Login via Institution. Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance? Don't have an account? Currency and addition of Tax VAT depend on your shipping address. Author: Peter Staudenmaier. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. Handbook of Leaving Religion. The Handbook of Leaving Religion introduces a neglected field of research with the aim to outline previous and contemporary research, and suggest how the topic of leaving religion should be studied in the future.
The handbook consists of three sections: 1 Major debates about leaving religion; 2 Case studies and empirical insights; and 3 Theoretical and methodological approaches. Newman, W. Nutter, D. Owens, J. Parke, H. Partner, P. Patton, L. Platt, P. Powers, H. Roche, J. Roth, M. Rowland, I. Sandberger, A. Sandberger ed. Rahn ed. Norton , — Schuler, R. Sheehan, W. Sheppard, H. Smith, P.
Taylor, S. Thompson, B. Van den Borren, C. Vicentino, N. Palisca, trans. Waegeman, A. Milis ed. Guest, Woodbridge: The Boydell Press , 83— Wellesz, E. Weiss, J. Whiteman, W. D, and J. Bryce, eds. Winnington-Ingram, R. Woolf, R. Anthony Rooley In darknesse let me dwell, the ground shall sorrow be, The roofe Dispaire to barre all cheerfull light from mee, The wals of marble blacke that moistned still shall weepe, My musicke hellish jarring sounds to banish friendly sleepe.
Thus wedded to my woes, and bedded to my tombe, O let me living die till death doe come. In darknesse let me dwell. The inconsistency that the Elizabethans applied to first letter capitalization for personification this was applied so much more sensibly and thoroughly in the 18thC, for example , and their wanton punctuation leaves controversial alternative readings. The use of tropes, refined to a high degree of subtlety was engendered by such works as Peacham, Henry The Garden of Eloquence, facsimile edition, The Scolar Press Ltd.
Menston, England, where specifically the rhetorical figures of Antithesis, Paradox and Antiphrasis are explored in all the writers I refer to in this essay. I urge the interested reader to contact his or her nearest participating institution that allows access to EEBO. It is not unlike a Phillip Pullman fantasy, played out in an Oxford familiar yet disturbingly strange. This is not neo-Gothic Special Effects, but a genuine result of a man searching, and in his life-long search he stumbled on Dowland, and found a resonance beyond intellect, beyond belief, because it tumbled him into that parallel universe.
That tear describes better than a thousand words or a hundred songs the power of Insight, the power of real esoteric understanding. It has mates — there are other songs to keep its doleful company. First and foremost is the setting of the same words by John Coperario, in a work that fairly claims to be the first true song-cycle in the English language: Funeral Teares, And alone untwist The riddles of deepe Philosophic spels?
But the second verse of Song 4 is as though the direct thoughts of Penelope wracked in her bereavement, and in her public shaming through manipulated gossip-mongering: My dainties griefe shall be, and teares my poisned wine, My sighes the aire, through which my panting hart shall pine: My robes my mind shall sute exceeding blackest night, My study shall be tragicke thoughtes sad fancy to delight.
Pale Ghosts and frightful shades shal my acquaintance be: O thus my hapless joy I haste to thee. What could that be, I wonder? Mourne, mourne, day is with darknesse fled, What heaven then governs earth, O none but hell in heavens stead, Chokes with his mistes our mirth. Mourne, mourne, looke now for day nor night, but that from hell, Then all must as they may in darknesse learn to dwell, But yet this change must needs change our delight, That thus the Sunne should harbour with the night.
This, I think is the public source of all the later quotations. Who wrote the words? We cannot now know — perhaps Dowland, or one of the circle he moved in, served, or courted for patronage? It is a mystery, a secret — but an open one, since the Lachrimae poem became common parlance. Why then do we today not really understand it? The experience is cathartic. Care that consumes the heart with inward paine, Paine that presents sad care in outward view, Both tyrant-like enforce me to complaine, But still in vaine, for none my plaints will rue, Teares, sighes, and ceaseless cries alone I spend, My woe wants comfort, and my sorrow end.
Downe vaine lights shine you no more, No nights are dark enough for those That in despaire their last fortunes deplore, Light doth but shame disclose. Never may my woes be relieved, since pitie is fled And teares, and sighes, and grones My wearied dayes, of all joyes have deprived. From the highest spire of contentment, my fortune is throwne, And feare, and griefe, and paine For my deserts, are my hopes since hope is gone. Harke you shadowes that in darknesse dwell, Learne to contemne light, Happie, happie they that in hell Feele not the worlds despite. But did the printer mean it, or was it carelessness?
We shall never know — and so our interpretations needs must proceed with caution. However, this caution in mind, the general sense of the whole poem allows for several interpretations. If you were the Earl of Essex, or putting poetry into his mouth, mind and heart, in , this poem would be very much how you might have expressed matters.
