G: Yehia Azmi y Khairy Bishara. F: Tarek El Telmissany. M: Intisar Abdel-rahman. Sus primeros trabajos son documentales, que obtienen numerosos premios en varios festivales. El collar y la pulsera es su tercer largo. Serie TV, 2 episodios. G: Lucio De Caro sobre F: Mario Vulpiani. M: Armando Trovajoli. G: Pantelis Voulgaris. F: Giorgios Arvanitis. M: Stamatis Spanoudakis. Todas las fchas en el anexo En El Temps, octubre p Somos un festival reconocido. Un festival serio.
Un festival con una trayectoria ascendente aunque haya tenido errores de crecimiento. Un festival al que le empiezan a ofrecer en lugar de tener que ir a pedir. El actor homenajeado es Michel Piccoli, nacido en Oliveira, Louis Malle o Jacques Rivette. Se tiene que desalojar el edifcio por amenaza de bomba. Mostra Infantil En Els Quaderns de la Mostra 9. Mario Monicelli. En Els Quaderns de la Mostra Ayto de Val. Pablo G. Fuente: Cartelera Turia.
Crimen, 95 min 6,9. F: Bernard Ludic. Reparto: Bernard Giraudeau. Drama, min 7,3. G: Nikos Papatakis. F: Arnaud Desplehin, Aris Stavrou. M: Chris Hallaris. Despina Tomazani. Eventualmente, regentaba el club parisino 'La Rose Rouge', frecuentado por artistas como Juliette Greco. Estaba basado en Los esclavos de Jean Genet.
Crimen, min 7,8. F: Orhan Oguz. Comedia, drama, 92 min 6,8. G: Franco Bernini y Carolo Mazzacurati. F: Agostino Castiglioni. M: Fiorenzo Carpi. Sinopsis: El abogado Otello Morsiani, siguiendo el consejo de su amigo de la infancia, Checco, acepta el nombramiento del consejero de Padua, Melandri, para estimar un patrimonio de la tierra en el Delta del Po destinado a ser expropiado para dejar espacio para un parque natural. Fue animador de los cines Padua junto a Piero Tortolina. Sinopsis: Lorgan investiga los sucesivos asesinatos de varios mafosos.
Drama, 60 min 6,4. G: Mario de Carvalho. F: Antonio Silva. M: Jorge Lima Berreto. Drama, 82 min 5,6. G: Ridha Behi. F: Pierre L'homme. M: George Garvarentz. Romance, min 7,6. G: Dejan Sorak. F: Goran Trbuljak. Sinopsis: , Zagreb acaba de ser liberada. Ricardo, En Hoja del Lunes, 26 octubre. En El Temps, 2 de novembre. Lo que Potenciar el cine europeo. Esto no signifca que reneguemos de anteriores ediciones. El actor homenajeado es el italiano Omero Antonutti. Nacido en , en su trayectoria profesional se ha dedicado tanto al teatro como al cine.
Drama, min 6,9. G: Oussama Mohammed. F: Abdulqader Sharbaji. Una boda se convierte en un funeral. El campo ya no es el campo, un paisaje simple. Los hijos abandonan la tierra y la agricultura para correr a las ciudades, al servicio civil Etoiles de jour fue su primer largometraje. Drama, 96 min 6,0. G: Mohamed Chouikn.
F: Allel Yahiaoui. Drama, 94 min 7,0. G: Mustapha Gomaa y Mohamed Khan. F: Mohsen Nasr. M: Ammar El Sherei. Mohamed Khan F: Ramses Marzouk. M: Omar Khayrat. Comedia, 90 min 6,9. Crimen, 95 min 6,4. G: Francesc Bellmunt basado en la novela de Ferran Torrent. F: Javier Salmones. M: Manel Camp. F: Bruno de Keyzer. M: Gene Barge y Denise Osso. Drama, min 5,4. G: Dimitri Nollas y George Katakouzinos. F: Tassos Alexakis. Sinopsis: La postura de tres hermanas, una cuarta mujer y un hombre que sirve de catalizador, ante el hecho feminista dentro del marco de una Europa que se prepara para la Primera Guerra Mundial.
Drama, 97 min. Mingozzi y Lucia Drudi Demby. F: Luigi Verga. M: Nicola Piovani. Drama, 85 min. G: Anna Brasi y David Griego. F: Francesco Verdinelli. M: Francesco Verdinelli. Hay que ser serios, de una vez. X Mostra de Valencia - Cinema del Mediterrani. El actor, director y guionista italiano Alberto Sordi , es el elegido para rendirle homenaje. Canal 9, que inicia sus emisiones, cubre informativamente el festival. Vocales Gianfranco Mingozzi, Italia.
G: Zulfu Livaneli. M: Zulfu Livaneli y Mikis Teodoraquis. Comedia, drama, 98 min 8,3. G: Dusan Kavacevic. M: Zordan Simjanovic. Crimen, min 8,4. G: Feride Cicekoglu. F: Erdal Kahraman. M: Ozkan Turgay. Drama, min 6,6. G: Issam El Chana. M: Ammar El Cherij. Comedia, 94 min 7,1. F: Mario Battistoni. M: Manuel De Sica. Inteligente y corrosiva, con algunos excelentes gags. Drama, 84 min 7,6. F: Antonio Pueche.
G: Gianfranco Gabiddu y Vlaudio Lolli. F: Carlo Tafani. Drama, min 7,1. F: Youssef ben Youssef. M: Annour Braham. Drama, min 4,5. G: Mohamed Rachid Benhadj. M: Maria Cristina Peterlini. Hermosa, bien realizada y sugestiva. Y eso cuesta dinero, cuesta mucho dinero. Mestizajes Realizadores extranjeros en el cine espanol Antes del Apocalipsis: el cine de Marco Ferreri.
