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Fig. 2: Cumulative number of EVD deaths in West Africa as of 1 July 2014
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Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. The ability of captive Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus to imitate heterospecific sounds is well known. Analysis of a sound recording from Zaire reveals the first evidence of vocal mimicry in the wild of nine species of birds and a bat. Examination of recordings from Gabon and the Ivory Coast indicates that vocal mimicry may be widespread in wild populations.

Possible reasons why this phenomenon has not been detected before are discussed. Volume , Issue 3. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. As from these tropical and sub-tropical study sites GHFF were only sampled when part of multiple species roosts, it is difficult to infer species-specific transmission dynamics from pooled urine samples.

Our temperate located study is able to make such an inference as over the collection period the colony contained only GHFFs. More recent studies have examined urine samples collected from colonies of single species [ 16 , 18 ] and large numbers of individual bats [ 15 , 17 ]. When combined with the results of the studies mentioned above as well as the findings of Smith et al. Support for this hypothesis is strengthened by the maps shown in Fig 6. Although it was out of the scope of this study to explore in detail the epidemiology and pathobiological factors driving species differences in HeV infection dynamics, this is clearly an area warranting further research.

The agricultural authority in Victoria believe that the highest risk for HeV incursion into the state is via movement of an infected horse rather than from local bat to horse transmission [ 12 ]. Our study adds support to this risk assessment conclusion. It would be advisable to implement surveillance of colonies with BFF incursion in order to monitor HeV excretion patterns and thus spillover risk. Over the last decade, the use of microsphere assays has proven an accepted and sensitive method to detect henipavirus antibody binding in fruit bat plasma and serum [ 36 — 40 ].


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The output of these assays, MFI readings, are continuous data and present a challenge in determining meaningful cut-off values that categorise bats as seropositive or seronegative [ 36 ]. These challenges arise as the serological dynamics of infected bats naturally or experimentally are unknown. This makes the use of positive and negative controls for cut-off determination in these assays somewhat arbitrary. Furthermore there is no gold standard serological test to compare the results with, as even the virus neutralisation test measures different antibody binding mechanisms [ 36 ].

Our use of the mixture models to determine cut-off values follows that of Peel et al. We recognize that binding in the intermediate category may represent an important transition stage in antiviral immunity, i. Alternatively, antibody binding in the intermediate category may represent the presence of cross-reactive antibodies generated after infection with a homologous virus.

Our interpretation of field serology data has highlighted the importance of considering results on a population by population basis to generate biologically plausible groupings of antibody activity. Even using the more specific cut-off, The lack of detection of the virus in urine is thus unlikely due to a lack of opportunity for exposure of the bats to HeV.

Obtaining a narrower estimate of the time of infection would be important to better assess when and where exposure to HeV is occurring. The development of a pteropid immunoglobulin M-specific IgM assay for bat samples would provide better evidence of acute infection and therefore a proxy for the presence of replicating and perhaps infectious virus.

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Another outcome of this study was the risk factor analysis for bat-specific factors and seropositivity. Why juveniles were more likely to be seropositive to HeV and the reasons for the complex interaction of age and weight:forearm ratio are uncertain.

Plowright et al. Perhaps a distinct sub-population of bats are more susceptible to HeV infection; those that are smaller due to age or poor body condition or both. Further work is required to establish the role of age and body condition in the susceptibility to henipavirus infection. Cross-sectional serology may not be the best tool to address this question due to an inability to pinpoint the time of infection.

Ideally, re-capture and sampling of the same animals over time would enable an investigation of bat-specific factors associated with seroconversion. Alternatively, once available, an IgM assay may give a better temporal assessment of the time of infection and thus factors influencing susceptibility. It is clear from this study that there are fundamental differences in the infection dynamics of HeV and CedPV in the Geelong colony over the study period. Furthermore, there was no association between the sero-status for the two viruses, and only two bats were seropositive for both HeV and CedPV Table 2.

It is unclear whether this represents concurrent or consecutive infections [ 37 ].