But there were many who supported him — some openly, others covertly. Allegory and metaphor abound in all poetry of this age, and sometimes quite convoluted in its use and purpose. My position, after working with this body of performing material for a number of years, is that I perceive links between not only the artists poets and composers, primarily though visual imagery carries ample support for these links , but also, and perhaps most pertinently between the patrons responsible for commissioning these works. It is the purpose of this essay to establish the veracity of this position.
Take two unlike personalities: the elderly Sir Henry Lee — author of much of the complex allegory associated with Elizabeth I, and in his dotage, supporter of the young Prince Henry, next in line for the throne almost the most urgent perception Lee had was for the impor- 13 For more on the Earl of Essex, see Strachey, Elizabeth and Essex, Lee throughout his life had cultivated elaborate pastimes — and one of his adopted personas was that of a hermit, with the name varying from Lelius, and later, Loricus. This hermit enjoyed dwelling in a dark cell, or cave in chosen contrast to the bright light of Court.
This enquiry will return to Sir Henry Lee in a moment, but first a little more on the chosen opposite, Lucy Countess of Bedford. She was committed to Jesus, and to show her determination her eyes were gouged out and sent on a platter, skewered, to her admirer they were, it is said, miraculously restored the next day, according to the Martyrology written several centuries later. The 12 year old bride was thoroughly immersed in such symbolic thinking, as were the many poets encircling her, dedicating their complex allegories to her. It begins in this manner: The First Eglog. When as the joyull spring brings in The Summers sweet reliefe: Poor Rowland malcontent bewayles The winter of his griefe.
As yet the reader has only a mild suggestion that Rowland is unhappy. But consider how utterly distressed this has become by the ninth eclogue; and the burden and function of the poem is now crystal clear: The Ninth Eglog. When cole-blacke night with sable vaile Eclipsd the gladsome light, Rowland in darksome shade alone, Bemoanes his wofull plight. This is how sad a state Rowland has declined into, because his Cynthia Elizabeth, of course has so abused him: All is agone, such is my endless griefe, And my mishaps amended naught with moane, I see the heavens will yield me no reliefe: What helpeth care, when cure is past and gone, And teares I see doe me avayle no good, But as great showres increase the rising flood.
The poet thus weaves biography and fiction together, and in doing so skillfully hopes to affect the outcome for his patron. Amour 1. Goe you my lynes, Embassadors of love, With my harts tribute to her conquering eyes, From whence, if you one teare of pitty move For all my woes, that onely shall suffice. I have to say, does this not point up the vast gulf between our time and theirs?
Here is a 12 year-old being presented with verse that, to say the least, is at the leading-edge of socio-political philosophical utterance. By the age of 12, childish things were put firmly aside — you were either an infant, or a young adult, nothing in between. They are an expression of melancholy, black, sable melancholy — and all are drawing on the established convention: in art — poetry, music, performance — all reflections directly of court life, therefore political life.
The Earl of Essex might well have established the melancholy guise most adroitly, but in so doing he was merely a man of his time. See Poulton, John Dowland, The philosophy was expressed, at great length, in Cornelius Agrippa, brought to English awareness by such as John Dee — a true Magus and philosopher, who in the s had the ear of all the most mighty, including Elizabeth herself, and indeed, Sir Henry Lee. Essex complicated the plot extensively in the s and mainly for his own ends — political conniving and artistic endeavor are always uneasy partners.
It is a shame, but a fact, that some of the most highflown dressing of deep philosophy in artistic guise was manipulated for short-term political gain. There is an exquisitely beautiful madrigal by John Wilbye that profoundly embraces this curious form: Draw on sweet night, best friend unto those cares, That do arise from painfull melancholy, My life so ill through want of comfort fares, That unto thee I consecrate it wholly. Sweet night draw on, O sweet night draw on, sweet night draw on.
It would appear that Arbella was a true member of the cognescenti: Madame. The deepe understanding you have in all the Artes, and particular excellency in this of Musicke, doth by a certaine kinde of right, challenge the Dedication of the better sort of Labours in that Facultie; especially in these times when Musicke sits solitary among her sister Sciences. A dangerous and tense atmosphere enveloped the entire court circle.
A setting of a typical, poem whose central imagery is of the hermit, was published also in , in a volume of songs by Alfonso Ferrabosco the Younger, and dedicated to Prince Henry: Like hermit poore, in place obscure I meane to spend my dayes of endlesse doubt, To waile such woes as time cannot recure, Where none but Love shall find mee out, And at my gates dispaire shall linger still, To let in death when Love and Fortune will. Here is a taste of what this pair of poems is about: Hymnus in Noctem. Nevertheless, Essex is now known to a relatively small number of specialists, but the art created for his temporary furor politicus survives and is available to all.
If we look carefully, we can see the wood for the trees.