Comedia, drama, 98 min 6,9. M: Anouar Brahan. Sinopsis: Un adolescente no puede ser admitido en una pandilla hasta que seduzca a una de las mujeres del barrio obrero donde vive. Drama, min 5,7. G: Michael Khleif. M: Jean Marie Senia. Reparto: Bushra Karaman, Makram Khoury. Crimen, min 7,5. G: Atef El-Tayeb.
Atef El-Tayeb Autor de 19 flms entre con Sawak al-utubis y con Leila Sakhina Entre ellas destaca El Zamar Crimen, min 8,6. G: Nikos Antonakos, L. F: Lefteris Pavlopoulos. M: Christos Leontis. Sinopsis: en Grecia. Drama, 94 min 6,6. G: Brigitte Rouan. F: Dominique Chapuis. M: Pierre y Mathieu Foldes. G: Darko Bajic. F: Botis Gortinsky. M: Ulatko Stefanski. Misterio, 98 min. G: Rezo Cheishvili y Otar Shamatava.
M: Giorgi Tsintsadze. Todas las fchas. La Mostra ha pasado de tener un personal y un presupuesto insufcientes a contar con un equipo sobredimensionado y un presupuesto considerable. El resultado es sangrante. Fernando Lara lo explica con meridiana claridad. En Cartelera Turia 1 enero. El panorama cultual valenciano tras la dictadura franquista era desolador. Yo nunca fui del Partido Socialista, ni lo eran muchas de La luchas partidarias siempre existieron.
A partir de se repite el mismo panorama con el Ministerio de Cultura. Al principio cuestionaban la existencia misma de la Mostra. Poco a. Para estos sectores el gasto no estaba justifcado o no se realizaba bajo un control sufciente. Los problemas organizativos. Eran fallos puntuales, pero muy molestos para el espectador. Eso ahora no pasa, porque las descargas de un enlace en internet, pero entonces Que llegaban cuando la aduana estaba cerrada. La mayor parte de las veces. Creo que el equipo organizador era sumamente profesional y conocedor del medio. En este apartado se puede hablar de total unanimidad.
Como contrapartida, se ha criticado a menudo la excesiva cantidad de flms y ciclos programados. Resulta imposible elegir un criterio objetivo para medir la calidad de los flms. En resumen, los obras premiadas con los tres primeros premios son: ED. En el anexo En el cine italiano hayamos obras de Paolo y Vittorio Taviani David de. Se alcanzaron cifras de El bajo precio de las entradas alimentaba los deseos de acudir. La tremenda inquietud cultural, el despertar a tantas cosas Ni siquiera eventos consolidados y que levantan enormes expectativas consiguen hoy congregar a tanta gente.
Un festival consolidado y de prestigio como Cinema Jove congrega unos Y el valenciano menos que ninguno. Mas tarde, Al Tall estuvo participando en ellas y trajo la experiencia a Valencia. Manuel Gerena Andalucia. Bibiano y Benedicto Galicia. Luis Pastor Castilla. Labordeta Aragon.
Lupe Euskadi. Los Parra Chile. Luis Cilia Portugal. Elisa Serna Castilla. Dolors Laffitte Catalunya. Presupuesto: 1. Asistencia: unos 2. Jan Dau Melhau Occitania, Francia. Cantos e instrumentos populares de Calabria Italia. Un paseo por la Europa oriental, por Yugoslavia y por Macedonia. Orquesta la Mossediah Argelia. Oskorri Euskadi. Oskorri cielo rojo viene a ser y es la voz de un pueblo que nadie ha conseguido amordazar.
Milladoiro Galicia. En Diario de Valencia, 28 septiembre. Los retrasos en el comienzo de las actuaciones han sido escandalosos. Durante una semana, del 21 al 29, se pudo disfrutar en los Viveros de un completo programa musical y festivo. Sintonicem l'ona que ve crescuda. Paco de Lucia no pudo cumplir con el La major part dels temes estaven musicats per Theodorakis. Entre cancons populars, polques, valsos i d'altres estils de marxeta, assoliren aquestes dues actuacions l'ambient de festa i joia que exigien el lloc i el moment, al mateix temps que es descansava de la tonica general dels recitals de Vivers.
El dissabte 25, els valencians, com a amftrions de la trobada, tancaren la mateixa. E, El programa completo es menos extenso que en las ediciones anteriores. En Noticias, 1 noviembre. Biljana Cant d'Estil. Bervena con Carraixet, Cardabella y la Singular. Maestro de las launeddes.
Biljana Macedonia, Yugoslavia. Pollastret, hijo del Pollastre, y la Serrana, la decana del canto. Ha sido designado recientemente para componer el 'Hain' de los derviches giradores; solo se compone una cada siglo. Tomeu Penya Mallorca. Encontrareis en su voz las infexiones, las cadencias y el ornamento completo de los viejos cantaores.
Cartelera Turia, 31 octubre Por su parte, La Giner, Enric, Las En estas condiciones los organizadores tienen que consentir que la Trobada forme parte del programa de la Feria de Julio. En Hoja del Lunes, 23 julio. Cants Lliures del Mediterrani. Muluk el Hwa Marruecos. Kristos Leontis Grecia. Elena Ledda es una cantante sarda nacida en Selargius, cerca de Cagliari, el Ha hecho giras y grabado ampliamente a nivel internacional.
Entre sus discos fguran: Ammentos y Is Arrosas En Levante, 21 julio. Este es el contenido. Apa i Josepa Blasco A 2. Marineta 3. Orquestra Mossediah 4. Tali i D. Xemirani 5. Vujicssics 6. Al Tall. Cara 1. Canzonere Popolare de Calabria B 2. Manuel Luna y su cuadrilla 3. Ezadim Temo 6. Maria Faranduri. Nova Comp. Tanrikorur Cinuen 3.