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Once developed, the use of an IgM assay would likely distinguish between these states in the future [ 37 ]. Just as it is problematic to assume similar virus-host transmission dynamics between host species, inferring virus-host transmission dynamics across viruses of the same genus should be avoided. The results of our study contribute to the field of emerging diseases from wildlife reservoirs by highlighting the importance of characterizing relative species competence as sources of pathogens in spillover events. Such an understanding enables more robust risk assessments and targeted preventative approaches.

Only the 96 bats with non-inconclusive results were modelled. We acknowledge and thank the following people: Phil Mulroyan, City of Greater Geelong, for allowing us access to the colony and providing assistance with trapping and coordinating colony counting. Obtained permission for field work: GB. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Hendra virus HeV is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast.

Materials and Methods Sampling Animal ethics. Repeated cross-sectional collection of urine samples. Download: PPT. Pooled urine sampling. Bat trapping. Blood sample collection. Specimen processing and testing RNA extraction from pooled urine samples and storage. Plasma and serum extraction from blood samples and storage.

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Multiplex Luminex nucleic acid detection assay. Fig 3. Data analysis Estimating proportion seropositive. Risk factor analysis of serological responses. Mapping of HeV cases in relation to the distribution of pteropid bats. Results Luminex detection of Hendra virus RNA Across the entire 88 sampling events over a month period, none of the pooled urine samples collected and analysed yielded a positive detection of HeV RNA.

Fig 4. Number, type, and month of detection of non-HeV paramyxovirus sequences. Table 1. Table 2. Sero-status was based on the MFI thresholds for each virus shown in Fig 3. Fig 5. Association of bat-specific parameters with sero-status. Distribution of P. Fig 6. Discussion Viral transmission dynamics The most important finding from this study is the absence of detection of Hendra virus excretion in urine collected from the Geelong colony.

Conclusion The results of our study contribute to the field of emerging diseases from wildlife reservoirs by highlighting the importance of characterizing relative species competence as sources of pathogens in spillover events. Supporting Information. S1 Table. S1 Text. Acknowledgments We acknowledge and thank the following people: Phil Mulroyan, City of Greater Geelong, for allowing us access to the colony and providing assistance with trapping and coordinating colony counting.

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Henipaviruses: an updated review focusing on the pteropid reservoir and features of transmission. Zoonoses Public Health. Middleton D. Hendra virus. View Article Google Scholar 7. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia. Lancet Infect Dis. Field H. The Ecology of Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Serologic evidence for the presence in Pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. Emerg Infect Dis. Ecological aspects of Hendra virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. Urban habituation, ecological connectivity and epidemic dampening: the emergence of Hendra virus from flying foxes Pteropus spp.

View Article Google Scholar Victoria State Government. An assessment of the Hendra virus situation in Victoria [Internet]. Hendra virus infection dynamics in Australian fruit bats. PLoS One. Flying-fox species density-a spatial risk factor for Hendra virus infection in horses in eastern Australia. Natural Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes—tissue tropism and risk factors. Flying-fox roost disturbance and Hendra virus spillover risk. Routes of Hendra virus excretion in naturally-infected flying-foxes: implications for viral transmission and spillover risk.

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Cedar virus: a novel henipavirus isolated from Australian bats. PLoS Pathog. Isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine. J Gen Virol. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Survey and census methods. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Observer error in exit counts of flying-foxes Pteropus spp. Wildl Res. Development of multiplexed bead arrays for the simultaneous detection of nucleic acid from multiple viruses in bat samples.

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Neutralization assays for differential henipavirus serology using Bio-Plex Protein array systems. J Stat Softw. Latitudinal range shifts in Australian flying-foxes: a re-evaluation. Austral Ecol. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. IUCN Use of cross-reactive serological assays for detecting novel pathogens in wildlife: Assessing an appropriate cutoff for henipavirus assays in African bats.

Prevalence of henipavirus and rubulavirus antibodies in pteropid bats, Papua New Guinea.