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What an Age; what Wit; what a Vision of Humanity lies behind that panoply of devices, allegory and abstruse philosophy. Bibliography Chapman, G. Coperario, J. Daniel, S. Donne, J. Dowland, J. Dowland, R. Drayton, M. Ferrabosco, A. Nashe, T. Peacham, H. Peele, G. Spenser, E. Ward, J. Wilbye, J. Modern Works Bradbrook, M. Burckhardt, T. Freedman, S. French, P. Poulton, D. Pullman, P. Strong, R. Rooley, A. Yates, F. Hinc rigidas cythara quercus et carmine mulcet Atque feris iterum mollia corda facit.
The spirit of Orpheus permeates the writings of Ficino who aroused devotion with his singing of the Orphic hymns. The story of Orpheus, while appearing superficially simple, belies a deep psychological and philosophical complexity: art enters life as a means of dealing with death. It is a story that amalgamates myth, folklore and legend and it lends itself to many interpretations through different eras and cultures although certain key motifs remain unchanged: the musician who can tame the wildness of nature, the shaman who visits the underworld and the prophesying severed head that symbolized the dichotomy between the body and soul.
As it survived into the Christian age, Orpheus the musician, teacher, healer and shepherd becomes a Christ-like figure whose musical power maintains universal harmony. All citations are to this edition.
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Hence he soothes the unyielding oaks with his lyre and his song and softens once more the hearts of wild beasts. For Ficino divine music was twofold: One kind, they say, exists entirely in the eternal mind of God. The second is in the motions and order of the heavens by which the heavenly spheres and their orbits make a marvellous harmony. Their aim was to bring the spiritus of man into harmony with the spiritus mundi by love, song and light. Through song the singer creates a God-inspired frenzy whereby he raises himself and the listener to God. Ficino divides the divine frenzy or Platonic furor into four kinds: love, poetry, the mysteries and prophecy.
It is love however, that unites the frenzies because it underpins the relationship between microcosm and macrocosm, man and God. Ficino believed that Orpheus embodied the platonic furor: as the theological poet, lover and musician, Orpheus re-harmonizes creation, curing not just the individual but the cosmos as a whole. Through emulating the Orphic furor in his own hymns, Ficino reclaimed Orpheus from the prototypical medieval lover, to the musician, civiliser and theologian of an ancient hermetic tradition.
Warden, Orpheus, He strove to portray universal harmony in his lyrics, masques and Latin poetry endeavouring to capture the equilibrium between God and man that Orpheus represented. Mellers, The masks of Orpheus, Seven stages in the story of European music, 9. Ing, Elizabethan Lyrics A study in the development of English metres and their relation to poetic effect, 9. They share a common root in classical mythology: it is thought that the first poetry was sung and tradition told how Orpheus and Arion enchanted their listeners by words accompanied by the lyre.
The importance of number, derived from classical sources, had been expounded by philosophers such as St Augustine, Boethius and Ficino and its significance on cosmological and religious theories had already made an impact in English literature by the end of the sixteenth century.
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As poet-composer and physician, Campion held the conviction that in nature and art, order 10 Pattison, Music and Poetry of the English Renaissance, Pattison, Music and Poetry of the English Renaissance, Music was believed to reflect human emotion and its cadences reflected the highs and lows of human feeling, but most importantly it articulated the inevitability of death.
Numbers in music represented order, proportion and mysticism. Finney, Musical Backgrounds for English Literature: —, It assumed an immutable characteristic that makes soul or music what it is. The soul of man and of the world is by nature harmony and music itself has by nature an identical harmony. Finney, Musical Backgrounds, He first taught number and true harmony. Ficino, expanding on the Hermetic belief of the effect of music on the natural, vital and animal spirits, included the notion of a cosmic spirit, or pneuma: a spirit that pervaded and gave life to everything in the universe.
Philosophers such as Ficino believed that by inhaling this cosmic spirit, human emotion and characteristics could be influenced and even changed. Vivian, The Works of Thomas Campion, Charles Boer, Finney, Musical Background, The motion of air set up by sound had the ability to move the body and spirits: emotion was believed to be accompanied by motion of the spirits.
As a musician he had a strong sense of time which enabled him to choose words whose syllables came close to meeting the needs of classical feet. Ing, Elizabethan Lyrics, p. It included metaphysical speculation on the harmony of the universe, for it was widely taught in the Renaissance that the whole cosmos operates according to musical law. Finney, Musical Backgrounds, ix. Love, Campion suggests, can bring both joy and anguish.
He qualified as a physician between and and his use of medical terminology and music as a healing metaphor substantially increases in his four Books of Ayes, published from — Music is therefore simply the science of the effects of Love on rhythm and harmony. Venus, grant it be not loue.
Untreated grief can lead to melancholy or madness, a theme he develops in his Fourth Booke of Ayres where 49 50 51 52 53 54 Ibid. Greenblatt, The Norton Shakespeare, This personalization of his lyric poetry extends to his use of medical imagery that appears repeatedly, particularly in the later years. His practice of medicine appears to give him a deeper understanding of human nature and the lyric poetry expresses a wide range of human emotion and expression of moods ranging from depression and madness to love and euphoria.
