of Christ 1 Cor. The temple of Apollo stood on the hill overlooking the Roman city's main forum stood the temple of Apollo which served as a reminder of Corinth's ancient splendor, and was years old by Paul's time, but it was in ruins.

At one time a bronze statue of Apollo stood in the temple. To Paul it would have served merely as a sermon illustration of the impotence of the Greek's pagan gods. There were several sanctuaries to Apollo inside the city. Some of these aims are most of the time the perennial attractions of man form the earliest periods of his existence.

Man was interested in making discoveries and other great things. This was one of the reasons Greece was founded. The quest for science and knowledge was a quest of the founding of Greece.


The human thirst for knowledge was in many ways the real reason for which Greece was founded. This is why Greece had so many schools of philosophy. These schools were very much some of the first schools of the founding of science and Hellenic thinking. The quest of reason and knowledge was a basic and primary ideal not only of Greece but of many other nations and cultures. One such nation was Greece finally. Greece was very much a country with many branches of sciences developed. These sciences were in many ways main traces of the Hellenic culture.

One quest was epistemological and the other gnoseological as we have addressed. The second quest was in many ways mythological. Ancient Hellenics as we have said were extremely fascinated with the astronomical and cosmic space. The dream of cosmic space was in Greece mythological. We have a thus a rich mythology of Greece concerning the cosmos and the cosmic space.

Human mind was able to understand that the cosmos is the last limit of existence and of discovery. In Greece this was a mythical fact. Greece had a major confrontation with ancient Persia during the times of Emperor Darius of Persia. Persia was about existing on the soil of modern day Iran.

Darius was defeated in the famous battle of Marathon. This battle was to be historical for Greece. Darius and his armies were defeated and did not enter in Greece and Europe. Then out of the void appeared Erebus, the unknowable place where death dwells, and Night. All else was empty, silent, endless, darkness. Then somehow Love was born bringing a start of order.

From Love came Light and Day. Once there was Light and Day, Gaea, the earth appeared. Then Erebus slept with Night, who gave birth to Ether, the heavenly light, and to Day the earthly light. Meanwhile Gaea alone gave birth to Uranus, the heavens. Uranus became Gaea's mate covering her on all sides. Together they produced the three Cyclopes, the three Hecatoncheires, and twelve Titans.

However, Uranus was a bad father and husband. He hated the Hecatoncheires. He imprisoned them by pushing them into the hidden places of the earth, Gaea's womb. This angered Gaea and she ploted against Uranus. She made a flint sickle and tried to get her children to attack Uranus. All were too afraid except, the youngest Titan, Cronus. Gaea and Cronus set up an ambush of Uranus as he lay with Gaea at night. Cronus grabed his father and castrated him, with the stone sickle, throwing the severed genitales into the ocean. The fate of Uranus is not clear.

He either died, withdrew from the earth, or exiled himself to Italy. As he departed he promised that Cronus and the Titans would be punished. From the sea foam where his genitales fell came Aphrodite. Cronus became the next ruler. He imprisoned the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires in Tartarus. He married his sister Rhea, under his rule the Titans had many offspring. He ruled for many ages. However, Gaea and Uranus both had prophesied that he would be overthrown by a son. To avoid this Cronus swallowed each of his children as they were born.

Rhea was angry at the treatment of the children and ploted against Cronus. When it came time to give birth to her sixth child, Rhea hid herself, then she left the child to be raised by nymphs. To concel her act she wrapped a stone in swaddling cloths and passed it off as the baby to Cronus, who swallowed it. This child was Zeus. He grew into a handsome youth on Crete. He consulted Metis on how to defeat Cronus. She prepaired a drink for Cronus design to make him vomit up the other children.

Rhea convinced Cronus to accept his son and Zeus was allowed to return to Mount Olympus as Cronus's cupbearer. This gave Zeus the opertunity to slip Cronus the specially prepaired drink.