Biljna 4. Coro di Fonni 5. Luigi Lai 6. La Serrana. Kristos Leondis 3. Elena Ledda 4. Muluk El Hwa. Incluso se apuntan actividades de la Trobada en ciudades como Tarragona, Mallorca y Valladolid. Mosaico Madrid. Laia Dimitrievich Yugoslavia. Con sus hermanos gitanos y manush forman el Pueblo Roma. Massalib Egipto. Fernando Pilia, Cagliari. Programa de mano. Muluk El Hwa, Marrakesh, Marruecos. Se presenta ofcialmente en esta Trobada. Re Niliu, Calabria, Italia. El Temps, septiembre y octubre , y Wikipedia. Al cierre de la Trobada en Valencia se calculaba una asistencia de unos En El Temps 21 abril.
Levante, 1 y 26 agosto El escenario de la Trobada cambia de nuevo. Campana Auroros Nta. Iota Bei Grecia. Al Kindi Egipto. Ritmia Italia. Calgija Balcanes, Anatolia. Citemos algunos: kaval, ney, gajda, tambura, lauto, outi, cura saz, divan sazi, kanun, santur, g'dulka, t'pan, def, tarabuka, etc. En El Temps, 22 de septiembre. En El Temps, 22 de setembre. Nuevas ciudades se suman a nuestro festival.
English - Spanish Dictionary Diccionario Ingles Español (75.000 Entries).pdf
Se han producido discos y presentado producciones valencianas. Se dieron a conocer en el centro cultural de la Caja de Ahorros, dentro de las actividades paralelas de la VI Trobada. Levante, 12 septiembre El balance es. Queda mucho por hacer para poder hablar de un proyecto que funcione al ciento por ciento de sus posibilidades. En Levante, 26 de septiembre. Miquel Gil 2. Roel Sluis 3. Iota Bel 4. Hussein El Masry 5. Tommasella Calvisi 6.
Capella i Escolania del Misteri d'Elx. El 10 de junio de se celebran elecciones municipales. No creo que haya ninguna difcultad. En Las Provincias 27 junio. Cantos, Roberto, En Las Provincias, 20 agosto. Vicent Torrent lo resume a partir de la experiencia de Al Tall. Cuando hemos profundizado en busca de una mayor complejidad musical se nos ha dado la espalda, incluso entre sectores nacionalistas. En Hoja del Lunes, 12 enero. Ajuntament: 7 millons de pessetes. Conselleria de Cultura: 3 millons de pessetes. Puerto de Valencia, Caja de Ahorros, discos Zic-Zac, Galerias Preciados i altres: aportacions que suposen un estalvi de 5 millons de ptes.
Javier Zamora. A los 12 entra en la Academia de Guitarra de los hermanos Fenollosa. Salah Cherki. Colla de Xeremiers de Sa Calatrava. Carlos Blanco Fadol. Profesor de guitarra, ha participado en diversos grupos como Mate Amargo, Los Valldemosa, etc. Fred Feenstra. Pepa Bes con Joc Fora. I Fratelli Mancuso. Enzo y Lorenzo Mancuso, nacidos en Sutera, Sicilia, han tomado el canto tradicional como base para su trabajo.
Ha descubierto las semejanzas entre los modos de canto de bereberes y alentejanos. Ha colaborado con Julio Pereira. David Broza. Formado en , trabajaron a partir de infuencias macedonias dentro del campo del jazz-rock. Su trabajo se extiende hasta el teatro, cine y TV. Han dado conciertos por todo el mundo. Abderrahmane Djalti. In the deserts of northern Africa people could not raise crops and restricted themselves to herding livestock.
In savanna areas people planted such grains as sorghum and millet, timing their crops to coincide with the annual rainy season. They also raised cattle, though the tsetse fly limited livestock to dry areas. In the forests of central Africa people grew a range of crops, including tubers such as yams, legumes, vegetables, and bananas. Getting water to crops was a perpetual problem for farmers throughout the world. People came up with a variety of irrigation techniques to get water to their fields.
In the Andes people tapped into underground water tables and built aqueducts to move water around. They also constructed raised fields separated by canals and small lakes that both provided water to the crops and controlled temperatures by absorbing and releasing solar radiation. People of Mesoamerica and the southwestern United States built irrigation ditches. In the Rift Valley of Africa farmers used the local rocky landscape to create irrigation canals that used gravity to water fields.
In Asia people dug elaborate networks of canals to ensure that water could be distributed over the rice fields at the appropriate times. Throughout the Islamic world people used machines to help them move and lift water. People dug deep wells and underground tunnels to reach and channel groundwater They also dammed rivers to collect water and release it as needed.
A Persian device called a qanat collected water on a hilltop and released it into fields below through a series of underground channels. Throughout the medieval period, farmers invented devices to make their work easier. New technology such as the moldboard plow an import from China , wheeled plows, and the horse collar made European farming easier than it had been. By farming was much more efficient than it had been in Africa For the last several millennia up to the present day Africa can be characterized as agricultural because most people have made a living by planting crops, herding livestock, or a combination of the two.
The range of environments both today and in the past encouraged an inventive farming tradition in which Africans carefully combined diverse agricultural activities with other modes of food procurement, such as hunting, gathering wild foods, and fishing. Not surprisingly, some of these other strategies were integral to farming in the first place; hunting was necessary to protect crops from wild animals searching for food, and foraging was one of the ways in which Africans became familiar with new food plants, many of which were slowly adopted in the repertoire of cultivated plants and gradually transformed into domesticated species.