Campion derives his melody from the inflection of the spoken word and from his marrying of these two art forms he emerges as a great musical poet with a profound understanding of the complexities of human nature. The vitality of cultural expression at the end of the sixteenth century reflected a transitional period of an era where a tension existed between a growing humanism that contemplated an 55 Ibid.
Lowbury, Slater and Young, Thomas Campion, The marriage of poetry and music thus provided the perfect means of expression for this imitation of musica universalis — the listener was persuaded that the audible sounds of music was an expression of a divine intelligence manifesting through the various dimensions of creation.
His poetic rhythms although varied, never lose the inflections of the speaking voice, yet, at the same time, they flowed spontaneously with the accompanying music because the word structure in many of his lyrics follows a similar pattern of imagery and rhythm and emotional contours to that of the melody. Certainly, his interest in the divine music and mathematics of Platonic theology is prevalent throughout his work and suggests that the purpose of music is to elevate the listener.
The poetry appears deliberately designed to allow for the anticipatory drive of music. Mazzaro, Transformations in the Renaissance English Lyric, It was not until the rebirth of lyricism in the Romantic Period that music and poetry were united again in a manner that Campion had achieved in Renaissance England. Bibliography Campion, T. Percival Vivian, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Cooper, J. Finney, G. Friedman, J. Greenblatt, S. Ing, C. Irwin, J. Winter, , pp. Kastendieck, M. Lowbury, E. Lindley, D.
Brill, Mathiesen, T. Mazzaro, J. Mellers, W. Pattison, B. Smith, G. Spink, I. Batsford Ltd, Warden, J. Since sound depends on the material of musical instruments, namely strings, woods and skins, Della Porta conceives music as able to produce its influence on the body and soul of people and patients.
In fact, musical instruments material is the same used by physicians in their pharmaceutical remedies, though in animal, herbal and mineral forms. Lo studio delle relazioni tra musica e medicina si arricchisce nel Rinascimento, come testimoniano gli scritti di medici e filosofi quali Marsilio Ficino, Cornelio Agrippa e Girolamo Fracastoro.
Siamo ormai in conclusione di un volume che si era aperto con la definizione di magia quale sinonimo di sapienza e completa conoscenza della natura. Ma le competenze del mago non si limitano, avverte Della Porta nella prefazione al volume, a una mera lettura delle fonti. In questo modo, 4 Su Giovambattista Della Porta, la composizione e la fortuna del trattato Magia naturalis — , cfr.
Insegna, infatti, come sono caratterizzate le mistioni dei corpi e i loro temperamenti. Mostra come comporre e applicare i corpi gli uni agli altri. Esistono, infatti, speciali similitudines tra semi, frutti, fiori, foglie, radici, astri, metalli, pietre e gemme con le malattie e le parti del corpo umano, come Dioscoride, Plinio e altri hanno mostrato con le loro opere Trovare tali corrispondenze permetterebbe al medico di utilizzare i suoni al pari di una pianta o di un metallo.
Della Porta, Magia Naturalis, xx 7, Prendiamo Agamennone e Clitemnestra. I Pitagorici, poi, inducevano il sonno con strumenti costruiti di legno di mandorlo o di vite, mentre eccitavano al risveglio col suono di strumenti di elleboro. Il principio della risonanza, infine, combinato con il sistema delle corrispondenze, 32 Ibid. Sono questi i materiali da cui la natura del suono trae la sua origine.
Sono questi i materiali che caratterizzano la coloritura del suono. Galenus, De sanitate tuenda, i 5, In opere quali il De vita coelitus comparanda, ovvero il terzo libro del De vita triplici , e il Commento al Timeo , Ficino insegna al medico-filosofo e magus come carpire dal cielo gli influssi benefici degli astri Nel 40 Ficino, Three Books on Life, iii 26, Sul neoplatonismo ficiniano e le sue fonti, cfr. A questa tradizione risponde il versante aristotelico, che possiamo trovare rappresentato dal medico veronese Girolamo Fracastoro e in particolare dal suo De sympathia et antipathia rerum Se proprio ai numeri bisogna far riferimento parlando di armonie musicali, continua Fracastoro, allora si potranno paragonare i numeri interi e quelli frazionari ai suoni interi e ai suoni frazionari I suoni frazionari sono invece striduli, non uniformi e confusi, caratterizzandosi per disuguaglianza e mancata distinzione delle parti La lezione pitagoricoplatonica di ricerca matematica degli intervalli, unica possibile fonte del sapere musicale50, si stempera alla luce di un approccio improntato 45 Ficino, Three Books on Life, iii 21, Aristoteles, De anima, i 3, b26—a9,12— Come messo in luce da Daniel P.
