The following code snippet demonstrates how to create a Person and a message containing an image. You can use this extra to pre-populate text fields in the app so users can finish their reply. Identify if a conversation is a group conversation: You can use setGroupConversation to purposefully identify a conversation as a group or non-group conversation. Set the semantic action for an intent: The setSemanticAction method allows you to give semantic meaning to an action, such as "mark as read," "delete," "reply," and so on.
SmartReply: Android 9 supports the same suggested replies available in your messaging app. Use RemoteInput. Android 8. Android 9 simplifies notification channel settings with these changes:. Blocking channel groups: Users can now block entire groups of channels within the notification settings for an app. You can use the isBlocked method to identify when a group is blocked and, as a result, not send any notifications for channels in that group. Additionally, your app can query for current channel group settings using the new getNotificationChannelGroup method.
The app that owns the blocked channel or group can listen for these intents and react accordingly. For further information on these intent actions and extras, refer to the updated constants list in the NotificationManager reference. For information on reacting to broadcast intents, refer to Broadcasts.
Policy has three new Do-Not-Disturb priority categories:. Policy also has seven new Do-Not-Disturb constants you can use to suppress visual interruption:. On devices running Android 9, you can access streams simultaneously from two or more physical cameras. On devices with either dual-front or dual-back cameras, you can create innovative features not possible with just a single camera, such as seamless zoom, bokeh, and stereo vision.
The API also lets you call a logical or fused camera stream that automatically switches between two or more cameras. Other improvements in camera include additional Session parameters that help to reduce delays during initial capture, and surface sharing that lets camera clients handle various use cases without the need to stop and start camera streaming. We've also added APIs for display-based flash support and access to OIS timestamps for app-level image stabilization and special effects.
Android 9 introduces the ImageDecoder class, which provides a modernized approach for decoding images. Use this class instead of the BitmapFactory and BitmapFactory. Options APIs. To decode an image, first call createSource with the source of the encoded image. Then, call decodeDrawable or decodeBitmap by passing the ImageDecoder.
Source object to create a Drawable or a Bitmap. ImageDecoder calls onHeaderDecoded with the image's default width and height, once they are known. ImageDecoder also lets you add customized and complicated effects to an image such as rounded corners or circle masks. Use setPostProcessor with an instance of the PostProcessor class to execute whatever drawing commands you want. The render thread also uses a worker thread to decode, so that decoding does not interfere with other operations on the render thread. This implementation allows your app to display an animated image without managing its updates or interfering with other events on your app's UI thread.
ImageDecoder has several methods allowing you to further modify the image. For example, you can use the setPostProcessor method to modify the appearance of the image, such as applying a circle mask or rounded corners. With platform support on Android 9 devices, it's easy to send and utilize HEIF images from your backend server. After you've made sure that your app is compatible with this data format for sharing and display, give HEIF a try as an image storage format in your app.
Android 9 introduces methods to the MediaDRM class to get metrics, HDCP levels, security levels, and number of sessions, and to add more control over security levels and secure stops. See the API Diff report for details. Using these attributes, you can create streams that are tuned for VoIP or camcorder applications. You can also set the session ID to associate an AAudio stream with a submix that can include effects. With this class, you can build channel-based audio effects—including equalization, multi-band compression, and limiter—across multiple stages.
The number of bands and active stages is configurable, and most parameters can be controlled in real time. Beginning in Android 9, JobScheduler can use network status signals provided by carriers to improve the handling of network-related jobs. Jobs can declare their estimated data size, signal prefetching, and specify detailed network requirements.
JobScheduler then manages work according to the network status. For example, when the network signals that it is congested, JobScheduler might defer large network requests. When on an unmetered network, JobScheduler can run prefetch jobs to improve the user experience, such as by prefetching headlines. When adding jobs, make sure to use setEstimatedNetworkBytes , setPrefetch , and setRequiredNetwork when appropriate to help JobScheduler handle the work properly. When your job executes, be sure to use the Network object returned by JobParameters.
Android 9 expands and improves the API, adding support for nine new operations:. Android 9 introduces multiple improvements that autofill services can implement to further enhance the user experience when filling out forms. To learn more about how to use autofill features in your app, see the Autofill Framework guide. Supported devices that run Android 9 or higher give you the ability to use Android Protected Confirmation.
When using this workflow, your app displays a prompt to the user, asking them to approve a short statement. This statement allows the app to reaffirm that the user would like to complete a sensitive transaction, such as making a payment. If the user accepts the statement, Android Keystore receives and stores a cryptographic signature that's protected by a keyed-hash message authentication code HMAC. After Android Keystore confirms the message's validity, your app can use the key generated from trustedConfirmationRequired in the trusted execution environment TEE to sign the message that the user accepted.