Generally, we can identify three environmental zones in Africa, with each corresponding to a different mode of agriculture. Agriculture in the deserts and steppes was limited to the herding of livestock, often in a nomadic or easonally nomadic pattern. In the wooded and grassland savannas an annual rainy season provided moderate water to support grains—such as fonio, sorghums, and millets — and some livestock. The spread of iron technology in the first millennium c. Dense vegetation supporting tsetse fly and other livestock disease transmitters created a natural limit to cattle keeping, which was most successful in the drier savanna zones or in areas where Africans burned the bush to manage vegetation patterns.
In the moist, densely vegetated African forests located close to the equator, where the rains occur twice a year, Africans grew tuber crops, such as yams, by planting root or stem cuttings with digging sticks long before the spread of iron tools. In both the grain fields of the savannas and tuber gardens of the forests, a range of legumes, wild fruits and vegetables, fish, and disease-resistant smaller livestock like goats and sheep supplemented the primary carbohydrates. By the final centuries of the last millennium b. Animals also moved along these early routes; chickens and at least two types of cattle spread from Asia throughout Africa well before the medieval era.
In Africa a focus on innovation and experimentation with diverse species created a different kind of agricultural tradition than those found in Eurasia, where adjustments to the landscape were vital to improving productivity.
- American Furniture And Decoration Colonial And Federal.
- Buffalo Bill in the Gallery of the Machines!
- desert exposure Manual.
- Backpacking Beyond Boundaries:A South Africans Travels.
- Fat, Forty And Fired: The year I lost my job and got a life.
- ULTRAMUNDO: 10/01/ - 11/01/.
Terracing and irrigation systems did occur in ancient and medieval Africa; the terraces in the hills of Ethiopia, Cameroon, the Darfur region of Sudan, and the Nyanga formerly Inyanga area of Zimbabwe serve as primary examples. Likewise, the gravity-fed irrigation canals of the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa and Engaruka in Tanzania attest to the engineering skills of African farmers.
However, most agricultural systems in Africa up to the advent of commercial agriculture in the last century focused on the transformation of plants rather than the landscape. Africans developed hundreds of varieties of rice, bananas, and other plants selected over the centuries to produce specialized varieties for particular environments, drought patterns, taste and texture preferences, pest resistance, flood tolerance, and particular uses, such as beer brewing.
West Africans even bred a variety of the indigenous African rice Oryza glaberrima to grow at the same rate as the floods, to ensure that the seed head continues to form even as the waters rise around it. In Africa, as elsewhere, agriculture was intimately tied to social and political life. Unlike the agricultural histories of Europe or the fertile Mesopotamian valleys, low population densities and plentiful land in most of Africa meant that contestations over farmland were rare.
Indeed, leaders struggled to attract people to work the land. Nonetheless, as in other parts of the world, control over food surpluses, access to labor to farm the land, and concerns over the fertility of the soil provided the means by which individuals, especially chiefs and groups, usually lineages, acquired power and status in Africa. In fact, farmers recognized the powers of indigenous peoples living on the lands into which they had slowly spread. Such struggles have influenced changes in the character of social and political life over the last several millennia, creating numerous configurations of power between chiefs, lineages, and spirit mediums.
By the beginning of the middle of the first millennium of the Common Era farming had already spread across the continent, and communities who adopted this new technology had, through gradual experimentation, successfully integrated it into their economies. As the next thousand years unfolded over much of Africa, regional concentration on certain foods combined with specialization in hunting, fishing, foraging, salt making, and iron production drove internal trade and created opportunities for social and political change.
Eastern and Southern Africa Research on the agricultural history of Africa has largely focused on the spread of farming across eastern and southern Africa. Interest in the agricultural history of this region was initiated by attempts to explain a particular phenomenon in African history: the process by which related Bantu languages and cultures came to spread over most of eastern and southern Africa. Early scholarship on the Bantu expansions attributed superior technologies of iron production, farming, and pottery making to the Bantu people to explain how they spread across such a vast region, often at the expense of communities of non-Bantu hunter-gatherers and pastoralists.
Although we now know that this package of farming, iron, and ceramic technologies did not always spread together or necessarily in connection with the spread of Bantu languages, peoples, and cultures, it is clear that both iron and ceramic technologies were intimately tied to the successful adoption of farming by a variety of communities in eastern and southern Africa, particularly in the dry, hard soils of the savannas. In eastern and southern Africa this spread of cultivation is characteristic of the Early Iron Age, which, contrary to agricultural histories of Eurasia, was preceded by the spread of pastoralism.
By the fall of the Roman Empire in Europe in c. As the Early Iron Age was coming to a close in eastern and southern Africa, farmers were living and interacting with herders and hunter-gatherers; their dynamic relationships enabled the flow of people and knowledge across the fluid boundaries of their communities.
Farmers had grown confident in their knowledge about cultivation in familiar environments, such as rich floodplains and moist forests, and were beginning to experiment with plants and animals in drier areas. Although Early Iron Age farmers were practicing mixed agriculture, their focus was on crops rather than livestock. Thus, by the second half of the first millennium c. In the last centuries of the first millennium c. Transformations associated with the Late Iron Age usually were local developments and elaborations on existing knowledge rather than the result of the spread of peoples, languages, and knowledge, as was the case in the Early Iron Age.
The Late Iron Age in eastern and southern Africa was characterized by the development of new Bantu languages and the creation of new pottery styles and local variants on regional styles. However, the most important agricultural transformation was the extension of farming economies into drier environments with the widespread adoption of cattle keeping and new cultural ideas about the economic and social value of cattle.
As a form of wealth that could reproduce itself, cattle provided various opportunities to control other social processes, such as the attraction of dependents through the distribution of cattle or the transition into adulthood through the convention of marriage. Older men who had accumulated great herds could demonstrate and augment their wealth and status by using cattle from the herds to marry second and third wives and beget more children rather than using the cattle to fund the marriages of their younger male relatives.