Viene allora da chiedersi dove collocare quelle pagine della Magia Naturalis di Della Porta, in cui il potere psicosomatico della musica, rilevante in campo medico, trova la sua origine non nella 51 52 53 54 55 56 Aristotele, Problemi, xix 14, ; 16—17, —; 35, Fracastoro, De sympathia, cap. Aristoteles, De anima, ii 8, b4—22, 44— Ficino, Three Books on Life, iii 21, Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic, iii 6, 4, ; 7, 4, Gli arcana svelati della natura possono essere sfruttati come forma di rimedio — remedia — da parte del saggio mago Metalli, gemme, pietre, animali e piante svelano i loro arcana al mago che sappia contemplare e osservare i fenomeni della natura alla luce della dottrina della similitudine e della simpatia, che tanta parte hanno nelle pagine di Phytognomonica.
In base al panorama fin qui delineato emerge il retaggio ficininiano della Magia Naturalis. In questo modo anche i sordi possono essere trattati a suon di lyra Bibliografia Aquilecchia, G. Aristotele, Problemi, introduzione, traduzione, note e apparati di M. Ferrini, Milano: Bompiani Aristoteles, De anima, recognovit brevique adnotatione instruxit W. Ross, Oxonii: e typographeo Clarendoniano Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit P.
Boccadoro, B. Pigeaud ed. Morenzoni, J. Tilliette eds. Nattiez ed. Boetius, A. Friedlein, Lipsiae: Minerva G. Borzacchini, L. Burnett, C. Gouk ed. Capella, M. Willis, Leipzig: Teubner Copenhaver, B. Schmitt ed. Merkel and A. Debus eds. Fend, M. Clericuzio, G. Massignon, Paris: Libraire Lecoffre, J. Kristeller e una premessa di M. II, pp. Kaske and J. Fracastoro, G. Pennuto, Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura Frede, M. Nutton ed. Gaffurio, F. Galenus, C. VI, Lipsiae: prostat in officina libraria C. Cnoblochii , 1— Prima classis humani corporis originem, formationem, dissectionem, temperaturam, facultates, facultatumque cum actiones omnes, tum instrumenta et loca singula complectitur, Venetiis: apud Haeredes Lucaeantonii Iuntae Florentini , 2r—9v.
Galilei, V. Garin, E. Garin ed. Haar ed. Horden, P. Horden ed. Hutchison, K. Kircher, A. Nutton, V. Palisca, C. Platone, La Repubblica, a cura di G. Lozza, Milano: Oscar Mondadori Plotino, Enneadi, Traduzione con testo greco a fronte, introduzione, note e bibliografia di G.
Faggin, Presentazione e iconografia plotiniana di G. Reale, Revisione finale dei testi, appendici e indici di R. Radice, Milano: Rusconi Richardson, L. Wear, R. Lonie eds. Sargolini, F. Shumaker, W. Vasoli ed. Voss, A. Walker, D. Brill West, M. Wuidar, L. Zaccaria, R. Zambelli, P.
Zarlino, G. According to this explanation, music has mainly therapeutical aims. So, music can be used to get passions in the human spirit. In accordance with this theory, Campanella explains some practical effects of music in many of his works, but particularly in his De Sensu rerum et magia first composed in and his Theology composed between and In questo percorso, nei primi anni di speculazione filosofica emerge la valenza pratica e terapeutica della musica; questo aspetto lascia il posto, negli anni parigini dopo la scarcerazione, ad una prospettiva apotropaica, come ha sottolineato appunto Walker, secondo cui la musica viene utilizzata in caso di riti magici per allontanare influssi nefasti provenienti dagli astri.
Caldo e freddo sono contrari in stato di perenne lotta fra loro e quindi in grado di percepirsi reciprocamente. Il calore diventa, una volta innestato nella materia, lo spirito di un determinato ente. Quando poi si beve in abbondanza, il cervello si riempie di vapori e lo spirito sale tutto al capo per attenuarli, lasciando il resto del corpo privo di senso e di movimento, 5 6 Campanella, Del Senso delle Cose e della Magia, 11— Questa idea si fonda sulla convinzione, di antichissima origine, che uomo ed universo siano caratterizzati dalle stesse proporzioni armoniche.
Su questo presupposto, innestatosi sulle basi neopitagoriche e neoplatoniche, si strutturano le concezioni magiche della musica, sia per i suoi impieghi terapeutici che per quelli negromantici Vi sono poi speranza, fede, timore, immaginazione Lo spirito riconosce quale tipo di corpo ha prodotto un certo suono a seconda delle sensazioni e dei movimenti che questo suono produce. Percependo nel parlare un certo ritmo che impressiona piacevolmente lo spirito, da esso appresero il metro, come dai suoni trassero il canto Anche fra gli uomini le preferenze possono variare, proprio come si hanno gusti diversi in fatto di cibo, anche in funzione del proprio temperamento.
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Contro 21 22 Campanella, Tutte le opere, Campanella, Del Senso delle Cose e della Magia, 59— Lo spirito viene infatti mosso alle proprie affezioni dal caldo e dal freddo di cui sono portatori, in misura diversa, tutti i corpi. La concentrazione sul suono lascia spazio ad una ventilazione dei vapori infetti che gravano sul cervello in caso di malattia o di ubriacatura. A questo proposito, Campanella sicuramente contrae dei debiti nei confronti della teoria 23 24 Ibid.
