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These switches often happen for specific reasons and motivation, which are influenced by numerous factors, for instance the participant s , the situation, the topic and the function of the language act cf. Grosjean 5. This means that certain situations or monolingual interlocutors require the monolingual mode while others allow for a bi- or multilingual mode to be used. Therefore, a bilingual continously has to decide which mode to use. This decision is based on numerous factors, both social and linguistic. Traditionally, code-switching was considered to be random, meaningless and a sign of incompetence.


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It was seen as a strategy to compensate for a weakened language proficiency. Researchers thought that bilinguals, especially bilingual children, switch codes because they do not know either language completely. At this point, the dominance of one language also is said to play a role. One problem with this approach is how proficiency is defined, i. In fact, it is not random at all, although it often happens subconsciously. These studies additionally describe different types of code-switching and different communcicative functions.

Does this now mean that proficient bilinguals in a bilingual mode always switch for a specific reason, subconsciously or not?

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Or is it possible that proficient bilinguals switch languages without a pragmatic reason? This analysis is based on a recording of a conversation between three bilinguals of different origin with a focus on the numerous types of code-switching that occur and their different communicative functions. A questionnaire about their switching behavior that was filled out by the three bilinguals after the recording will also be taken into consideration.

The following chapter deals with how, where and with whom the data that is used for this research paper was collected. It is the second conversation between these three participants after an approximately two-year break. The two sisters, Nicole and Paula, although born and raised in the United States of America, were brought up bilingually by their German parents. Both women moved back to Germany over twenty years ago and have lived and worked in Germany ever since.


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They each have children, who are also being raised bilingually, and hence, still speak English on a daily basis. Kaspar, a helicopter pilot in the German air force, has lived in Germany his whole life, aside from a ten-month training period in Alabama, USA. He learned English in school and through his employment. Thus, he is able to speak and understand English on a proficient level. His wife does not necessarily speak German when Kaspar is present.

The conversation sequences used for this study were recorded on April 28th, , in a small town near Berlin in Germany. Of the three participants, only Paula knows that this dinner conversation is being recorded, since she is using the recording device. Paula was given the instructions to tape a conversation at, for instance, the dinner table. The conversation should include English, but bilingualism would also be acceptable.

Kaspar and Nicole were not informed until later when a second conversation, which included their son Michael Mikey and is not part of this study, was taped.

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Therefore, the sequences used portray a fairly naturally occurring conversation among the participants. The complete recording was approximately twenty-eight minutes long. Of these twenty-eight minutes, nine minutes were transcribed for further analysis. In addition to a recorded conversation, a questionnaire, that asks the participants if they switch the language mode consciously or not, in what types of situations they switch and if they switch with bilinguals as well as monolinguals, was added.

This questionnaire was filled out by the three particpants via electronic mail approximately two to three weeks after the conversation was recorded. Their answers were neither corrected nor shortened. In order to understand when bilinguals code-switch, it is important to figure out what base language is being used.

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These squares are filled with diagonal lines remain inactive before the communicative event. The solid black squares then indicate the active language after the bilingual, most of the time subconsciously, answered the questions. Cross-hatched lines Lb in the bilingual mode show that Lb is also activated but less than La. The chosen language is then the base language also called the host or matrix language for the bilingual interaction cf.

Grosjean 39ff. Which language bilinguals decide on is influenced by numerous factors.

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Code-switching and Code-mixing

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