Children of a man who had multiple wives provided additional sources of agricultural labor to increase household productivity; when they eventually married, daughters brought in more cattle in the form of bride-wealth. Archaeological and linguistic evidence for the emergence of cattle keeping provides numerous examples of how this agricultural transformation affected other aspects of life in eastern and southern Africa. A particularly stunning example of the productive powers of cattle and associated social and political developments began on the hard velds of Botswana east of the Kalahari Desert around c.
Farmers living on the grassy plains had begun to experiment with cattle several centuries earlier, but the turn of the first millennium marked the establishment of a new demographic and social pattern in which densely settled towns with large cattle kraals were surrounded by midsized cattle-herding villages and smaller outposts inhabited by stone-tool-using hunter-gatherer communities with very limited access to cattle. The largest of these capitals gave its name to this emergent culture, Toutswe. In the Toutswe state elites in the towns controlled large herds and could demand valuable bulls in the prime of their reproductive years for consumption from the smaller herding villages.
The Toutswe culture illustrates how savvy leaders forged a new, stratified social system based on control of cattle and the appreciation of agricultural activities over those of indigenous, stone-tool-using hunter-gatherers. Command of cattle was not a foolproof path to power, however. By about c. Even as Indian Ocean trade allowed leaders of the Zimbabwean states to develop new configurations of power based on control of trade in gold to the coast and beads, cloth, and other prestige items from the coast, cattle herding remained an integral aspect of the elite economy and cattle consumption an important demonstration of status.
Farmers focused on cattle keeping and established settlements in drier, savanna environments. Specialized modes of farming in the different environmental zones of the Great Lakes region—intensive banana farming near the lakeshore and river valleys, grain farming in the savannas, and cattle keeping in the driest areas—promoted both internal trade and, eventually, the development of kingdoms.
In addition to specialized agricultural surpluses, control of the production of salt and iron and ritual powers ensuring the health of communities, their fields, and their animals, were other important building blocks of authority. On the East African coast the emerging Swahili culture participated extensively in Indian Ocean trade, eventually developing complex plantation systems in the last centuries of the second millennium c.
Even earlier agriculture was an important part of the coastal economy, not only for producing food for the inhabitants of coastal cities but also as a means of demonstrating status.
tw-.*: data/dicts/maliwahyca.cf | Fossies
Asian rice, Oryza sativa, had become an important prestige food as early as as c. In some areas the centralization of political power could not be accomplished through the control of cattle herds. Some time after the 14th century c. Over the coming centuries leaders extended their control to trade, especially in copper, and developed a complex institution of divine kingship, which spread widely throughout the southern savanna; claims to origins in the Luba royal lineage legitimized subsequent states, such as the Lunda kingdom and chieftaincies in eastern and central Zambia.
The Equatorial Forests There has been little research on the agriculture history of the equatorial forest for this time period. Among a number of reasons for this neglect is the fact that plant remains and even iron and ceramics are not well preserved in the moist forest soils, so there are few data for archaeologists to uncover.
Studies based on linguistic evidence have focused on the spread of Bantu languages and agriculture into the equatorial forests and then traced their subsequent spread from the forests into eastern and southern Africa. Thus, the history of the farmers living in the equatorial forests after the introduction of farming is largely unknown. The early adoption of agriculture to forest environments was probably tied to interactions between hunter-gatherers and early savanna inhabitants practicing mixed farming on the equatorial and western African forest fringes in the early second millennium b.
In the equatorial forests the transition to farming was a gradual process, and farming, iron, and ceramic technologies spread through the forest independently rather than as a Neolithic technological package. By the middle of the first millennium c. Archaeological and linguistic evidence demonstrates the interdependence of forest hunter-gatherers and farmers, whose relations with each other varied over time; eventually, with the integration of forest peoples into the wider Atlantic trade economy in the 16th century, this relationship took the shape of the more unequal association common today, whereby hunter-gatherers are the clients, or dependents, of farmers.
Farmers in the forests were quick to adopt new foods, such as bananas and chickens from Asia via the East African coast and, after the fifteenth century, taro, cassava, and legumes from the New World via the Atlantic coasts of western and central Africa. The extensive system of waterways in the equatorial forest served as a travel network, facilitating the spread of people, ideas, languages, and new agricultural practices.
- Desarraigo (Spanish Edition).
- Queuing For Sex.
- Von Gedanken jener Tage (German Edition).
- Welcome back;
- Zend Framework 2 Application Development.
- vcyfuet.tk Ebooks and Manuals;
The Africanist scholar Kairn Klieman elaborates on the agricultural history of the equatorial forest region by exploring how Bantu people moving into the forest interacted with indigenous Batwa hunter-gatherers. By about b. Bantu peoples gradually adopted a sedentary agricultural lifestyle as a result of the spread of iron technology and banana cultivation, and, in reaction to this increasingly sedentary lifestyle, some Batwa broke off from mixed communities they had shared with their Bantu neighbors to specialize in procuring forest products for trade with farmers.
This specialization remained viable throughout the next 2, years, until the integration of equatorial forest societies into the Atlantic Ocean trade system in the 16th century. Bantu people had long believed the indigenous Batwa hunter-gatherers of the forests had powerful connections with local nature spirits, deserving of a special politico-religious status within early Bantu communities. However, as Bantu farmers adopted a sedentary lifestyle based on banana farming, they centralized political power in chiefdoms. During the second half of the first millennium c. Later, in upheavals associated with the incorporation of equatorial forest societies into the Atlantic community from the 16th to 20th centuries, power derived from the control of trade and accumulation of personal wealth would come to undermine those older patterns of authority that were based on first-comer status and the intercession between communities, their ancestors, and nature spirits.