Innanzitutto, per Campanella non vi sono differenze gerarchiche fra i sensi e, soprattutto, fra i loro gradi di efficacia sullo spiritus. Come ricordato, tutte le sensazioni, secondo il domenicano, non sono altro che espressioni differenti di un unico e solo modo di percepire, di natura tattile, con il quale il nostro spirito si mette in relazione e comunicazione con il mondo esterno. Anche Campanella esprime un concetto di armonia universale, declinato tuttavia secondo il telesianesimo.
In altre parole, Ficino riporta le caratteristiche dei diversi tipi di tem- 26 27 28 29 Campanella, Del Senso delle Cose e della Magia, Campanella, Opuscoli astrologici, Si instaura pertanto una consonanza pura fra soggetto ed oggetto. In Campanella viene a mancare qualsiasi consonanza musicale stabilita da rapporti proporzionali fra corde vibranti e suoni. Alla base della teoria pitagorica della musica vi era la definizione di armonia come conciliazione di forze antagoniste Campanella, denotando ampia conoscenza e testimonianza oculare del fenomeno, analizza le metamorfosi che si verificano in coloro che sono stati morsi da cani rabbiosi o dalle tarantole.
De Martino, La terra del rimorso, —; Bortolotti, Magia superstizione e fede nella pratica medica, Partendo dal basso, troviamo la rappresentazione delle scienze matematiche ed astronomiche, poi di quelle geografiche, con la descrizione di tutti i Paesi del mondo; successivamente vengono mostrati i minerali, i vegetali e gli animali e tutti i ritrovati delle scienze meccaniche Bolzoni, Una nuova lingua e una nuova metrica, Nel De Vita Coelitus Comparanda il discorso sulla musica astrologica e sulla musicoterapia si lega a doppio filo a quello sui talismani, ispirato dal commento al celebre passo delle Enneadi in cui veniva raccontato il rituale ermetico di attirare spiriti demonici o angelici nelle statue.
Essendo incapaci di produrre le anime, gli uomini avevano invocato i demoni e gli angeli, raffigurandoli in statue che erano diventate oggetto di riti sacri e divini. Senza dubbio egli si era accorto che in questa teoria era insito il rischio di accusa di idolatria e di demonologia, per questo ha cercato di difendere la propria dottrina. Tuttavia, il fiorentino sosteneva che se, invece di adorarli, li si avesse usati come mezzi, i demoni avrebbero potuto essere accettati. Con questa affermazione, egli liberava dal sospetto talismani ed inni orfici.
Nonostante, infatti, Campanella dica di rifarsi a Ficino per una positiva applicazione dei principi magici, con il passare degli anni la sua visione politica, filosofica e magica viene colorata da una forte tensione millenaristica ed escatologica. Nel il papa riserva delle sedute a Campanella, ricevendolo da solo.
I due devono probabilmente mettere in atto misure preventive per proteggersi dagli influssi nefasti delle eclissi. Dato che si tratta di un procedimento basato su conoscenze di filosofia della natura, e non sulla superstizione, vengono rappresentati anche i segni zodiacali e si eseguono musiche appropriate ai pianeti Giove e Venere, per diradare le esalazioni nocive prodotte dalle eclissi. Allo stesso modo, si utilizzano pietre, piante, colori e odori attinenti ai pianeti positivi; vengono infine serviti liquori preparati secondo direttive magico-astrologiche Walker, Magia spirituale e demonica da Ficino a Campanella, Nel breve scritto su come evitare il fato astrale rimangono comunque profonde influenze ficiniane, riguardo alle quali Campanella rimanda alla propria Metafisica.
Probabilmente egli cerca un tipo di magia che, pur non negandone il potere, non faccia ricorso a demoni e che, in buona sostanza, sia facilmente difendibile come magia naturale. Egli non predicava atti magici volti ad ingraziarsi un demone o un angelo, ma piuttosto sistemi per intervenire sul corpo e sullo spirito del protagonista del rito. In altre parole, intonare un inno al sole non avrebbe minimamente influito sul Sole, ma avrebbe portato alla solarizzazione dello spirito della persona coinvolta.
Al termine di questo exucursus si possono fare alcune considerazioni. Queste ultime, poco sollecitate dalle scienze che hanno, per tradizione, la specifica caratteristica di essere saperi speculativi ed astratti, sono invece attuate dai saperi occulti e dalla magia naturale. Agostino, De divinatione daemonum, cap. Ma, nel frattempo, molte nuove cose sono state scoperte: terre, stelle e pianeti, ritrovati scientifici, fenomeni naturali. Questa originale ipotesi prevede che un posto molto importante, nel nuovo albero delle scienze che si delineava, venisse conferito alla magia naturale e alle sue implicazioni pratiche.