The signature indicates, with very high confidence, that the user has seen the statement and has agreed to it. Caution: Android Protected Confirmation doesn't provide a secure information channel for the user. Your app cannot assume any confidentiality guarantees beyond those that the Android platform offers. In particular, don't use this workflow to display sensitive information that you wouldn't ordinarily show on the user's device. In Android 9, the system provides biometric authentication dialogs on behalf of your app. This functionality creates a standardized look, feel, and placement for the dialog, giving users more confidence that they're authenticating against a trusted biometric credential checker.
If your app uses FingerprintManager to display a fingerprint authentication dialog to users, switch to using BiometricPrompt instead. BiometricPrompt relies on the system to display the authentication dialog. It also changes its behavior to adapt to the type of biometric authentication that a user has chosen. Supported devices running Android 9 or higher installed can have a StrongBox Keymaster , an implementation of the Keymaster HAL that resides in a hardware security module.
The module contains the following:. Android 9 provides additional key decryption security by adding the ability to import encrypted keys securely into the Keystore using an ASN. The Keymaster then decrypts the keys in the Keystore, so the content of the keys never appears as plaintext in the device's host memory. Learn more about how to Import encrypted keys more securely. This scheme has the option to include a proof-of-rotation record in its signing block for each signing certificate. This capability enables your app to be signed with a new signing certificate by linking the APK file's past signing certificates to the one with which it is now signed.
Learn more on how to rotate keys using apksigner. Android 9 introduces the unlockedDeviceRequired flag. This option determines whether the Keystore requires the screen to be unlocked before allowing decryption of any in-flight or stored data using the specified key. These types of keys are well suited for encrypting sensitive data to store on disk, such as health or enterprise data.
The flag provides users a higher assurance that the data cannot be decrypted while the device is locked should their phone be lost or stolen. To keep a key safe from decryption while the device is locked, enable the flag by passing true to the setUnlockedDeviceRequired method. After completing this step, when the user's screen is locked, any attempts to decrypt or sign data using this key fail. A locked device requires a PIN, password, fingerprint, or some other trusted factor before it can be accessed.
If your app interoperates with legacy systems that require Triple DES, use this type of cipher when encrypting sensitive credentials. To learn more about how to make your app more secure, see Security for Android Developers. Android 9 adds new functionality and developer options related to backup and restore. Details about these changes appear in the following sections. Android 9 adds support for encrypting Android backups with a client-side secret.
This support is enabled automatically when the following conditions are met:. Android Q adds support for your app to add network credentials for a device to auto-connect to a Wi-Fi access point. You can supply suggestions for which network to connect to using WifiNetworkSuggestion. The platform ultimately chooses which access point to accept based on the input from your app and others.
The suggestions from the app must be approved by the user before the platform initiates a connection to them. This approval is provided by the user in response to a notification the first time the platform finds a network matching one of the suggestions from the app in scan results. When the platform connects to one of the network suggestions, the settings will show text that attributes the network connection to the corresponding suggester app.
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If the user uses the Wi-Fi picker to explicitly disconnect from one of the network suggestions when connected to it, then that network is blacklisted for 24 hours. During the blacklist period, that network will not be considered for auto-connection, even if the app removes and re-adds the network suggestion corresponding to the network. Wi-Fi power save is disabled for high-performance and low-latency mode, and further latency optimization may be enabled in low-latency mode, depending on modem support.
Low-latency mode is only enabled when the application acquiring the lock is running in the foreground and the screen is on. The low-latency mode is especially helpful for real-time mobile gaming applications. Previously, the platform DNS resolver supported only A and AAAA records, which allow looking up only the IP addresses associated with a name, but did not support any other record types. Note that parsing the response is left to the app to perform. This intent requires a URI. This allows the user to select a Wi-Fi network to share and securely transfers the credentials.
This information is shared via a side channel, such as Bluetooth or NFC. To join a group using credentials, replace manager. This interface abstracts Bluetooth and connectivity mechanics to simplify implementation. Android Q adds the ability to collect information about the quality of ongoing IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS calls, including quality to and from the network, on devices that support the feature.
Android Q provides your app with a means to identify calls not in the user's address book as potential spam calls, and to have spam calls silently rejected on behalf of the user.
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Information about these blocked calls is logged as blocked calls in the call log to provide greater transparency to the user when they are missing calls. Android Q changes how call intents are handled. For example, third-party apps might cancel calls and reroute them over VoIP. In addition to introducing the scoped storage privacy behavior change, Android Q provides more flexibility in writing files and introduces capabilities to help you influence where those files get saved on an external storage device.
Android Q introduces several capabilities to help you organize the files that your app contributes to external storage. When your app contributes media on a device running Android Q, the media is organized based on its type by default. For example, new image files are placed in a "pictures" directory by default. Similarly, you can move files on disk during a call to update by changing MediaColumns. In Android 9 API level 28 and lower, all files saved to external storage devices appear under a single volume called external.
Android Q, on the other hand, gives each external storage device a unique volume name. This new naming system helps you efficiently organize and index content, and it gives you control over where new content is stored. You can discover other volumes by calling MediaStore. To query, insert, update, or delete a specific volume, pass the volume name to any of the getContentUri methods available in the MediaStore API, such as in the following code snippet:.