On the Fringes of the Sahara: Northern and Western Africa The agricultural history of northern and western Africa does not follow the same chronology as that of the equatorial forest or eastern and southern Africa. The spread of iron technology, for example, did not occur in conjunction with the development of new farming practices but was adopted into early cultivation practices as an extension of an existing agricultural system. Furthermore, nomadic pastoralism flourished along the dry fringes of the Sahara; interactions between savanna farmers and nomadic pastoralists of the desert fringes characterized social life and political organization for millennia.
On the northern coasts farming shared the characteristics and history of other Mediterranean agricultural systems in which farmers grew wheat, grapes, olives, and sometimes barley. Like farmers in eastern and southern Africa, those in northern and western Africa grew sorghums, millets, and other grains in the savannas to the south and north of the desert, often using a system of shifting cultivation.
However, Africans living in the western region could also cultivate an indigenous rice, Oryza glaberrima, using one of three systems: In Guinea, for example, farmers planted rice on hillsides so that rainfall would irrigate the plants; along the Atlantic coast, farmers planted rice in mangrove swamps to ensure adequate moisture; rice planted in floodplains of the Senegal and Niger rivers was watered by floods and the moisture retained in the clay soils. The hundreds of varieties of rice developed by West African farmers was an important factor in the development of early permanent farming settlements and in adaptation to the particular threats associated with each of the three rice cultivation systems.
Changes in relations between sedentary farmers and nomadic pastoralists characterize the period corresponding to the European Middle Ages. By the fourth century c. With the advent of technologies improving the mobility of pastoralists, relations became more balanced and developed into a pattern of alternating pastoralist and sedentary dominance over marginal lands between the steppe and the cultivated savanna. As early as the 14th century the famous Tunisian historian Ibn Khaldun — interpreted the history of the ninth through the 14th centuries as the alternation of power between sedentary farmers and nomadic pastoralists, with the latter often raiding and conquering the former.
Nomadic dynasties ruling over sedentary farmers were, of course, prey to raiding and conquest by other nomadic pastoralists on the savanna fringes. This pattern continued long past the 14th century and is a common theme tying western and northern African history to historical patterns in Eurasia and beyond. Among the most important historical themes in precolonial West African history is the development of a series of states on the southern edge of the Sahara.
The first of these states appeared at the turn of the first millennium c. Generally, the development of the West African states of Ghana, Mali, Kanem, Borno, and the Songhai Empire was tied to control of trans-Saharan trade, particularly the supply of gold from the south to the trade networks spanning the desert. However, the agricultural productivity of these trade empires was central to their survival.
Although loss of trade monopolies meant loss of regional predominance, droughts and other agricultural catastrophes could mean the collapse of the state. This was the case with the state of Ghana, which was located between the middle Senegal River and Niger River bend. At the height of its power in the early 11th century, Ghana dominated the trans-Saharan gold trade. It was only in the 13th and 14th centuries, when major climatic shifts threatened the farming lifestyle of its citizens and forced the dispersal of Soninke farmers from their homeland throughout western Africa, that the state of Ghana collapsed completely.
A similar pattern unfolded with the fall of the Axum state in Ethiopia, where trade was the heart of power but the breakdown of agriculture contributed to state disintegration in the eighth century. These examples, coupled with those described for eastern and southern Africa, demonstrate the central role of agricultural activities in the history of state building in Africa and illustrate parallels with similar processes in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. Crabtree, Facts on File, New York, excerpts pp.
How the middle daughter of a despised pharaoh fought, schemed and seduced her way into becoming the most famous Egyptian ruler of all. Egypt was in turmoil. A series of bloody and violent family feuds had robbed his dynasty of any legitimate male heirs so his popular and beloved daughter, Bernice III became queen.
Following the family tradition, she married her half-brother, Ptolemy XI, but just 19 days after the ceremony, the groom had his new bride murdered and claimed the throne as his own. The citizens of Alexandria were furious and an angry mob quickly seized the new pharaoh and lynched him. Egypt was leaderless and seemingly out of control. A notorious womanizer with a fondness for drink and excess, he was hardly the shining beacon the struggling country needed to guide it through the dark pit it had fallen into.
The young princess was clever and quick-witted, with an eager and curious mind driven by a near-insatiable thirst for knowledge. She easily excelled at her studies and even her esteemed scholars were amazed by her aptitude for languages, readily conversing with any foreign visitors whether they were Ethiopians, Hebrews, Troglodytes, Arabs, Syrians, Medes or Parthians. While she surrounded herself with the wonders of the academic world in the riches and luxury of the royal residence, outside her palace window the real one was being stretched at the seams, in danger of being ripped apart.
Pharaoh Ptolemy XII was in a troublesome position. His father had promised Egypt to Rome, a promise the Roman Senate had chosen not to act on — not yet, at least. In 58 BCE he was forced into exile, taking his talented younger daughter with him. When he finally returned three years later, with the backing of a Roman army courtesy of the statesman Aulus Gabinius, he discovered his oldest daughter Berenice sitting on the throne.
Displaying the brutal and uncompromising ferocity that ran through his entire family he had his daughter summarily executed, reclaimed the throne and ruled an uneasy Egypt until his death in 51 BCE. The crown and all the debts he had amassed became the property of his oldest surviving daughter, Cleopatra.
She had served as consort to her father for the final few years of his reign and all her education since birth had been designed to mould her into a capable queen. Queen, that was; not king, not pharaoh. Cleopatra was cursed by the requirement of all Egyptian queens to serve alongside a dominant male co-ruler and so found herself burdened with the task of being a subordinate co-regent to her ten-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII.