Egli era inoltre orientato ad una sperimentazione musicale di tipo acustico. Bibliografia Blanchet, L. Il sapere musicale, Torino: , — Bolzoni, L. La cultura civile, Torino: Bortolotti, A. Campanella, T. Come evitare il fato astrale, Apologetico, Disputa sulle Bolle, Milano: , 63— Scritti letterari, Milano: unico volume pubblicato. Combarieu, J. Corsini, A. Contributo a una storia religiosa del Sud, Milano: Di Mitri, D. Dooley, B. Ernst, G. Firpo, L. Formichetti, G. Frazer, J. Giglioni, G.
Gouk, P. Grillo, F. La stampa fraudolenta e clandestina degli Astrologicorum libri, Cosenza: Guglielminetti, M. Lerner, M. Lucchesi, O. Nussdorder, L. Jurlaro, R. Schino, A. Scrimieri, G. Corsano, Manduria: , — Seppilli, A. Tomlinson, G. Magia spirituale e demonica da Ficino a Campanella, Torino: Tirinnanzi, N. Vanini, G. The transition from an analogical to a scientific thought is very marked in the musical domain. If numerous examples could be quoted, that of the vibration by sympathy is one of the most illustrative of this change in thought.
It is the case of Descartes, Mersenne, Peiresc, Gassendi, who all approaches this problem under various angles, to make progress its understanding towards an experimental and scientific universe.
XVIII, XVIII, c. CLIV, Giambattista Della Porta ne dit pas autre chose dans sa Magia naturalis Portae Magiae naturalis libri XX, l. XIIII, Hanc membrana ovium sic exhorrescit, ut hostem Exanimis quanvis nos ferat exanimem. Par le P. A Rennes, chez Pierre Hallaudays, II, c. II, 87— Quia est sympathia idemque fundamentum vtriusque. Nam vt inter amicos est talis affectio vt alter alterius malis dolere, gaudere bonis videatur: ita inter chordas vnisonas est mira consensio, quae aequabiliter moto aere vnanimiter quasi vtramque mouet, et in vtraque eundem sonum et concentum facit.
Necesse est vt ait Agrippa omnes concentus ex conuenientibus fundamentis procedere, si in vnum velis conuenire. Hinc illud rugientes leones, mugientes boues, grunnientes porci chorum non faciunt; eadem est ratio chordarum quae ex agni et lupi fibris aut neruis fiunt. Consonantiam non habent, quippe res ex quibus finguntur insitum odium habuerunt. Ce fut Mr le prothenotaire Aguillenquy, mon cousin,. IV, Kepler, Harmonices Mundi Libri V, VI, XIII, 52— XXI, IV, — Bibliographie Alciat, A.
Alciato, A. Bailhache, P. Baillet, A. Beaulieu, A. Beeckman, I. Case, J. Corneille-Agrippa, H. Gaboriau, Paris : De Buzon, F. Della Porta, G. Portae Magiae naturalis libri XX, Neapoli : Descartes, R. VI, Paris : — XI, Paris : — Green, H. A Biographical and Bibliographical Study, London : Kepler, J. Mersenne, M. Oresme, N. Pirro, A. Praetorius, M. Rodis-Lewis, G. Trichet, P. Lesure ed. Van Wymeersch, B.
- Beim ersten Sonnenstrahl (Teil 2) (German Edition).
- SINTESI DI DOTTRINA DELLA RAZZA.
- Neuer Mensch und kollektive Identität in der Kommunikationsgesellschaft (German Edition).
- KINGDOM ADVENTISM.
- Between Occultism and Nazism;
Historians are faced with a system of interpretation of the horoscope which was already fully constructed by the second or the first century bc, and which remained fundamentaly unchanged until today. Yet neither ancient historical accounts nor the earliest extant astrological texts inform us in a satisfactory manner about how, when and in what circumstances certain characteristics came to be attributed to the planets, to the twelve signs of the zodiac, to the twelve houses and to the aspects, to name just the four major components of the horoscope.
Of course, numerous attempts — ancient and modern — have been made to rationalise astrological doctrines. It is safe, at least at present, to acknowledge our ignorance regarding the genesis of astrological doctrines. The situation is different with Johannes Kepler — Kepler is chiefly remembered today as the founder of modern astronomy and as one of the foremost actors of the scientific revolution, but he was 1 My special thanks to Darrel Rutkin for his comments on an earlier version of this article and to Hilbert Chiu for revising my English. Robbins, 34— See also Riley As a result, it features in most of his scientific works, which allows us to reconstruct in detail the genesis and developments of the new aspects.
The new aspects therefore become the only astrological doctrine whose origin is know with precision and certainty. Throughout his life, Kepler produced a considerable amount of astrological texts and documents. As a district mathematician in Graz — , as a court mathematician to Rudolf II in Prague — and, again, as a district mathematician in Linz — , it was his duty to cast annual prognostications and to give personal consultations to his patrons.
