Painting as a Passion
By the turn of the century, through a tremendous effort of national will, Japan had transformed itself into a major military and economic power. It was capable not only of protecting itself against colonial encroachments but also of launching its own imperial adventures on mainland Asia. Bradley demonstrates that the Japanese military culture of that time was very different from what it would be when Japan invaded China and during the war with the Western Allies.
The military was still influenced by ancient samurai tradition when it had vanquished the Russians, and civilians were still in control of the government and knew when it was opportune to negotiate peace. With the advent of a new generation of officers after the Russo-Japanese War, the Japanese military and its role in society changed drastically. Bradley describes how, during the reign of the weak Emperor Taisho, officers unconnected with the samurai tradition filled the vacuum of power in Japan.
They took over the military, assumed custodianship of the imperial family and, not long after, of the entire country. These newer officers believed it was Yamato damashii — Japanese spirit— that had won the war with Russia more than modern rifles and battleships.
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The new leaders militarized Japanese society. From the young Crown Prince Hirohito first commissioned as an officer at age 11 to the most obscure first-grade schoolboy, children were exposed to a relentless deluge of military propaganda. We are all familiar with the key points of Japanese military philosophy as the spirit warriors knew it: that surrender or capture was an unthinkable dishonor; that conquered peoples and captured soldiers were without honor and liable to whatever cruelties their captors chose to inflict.
Bradley makes it clear that this was a new and untraditional way of thinking for Japanese warriors— a departure from the true way of the samurai. Bradley also makes pertinent digressions to cover the barbarity of western nations.
He includes the United States, which he indicts for the genocide of the Indians and the cruelties of the first years of colonialism in the Philippines. Japanese soldiers, severely brutalized during training and indeed in everyday military life, practiced the most unspeakable atrocities on Chinese civilians — outrages so monstrous that they are still remembered to this day with rancor by the survivors and their descendants. This is the background against which the tragedy of what happened to the U.
Carrier planes repeatedly attacked the outpost in the Bonin Islands, which was heavily defended by anti-aircraft batteries. The airmen found themselves in a Japanese stronghold stranger than many others. The soldiers and sailors were isolated on Chichi Jima, living with both the boredom and the sudden fear that marked garrison life in such outposts. They were spirit warriors almost without a war, but in constant fear that they would be the next to see an invasion.
They were dug in and resigned to death. A bizarre miniature culture of cruelty and death evolved on that island. It was of a piece with the dehumanized spirit warrior philosophy and a ghastly step beyond. The commanders of the army and navy garrisons were gripped in a kind of sadistic insanity. That these officers performed savage abominations on the bodies of the young Americans they had captured is inexcusable, but given the mind-set and indoctrination of these Japanese as described by the author these atrocities are, perhaps, explainable.
10 Features of Courageous Choice | Psychology Today
However, the successful practice of courageous behavior leads to the development of personal resources such as self-confidence to overcome obstacles. One needs to practice the courageous act until it becomes a more or less natural tendency character change. Ultimately, courage grows into fearlessness Pury and Lopez, The Bible says "Take no thought for tomorrow.
Much of society mistakenly equate drug dependence and addiction with a lack of morals or integrity. In truth, a person that has become dependent upon opiates has a medical condition that must be treated with the appropriate medical means. As with all medical conditions, reading a book or attending a group meeting may be very supportive, but it is not a medical treatment or a solution for drug abuse. The same goes for courage. It is always great to face your problems, but that is just an element of the process.
We as a society, need to remove the stigma that has been placed on drug addiction and mental illness, so more people will seek the medical care they require. Shahram Heshmat, Ph. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine.
Portraits of Courage: A Commander in Chief's Tribute to America's Warriors
The New Science of Sleep Experts suggest ways to correct the habits that keep us from resting well. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. Waking Up Lost and Confused. The Paradox of Expertise. Shahram Heshmat Ph. Connect with me on LinkedIn. It doesn't take courage to Submitted by john allen moldon on April 11, - pm.
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It doesn't take courage to stand up against 7 billion people who are wrong. It takes patience. All aboard the woo woo train. Submitted by Theo Drebner on April 12, - am. Post Comment Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Notify me when new comments are posted.
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