This worked as planned and the other five children were vomitted up. Being gods they were unharmed. They were thankful to Zeus and made him their leader. Cronus was yet to be defeated. He and the Titans, except Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Oceanus, fought to retain their power. Atlas became their leader in battle and it looked for some time as though they would win and put the young gods down. However, Zeus was cunning. He went down to Tartarus and freed the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires.

Prometheus joined Zeus as well. He returned to battle with his new allies. The Cyclopes provided Zeus with lighting bolts for weapons. This appearance of the world or the earth was in many ways a gnoseological Hellenic quest. Hellenic mythology was a very rich one since Hellenics raised for themselves many questions.

All these questions gave birth to a Hellenic science that is today taken by all man of science and savants. This science is called cosmology. The exact date of this event is not at all significant for the present aim of this book. What we can address is that today we have man branches of Hecatoncheires he set in ambush armed with boulders. With the time right, Zeus retreated drawing the Titans into the Hecatoncheires's ambush. The Hecatoncheires rained down hundreds of boulders with such a fury the Titans thought the mountains were falling on them.

They broke and ran giving Zeus victory. Zeus exiled the Titans who had fought against him into Tartarus. Except for Atlas, who was singled out for the special punishment of holding the world on his shoulders. However, even after this victory Zeus was not safe. Gaea angry that her children had been imprisoned gave birth to a last offspring, Typhoeus.

Typhoeus was so fearsome that most of the gods fled. However, Zeus faced the monster and flinging his lighting bolts was able to kill it. Typhoeus was burried under Mount Etna in Sicily. Much later a final challenge to Zeus rule was made by the Giants. They went so far as to attempt to invade Mount Olympus, piling mountain upon mountain in an effort to reach the top. But, the gods had grown strong and with the help of Heracles the Giants were subdued or killed. This sometimes causes frustration and loss of track when trying to establish the continuing relationship between these characters in the birth of the world.

So you have to be patient and try to associate these names with the characters and events that took place So In Greek mythology, the creation of the world starts with the creation of the different classes of Gods. So after this brief introduction, the next step to examine in the creation of the world is the creation of the Gods which really is the same thing, it's just that when you are interested in the creation of the world, you look at the very beginning of the creation of the Gods, while, to examine the creation of the Gods, you have to look a little deeper.

Hesiod's Theogony is one of the best introductions we have on the creation of the world. According to Hesiod, three major elements took part in the beginning of creation. Chaos, Gaia, and Eros. Each child had a specific role, and Ouranos's duty was to protect Gaia.

Later on, the two became a couple and were the first Gods to rule the world. They had twelve children who where known as the Titans. Three others known as the Cyclopes, and the three hundred handed Giants. The situation from here on however wasn't too good. Ouranos wasn't too pleased with his offsprings because he saw them as a threat to his throne. After all, there would come a time when they would grow up, and perhaps challenge his command. Ouranos eventually decided that his children belonged deep inside Gaia, hidden from himself and his kingdom.

Gaia who wasn't too pleased with this arrangement agreed at first, but, later on chose to give her solidarity to her children. She devised a plan to rid her children from their tyrant father, and supplied her youngest child Kronos with a sickle. She then arranged a meeting for the two in which Kronos cut off his father's genitals. The seed of Ouranos which fell into the sea gave birth to Aphrodite, while from his blood were created the Fates, the Giants, and the Meliai nymphs. Kronos succeeded his father in taking over the throne and married his sister Rhea. He also freed his siblings and shared his kingdom with them.

Okeanos was given the responsibility to rule over the sea and rivers, while Hyperion guided the Sun and the stars. And time went by Sooner than later Kronos had his own children, and the very same fears that haunted his father came back to torment him as well. Kronos eventually decided that the best way to deal with this problem was to swallow all his children. However, what goes around comes around, and once again the mother decided it was time to free her children.

In Greece cosmology was seen as a scientific investigation and not as religious quest. In the Hellenic language, Cosmos literally means ornament, coming from the verb "cosmoo", meaning to adorn, later to embellish. The Stoics, the philosopher Hellanikos and others have also described identically the process of creation, but each with his own mystical terminology.