This was dangerous; the Alexandrian courtiers swarmed over the young, impressionable king, filling his head with whispers of sole rule and the dangers of his older sister. If Cleopatra had been more patient and attentive, she could perhaps have trained a capable and obedient co-ruler in him, one who would have aided her rule, instead of bringing it crashing down. But that was simply not the Ptolemy way, and she was a Ptolemy in every sense of the word — daring, ambitious and deadly.
Over her shoulder Cleopatra could feel the ever-looming and rapidly expanding threat of Rome, and with a weak Egyptian army, her fertile land was ripe for the picking. In the middle of this political turmoil Cleopatra found herself facing a familiar rival. Her brother was back and, aided by his many guardians and regents, was now a vicious and ruthless king who was not afraid to wipe her from the land and from history. With her popularity and reputation already in tatters, the disgraced queen fled from the city of her birth before an angry mob could storm the palace and inflict upon her the same grisly fate as so many of her greedy and ill-fated predecessors.
Having lost not only the support of her people but also the land she so strongly believed was hers to rule, Cleopatra escaped to Syria with a small band of loyal supporters. Fuelled by outrage at her brother, and even more so at the advisors who had crafted him into a vicious enemy, Cleopatra did not sink into depression or abandon her ambitions, but set about building the army she would need to reclaim her throne. As the female pharaoh amassed her forces in Syria, her young brother, barely 13 years old, became distracted by the ever-pressing Roman civil war.
After a humiliating defeat to Caesar in Pharsalus, the Roman military leader Pompey the Great fled to the one place he was assured he could find refuge; his old ally, Egypt. With his wife and children watching nervously from afar Pompey disembarked his grand ship to board a small fishing boat to the shore. The Egyptian boy pharaoh, Ptolemy, sat on the shore in a throne fashioned specifically for the occasion. Before he could cry out he was ran through with a sword and stabbed over and over again in the back. While the once-great consul was decapitated and his mutilated corpse thrown into the sea, Ptolemy did not even rise from his throne.
When Caesar arrived in the harbour of Alexandria four days later, he was presented with the head of his rival. He wept loudly and openly before leading his forces to the royal palace in Alexandria. As he observed the local resentment and civil war threatening to break the land in two he made a decision — he needed the wealth that Alexandrian taxes would give him and the only way of increasing taxes was to establish stability in the city; the sibling rivalry had to end. He summoned Cleopatra and Ptolemy to appear before him. This was easy for Ptolemy who swiftly journeyed to Alexandria, but Cleopatra would have to use all her cunning just to make it into the city alive.
Her journey had been completely and utterly unfitting for a pharaoh of Egypt, a Ptolemy queen; but victory demanded sacrifice and she was confident the streets and waters she was smuggled down would soon be hers again. Her brother was a fool. Caesar needed Egypt as much as Egypt needed Rome and she would use that fact to her advantage. She would not wait to bow and scrape and plead her case alongside a child, she was going to speak to the Roman general that night.
He was far older than the young, bold Egyptian queen and his receding hairline was poorly disguised. The general was past his physical prime, but he had just won his greatest victory. This was her first time gazing upon the Roman celebrity known the world over, but this was also the first time he was facing her. Her brother was a child, a mere puppet pharaoh on strings, dancing to the pulls of his corrupt advisors, but she had been granted with all the charm, intelligence and ambition of her forefathers.
The young Ptolemy XIII awoke the next day, not expecting his dangerous older sister to have even made it to the palace. When he discovered that not only was she there, but had also seduced Caesar overnight into joining her cause, it was e final straw. Screaming in desperation he fled from the palace, tore his crown from his head and fell to his knees.
His sister had done it again. She was completely and utterly impossible to get rid off and, even as the crowd surged forward in protest, Caesar could not be swayed. The siblings would rule Egypt together, just as their father had intended. Rome had spoken. The apparent peace did not last long. Already poisoned by the ambitious whispers that had fed his youth, Ptolemy joined with his rebellious sister Arsinoe IV. The country they fought for would pay the price, and in December of 48 BCE the famous stone city of Alexandria was set alight, destroying not only the lives of hundreds of citizens, but also the world-famous library that housed countless priceless manuscripts.
The young and impetuous king tried to flee across the Nile in an overcrowded boat but his vessel sank, dragging him and his elaborate, heavy golden armour down with it. One Ptolemy was dead, but another still lived. As for Caesar, he had put in place a reliable partnership and Egypt was, for all intents and purposes, a Roman territory.
In a lavish display of the new union, a fleet of Roman and Egyptian ships sailed down the Nile accompanied by the grand royal barge where Cleopatra and Caesar sat together. Egypt and Rome were united, but Cleopatra still found herself co-ruler to another Ptolemy who would inevitably grow up, ambitious and treacherous.
She could not allow another brother to be swayed by advisors and driven against her. As long as Ptolemy XIV lived, her rule was threatened. Her partnership with Caesar had provided more than his political support, she was pregnant and in 47 BCE gave birth. For three years Cleopatra tightened her grip on the Egyptian throne, slowly winning the love of the Alexandrian mobs that had previously screamed for her head. She did little to squash them; a possible heir of Caesar was a very powerful tool to have.
If there was ever a time to act, it was now. Brothers, she had learned, could not be trusted. Later that year the youngest Ptolemy was found dead, seemingly poisoned. The power of Egypt was hers. The popular image of Cleopatra is the stunning vision seen in paintings and films, especially the film starring Liz Taylor with her strong but delicate features. The difficulty with accessing the true appearance of the Egyptian queen comes from the fact that the Roman Emperor Augustus ordered all images of her to be destroyed.
The few pieces that were spared are difficult to link directly to Cleopatra. Her own ancestry is also in doubt due to there being no concrete record of who her mother or grandmother were. Historians know she was part Greek, which indicates she had an olive complexion with dark hair. The coins and few statues discovered present a thick neck, with a hooked nose and prominent chin, she was also likely to suffer from bad teeth like everyone else of her time. It is perhaps better to view Cleopatra as not one who possessed conventional beauty, but instead captivated with charm intelligence and wit.