Android Q gives an app the ability to capture audio playback from other apps. For full information, see Playback capture. There are new methods in MediaCodecInfo that reveal more information about a codec:.
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In addition, MediaCodec. A performance point represents a codec's ability to render video at a specific height, width and frame rate. The method MediaCodecInfo. You can check whether a given PerformancePoint covers another by calling PerformancePoint. A list of performance points is provided for all hardware-accelerated codecs.
This could be an empty list if the codec does not meet even the lowest standard performance point. Note that devices which have been upgraded to Q without updating the vendor image will not have performance point data, because this data comes from the vendor HAL.
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In this case, getSupportedPerformancePoints returns null. Apps using complex graphics, heavy computation, or sustained network activity are more likely to hit issues, and those can vary across devices based on chipset and core frequencies, levels of integration, and also device packaging and form factor. Now in Android Q, apps and games can use a thermal API to monitor changes on the device and take action to maintain lower power usage to restore normal temperature. Apps register a listener in PowerManager , through which the system reports ongoing thermal status ranging from light and moderate to severe, critical, emergency, and shutdown.
When the device reports thermal stress, apps and games can help by backing off ongoing activities to reduce power usage on various ways. Android 9 API level 28 first introduced monochrome camera capability. Android Q adds several enhancements to monochrome camera support:. You may use this feature to capture a native monochrome image. A logical multi-camera device may use a monochrome camera as a physical sub-camera to achieve better low-light image quality. Apps can request both the JPG image and its depth metadata, using that information to apply any blur they want in post-processing without modifying the original image data.
To read the specification for the new format, see Dynamic Depth Format. High Efficiency Image File HEIF format is a standard image and video format that introduces higher-quality encoding and smaller file size when compared to other file formats. For more information about the file format, see HEIC. Android Q improves the fusing of multiple cameras into a single logical camera, a feature introduced in Android 9 API level The following were added to the Camera2 API :.
You can use the IDs returned to request logical streams and physical subcamera streams to achieve better power efficiency. In Android Q, AccessibilityNodeInfo has been enhanced with a new flag designating whether it represents a text entry key. You can access this flag using the method AccessibilityNodeInfo.
When an accessibility service requires the user to repeat the accessibility shortcut to start the service, the dialog can now be accompanied by a text-to-speech prompt if the service requests it. In Android Q, accessibility services can now request that the soft keyboard be displayed even when the device detects a hard keyboard attached. Users can override this behavior. The return value is influenced by both user preferences and accessibility service APIs.
You can now use the FillRequest. You can now support cases where an application uses multiple activities to display username, password, and other fields by using the SaveInfo. You can now show and hide a password field in a save dialog by setting an action listener on the dialog and changing the visibility of the corresponding password remote view. Autofill can now update existing passwords.
For example, if a user has already stored a password, and they save a new password, Autofill now prompts the user to update the existing password instead of saving a new one. The UserData. Builder constructor has changed to better align to the Builder pattern.
When using UserData. Builder in Android Q, you can now map a value to multiple types of category IDs. In previous releases, an exception was thrown if a value was added more than once. Field classification can now detect four-digit numbers as the last four digits of a credit card number. Android Q adds FillResponse. This helps the autofill service detect types for fields with app-specific content.
When debugging, this feature allows you to re-run functions after pausing at a breakpoint and adjusting locals, globals, or implementation of a function. For more information, see Oracle's Pop Frame reference page. For most users, SurfaceView is the correct way to leverage the compositor. This provides an alternative for users who have run up against the limitations of BufferQueue.
To use this class:. If the WebView remains unresponsive, the system calls onRenderProcessUnresponsive periodically no more than once every five seconds , but takes no other action. Android Q introduces Settings Panels , an API which allows apps to show settings to users in the context of their app. This prevents users from needing to go into Settings to change things like NFC or Mobile data in order to use the app. For example, suppose a user opens a web browser while their device is in airplane mode.
Prior to Android Q, the app could only display a generic message asking the user to open Settings to restore connectivity. With Android Q, the browser app can display an inline panel showing key connectivity settings such as airplane mode, Wi-Fi including nearby networks , and mobile data.
With this panel, users can restore connectivity without leaving the app. To display a settings panel, fire an intent with the one of the new Settings.
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Panel actions:. We are planning to introduce an AndroidX wrapper for this functionality. When called on devices running Android 9 API level 28 or lower, the wrapper will open the most-appropriate page in the Settings app. Android Q provides a number of improvements to sharing. For full information, see Sharing improvements in Android Q. Android Q offers a new Dark theme that applies to both the Android system UI and apps running on the device.
For full information, see Dark theme. Android Q introduces a new XML manifest attribute, foregroundServiceType , that you include in the definition of several specific services. It's possible, though rarely appropriate, to assign multiple foreground service types to a particular service. The following table shows the different foreground service types and the services where it's appropriate to declare a specific type:.