In antiquity, the ones who knew were bound not to reveal these things to the public, as this was considered a blasphemy. Cosmological knowledge was sacred. It was preserved by mystics, as religious knowledge, during the long ages of regression of human civilization, that followed the floods of Ogygos and Deukalion and other delusionary events. In the present day, scientific knowledge is so disseminated, that this mystic prohibition is useless and obsolete. Even the Olympics, the highest himself. In order to cover the sound of his crying, the Kouretes danced and clashed their shields.

As Zeus entered manhood, he had the strength few dare dream of. He dethroned his father, and freed his siblings from his father's entrails. It was now Zeus's turn to rule the world According to the myths, the immortal Gods thought that it would be interesting to create beings like them, but that were mortal.

They would allow these beings to inhabit the earth. As soon as the mortals were created, Zeus, the leader of the Gods, ordered the two sons of the Titan Iapetus, Prometheus and Epimetheus, to give these beings various gifts in the hope that the mortals would evolve into interesting beings, able to amuse the Gods. So the two brothers started to divide the gifts among themselves in order to give them to the earth's inhabitants.

Epimetheus asked his brother to give out the gifts first, and was granted his wish. He gave the gift of beauty to some animals, agility on other animals, strength in others, and agility and speed to some. However, he left the human race defenseless, with no natural weapons in this new kingdom. Prometheus, who liked the human race, upon realizing what had happened, promptly distributed his own gifts to mankind.

He stole reason from Athena, and thus gave reason to man. He then stole fire from the gates of Hephaestus, and gave mankind this new gift, which would keep them warm. Prometheus then became the protector of the human race, and shared with it all the knowledge he had. This new situation angered Zeus, for fire until know had been a gift only reserved for the Gods. Zeus did not want the human race to resemble the Gods. Zeus's next step was to punish Prometheus. And a heavy punishment it was. Zeus chained Prometheus to a peak in the caucasus which was believed to be at the end of the world.

He had an eagle eat his liver every single day for thirty years. At the end of each day, Prometheus' liver would grow back again, so he would have to suffer all over again. After thirty years, Heracles Hercules released Prometheus from his nightmare. The Olympians refers to the twelve Gods of mount Olympus which is located in the northern central part of Greece. This mountain was believed to be sacred throughout ancient times, and, it was believed to be the highest point on earth.

These Gods that ruled mount Olympus, also ruled the lives of all mankind. Each and every single God or Goddess had their own character and domain. Gods in mythology were very human like. They had the strengths and weaknesses of mortals as we know them today. They supported justice, as seen by their own point of view. Gods even had children with mortals, which resulted in semi-gods like Hercules.

The most amazing observation is how the Gods expresses human nature in its complete form. Strength, fear, unfaithfulness, love, admiration, beauty, hunting, farming, education, there was a God for every human activity and expression. These Gods weren't just ideal figures. They expressed anger, jealousy and joy, just like us.

Each God rules his own realm. Hellenic cosmology was founded of real and concrete scientific data. Finally Greece embraced the Christian concept of cosmology. Thus we can say here that Greece has a Christian concept of cosmology based on science. Most of Hellenic thinking was in many ways cosmological. Hellenics were eventually of the few who started to think cosmologically.

Their thoughts on the origins of the universe involved speculations about the order of things on Earth and the order of the universe. Early speculations involved natural topics of the material world math and subjects common to physics up till the time of Plato. In the latter half of the 5th century their focus changed and the Sophists, an emerging school, focused on morality and society rather than natural philosophy. The philosopher Socrates addressed the same topics as the Sophists.

Prior to that time there were a number of groups, usually referred to as schools, that are categorized as the Pre-Socratic Greek philosophers. But his philosophy was very much conceived as a science. Pythagoras was not just a philosopher but as well a mathematician. He wrote some of the best works of primary mathematics. The mathematics of Pythagoras is considered one of the best mathematics. He is an extremely important figure in the development of mathematics yet we know relatively little about his mathematical achievements.