Kepler left over 1, horoscopes annotated in his hand — and these include horoscopes not only for his clients but also for his friends, members of his family and himself. He also wrote three treatises devoted largely or entirely to astrology: De fundamentis astrologiae certioribus , De stella nova , and Tertius interveniens , in German. Last but not least, astrology was — together with geometry and music — part and parcel of his conception of the universe, which he articulated in his two great cosmological works, the Mysterium cosmographicum , reprinted with annotations in and Harmonices mundi He is indeed famous for his attempt to reform astrology, perhaps the most radical reform ever undertaken by a practitioner.
The favourite target of his criticism are the signs of the zodiac, whose divisions, classifications, qualities and attributes are purely human conventions, therefore arbitrary and devoid of natural significance. But what is an aspect? In the astrological tradition, the influence of a planet is modified according to the angle of longitude formed with other planets. The sextile and the trine are considered beneficent aspects i. Of course, this kind of argumentation was not new. On astrological reform in the sixteenth century, see vanden Broecke The first part of this chapter discusses the relationships between geometry and music, and in particular between the geometrical divisions of the circle and harmonic intervals.
In his Tetrabiblos, Ptolemy had already made a similar observation, although in passing and in rather vague terms. First, he notes that this relationship between consonances and aspects explains why planets that are separated by one or five signs i. Et quandoquidem modo ex fide circulum fecimus, facile est videre quomodo tres prefectae harmoniae pulcherrime cum tribus perfectis aspectibus comparari possint, scilicet cum opposito, trino, quadrato [symbols are given in the text].
The explanation of opposition is immediately obvious, because it causes the signs to meet on one straight line. But if we take the two fractions and the two superparticulars most important in music, and if the fractions one-half and one-third be applied to opposition, composed of two right angles, the half makes the quartile and the third the sextile and trine.
Robbins, 72— This passage is the birth certificate of the new aspects, although Kepler is still reluctant to call them aspects at this stage. He only says that these three angles should perhaps not be neglected in the interpretation of horoscopes, adding immediately that this is a matter which would be easily confirmed by experience through observation of the weather. His correspondence reveals that, by , he had definitively included them into the family of aspects and had already attributed an astrological symbol to each of them.
In a letter sent to Herwart von Hohenburg on 30 May , the aspects appear in a diagram showing the circumference of the circle of the zodiac opened up, as it were, so as to make it straight along a vibrating string Figure 1. Soon after, in a letter to Michael Maestlin of August , Kepler explicitly says that the aspects are eight in number again, including the conjunction and that repeated observations of the weather since have confirmed the effectiveness of the three new aspects. The diagram is reproduced from the original manuscript in Field , ; and Field , Aspects and musical consonances.
Here for the first time, Kepler applied his reformed astrology, whose principles are set out in the first part of the work Theses 1— Moreover, the text is in Latin unlike his operari in meteoris ciendis. Suppetunt mihi ab annis 5 multa, cum vacuitas fuit ab aspectibus caeteris, et horum novorum aliquis solus incidit.
Nam ascripsi Ephemeridibus meis omnes ab anno 94 et contuli cum annotatis tempestatibus. English translation in Field , — His prognostications for — and are lost and he did not write any for the year The most certain natural causes, acknowledged by all and proved by experience, are the heating power of the Sun and the humidifying power of the Moon Theses 5— What is needed is a workable structure of interpretation. This effect is seen in steel mirrors, where the white colour of the face and the black of the mirror combine to give a reflected image of a rather red face.
Thus one would be entirely justified in stating that Mars possesses a black surface, since its ray is very red. The Ancient indeed acknowledged no more than five commonly called aspects , namely conjunction, opposition, quadrate, trine and sextile. But reasoning first suggested to me that we should add three more, namely quintile, biquintile and sesquiquadrate, which experience has since repeatedly confirmed Thesis The immediate implication is that the rays of light have a significant impact on earth only when the planets are in aspect, which considerably restrains the variety and multiplicity of celestial influences.
At the same time, Kepler is aware that this system raises questions regarding the compatibility of the physical and non-physical causes, and in particular this one: by what curious mechanism would living beings react to celestial influences especially when the rays of the planets form angles corresponding to harmonic ratios? Yet this resolves only part of the problem, quam prior illa, nobilior; quaeque multo plus admirationis habet.
Ac veteres quidem non plures quinque receperunt aspectus vulgo dictos conjunctionem, oppositionem, quadratum, trinum, sextilem. Kepler provides a weather forecast for each month of and surveys other topics, such as crops, illnesses and political matters. Predictions are exclusively based on planetary aspects, including the three new ones which are used on two occasions: Towards the end of the month [of January], there is nothing to predict from the ancient aspects, though from the new ones the 21st, with Jupiter and Venus at quintile, will be breezy and hot, as far as Winter permits.
The 24th, with Saturn and the Sun at quintile, will be cold, with snow and rain.