Unlike many later Greek mathematicians, where at least we have some of the books which they wrote, we have nothing of Pythagoras's writings. The society which he led, half religious and half scientific, followed a code of secrecy which 73 Aelian, , Historical Miscellany, N. Wilson ed. Athenaeus, , The Deipnosophists, 6 Vols. Gulick tr. Becker, O. Burkert, W. Minar tr. Delatte, A. Diels, H. Hicks tr. Rolfe tr. Granger, H. Guthrie, W. Heath, T.

Heinze, R. Huffman, C. II: Contextes, M. Dixsaut ed. Long ed. Preus ed. Frede and B. Reis eds. Festa ed. Kahn, C. Kirk, G. Lucian, , Lucian, 7 Vols. Harmon tr. Minar, Edwin L. Mueller, I. I: From the Beginning to Plato, C. Taylor ed. Navia, L. We do have details of Pythagoras's life from early biographies which use important original sources yet are written by authors who attribute divine powers to him, and whose aim was to present him as a mythological figure. What we present below is an attempt to collect together the most reliable sources to reconstruct an account of Pythagoras's life.

There is fairly good agreement on the main events of his life but most of the dates are disputed with different scholars giving dates which differ by 20 years. Some historians treat all this information as merely legends but, even if the reader treats it in this way, being such an early record it is of historical importance. Pythagoras's father was Mnesarchus and , while his mother was Pythais and she was a native of Samos. Mnesarchus was a merchant who came from Tyre, and there is a story [] and [] that he brought corn to Samos at a time of famine and was granted citizenship of Samos as a mark of gratitude.

As a child Pythagoras spent his early years in Samos but travelled widely with his father. There are accounts of Mnesarchus returning to Tyre with Pythagoras and that he was taught there by the Chaldaeans and the learned men of Syria. It seems that he also visited Italy with his father. His philosophy was not just a simple inquiry but more than this it was applied science.

What is to address in the present book is that in ancient Greece the word cosmos that we use today as a synonym for space or for universe was very much a Hellenic word and concept. What was the understanding of Greece for the word cosmos? Cosmos was a profound Hellenic concept made by the men of science and of philosophers about the origins and about way of existence for the universe. Pythagoras is said to have been the first philosopher to apply the term cosmos to the Universe, perhaps from application to the starry firmament.

This term was cosmogony. O'Meara, D. Philip, J. Plutarch, , Moralia, 14 Vols. Morrow tr. Thesleff, H. Thom, J. Zhmud, L. If ancient world founded sciences on religious concepts, middle ages world founded science on rational bases. The cult of many gods was ways to stop the development of sciences and of culture in many ways. Only some prominent cosmogonies can be indicated, and some of the points common to all. Homer seems to have taken the universe as he found it without inquiring further, but from Iliad XIV, verse , one gathers that Oceanus is origin, and Thetys mother of all; from verse that Nyx Night has power even over Oceanus; hence Darkness, Water, and Motherhood seem the three stages of his cosmogony.

The fragments of Orphic cosmogonies given by Eudemos, and Plato, and Lydus do not quite agree, but at least Night, Oceanus, and Thetys are elementary beings, and the first of them in order of existence was probably Night. A more detailed cosmogony of great antiquity is to be found in Hesiod's "Theogony" about B.

Elton translated as follows:— "First Chaos was, then ample-bosomed Earth, The sea immovable for evermore Of those immortals who the snow-topped heights Inhabit of Olympus, or the gloom Of Tartarus, in the broad-tracked ground's abyss. Love then arose, most beautiful amongst The deathless deities; restless, he Of every god and every mortal man Unnerves the limbs; dissolves the wiser breast By reason steeled and quells the very soul.

Earth first produced the heaven and all the stars, She brought the lofty mountains forth, And next the sea. Then, with Heaven Consorting, Ocean from her bosom burst With its deep eddying waters.