She was a femme fatale The idea that Cleopatra flittered between powerful men, wooing and manipulating with no idea of who fathered her children, is the result of an ancient smear campaign run against her by Roman officials. Her family line is that of Ptolemy, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and despite her family living in Egypt for over years, she would have been regarded as Greek. Cleopatra was actually rare in that she could speak Egyptian, unlike many of her predecessors. She wore a fake beard The concept of female Egyptian queens sporting fake beards comes from the Egyptian belief that the god Osiris had a grand beard, prompting Egyptian pharaohs to do the same to establish themselves as divine beings.
In fact, the only female pharaoh known to have worn one is Hatshepsut. She died from an asp bite This myth has gained momentum due to paintings of Cleopatra holding a snake to her bosom as she passes away. It is more likely she drank a combination of poisons. The idea that the asp bit her breast is certainly incorrect, as all ancient sources state it bit her on the arm. Cleopatra met with Caesar before their scheduled meeting and managed to sway his vote.
Her methods can be left to the imagination. Was it true love? Although the union was initially spawned from mutual political gain and the two were forbidden by Roman law to marry, Cleopatra seemed to stay loyal to Caesar and had his child. How did it end? This love affair was cut short when Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March. Antony summoned Cleopatra to see if she would hold true in her promised support during the war against the Parthians. She reportedly charmed him during this meeting, perhaps much the same way she had Caesar.
Although it may have been borne out of political agendas, the two had three children together, and Antony risked everything to be with his Egyptian queen. After the ill-fated Battle of Actium, Antony committed suicide upon mistakenly hearing Cleopatra was dead, and she quickly followed suit. Edited and illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa. Was Cleopatra a good ruler? I would certainly argue she was an effective ruler; she inherited a country on the verge of bankruptcy and, bringing a much-needed stability, ruled for over 20 years.
For a long time her personal alliances with Rome protected her land against invasion. Compared to many of the earlier Ptolemies she was indeed a good ruler, and it is difficult to think of a contemporary Ptolemy who could have done a better job. Cleopatra was born a member of the Ptolemaic royal family and like all her siblings, she felt she had a right to rule Egypt.
So her actions were less a ruthless quest for power and more an assertion of her god-given right to rule. Why do you think people are still fascinated by Cleopatra today? Cleopatra has all the ingredients we seem to like in an ancient world celebrity: fabulous wealth, power, and if not beauty, the ability to bend powerful men to her will. Her dramatic and still not entirely explained death simply adds to her mystique. Is there a side to Cleopatra that you believe has been ignored in modern depictions of her?
Two things; first, in the western historical tradition we tend to underestimate her intelligence, seeing her as a woman very much ruled by her heart rather than her head. This is because we draw our history from the Romans. Arab scholars have preserved the memory of a very different Cleopatra; a queen who was first and foremost a scholar. Secondly, we often overlook the fact that she was a mother to four children. This, to Cleopatra, was extremely important; it influenced her decisions and linked her very closely to the Egyptian goddess Isis, mother of the god Horus.
Luigi XIV di Francia teneva dei cuscini nella vasca, ma i suoi sudditi si lavavano poco. Ha, piuttosto, un percorso pieno di contraddizioni, stranezze e pregiudizi. Gli Assiri che, come i Babilonesi, vivevano anche loro vicino a grandi fiumi, si lavavano solo nelle grandi occasioni. Ma facevano uso di cosmetici e profumi.
Fino ai Greci classici, che erano amanti della pulizia. Docce gelate. Per gli Elleni le terme rappresentavano il completamento della ginnastica, ma ci si lavava velocemente, con acqua fredda. Il bagno caldo, considerato effeminato e vizioso, si diffuse solo durante la decadenza, sotto la dominazione romana.
La causa? Scandalose tinozze. Sono arrivate a noi intatte anche le latrine di Palazzo Davanzati, casa gentilizia fiorentina del Trecento: ce ne sono a ogni piano, collocate in piccolissime stanzette affrescate, sotto una finestra. Nelle case modeste, si andava meno per il sottile: era sovrano il vaso da notte, di vetro, metallo o terracotta verniciata, e il contenuto finiva in strada. Dei gabinetti pubblici ci fa invece una descrizione Boccaccio nel Decamerone: una latrina a cul di sacco fra due case in un vicoletto, coperta da un assito di legno.
La seguridad y los guardias de la hacienda fueron en busca de los dos hermosos cuerpos que saltaban como chispas de fogatas encendidas. Solo la risa pudo calmar la tristeza de quienes creyeron cerca un secuestro. No hubo cenizas almidonadas sobre las rocas. No hubo maestro para entender eso que estremecieron las dos siluetas. El mayordomo los condujo al establo para luego salir a trote sobre el cenizo y el azabache. Siempre que hay fiesta alguien interrumpe el idilio de los audaces como si magias grises aterrizaran sobre calzadas y desiertos.
Desde entonces los asesinatos estaban entre los indefensos. Nadie supo porque hubo peligro de parte y parte. Los dos no aceptaron decisiones erradas de los envidiosos. Simplemente sin prisa se quisieron entre sigilos y remansos. Hubo esmeraldas entre las sonrisas de cada noche. Se alejaron de su gente y de sus pueblos. Estaban siempre juntos como trenzas amarradas y libres como aves de la selva.
Un fuerte amor entre todos los amores hizo clarear aun los anocheceres. En cada minuto nunca faltaron los besos. Le dijeron que estaba silencioso sobre una cama de tejidos transparentes. Que no hablaba. Aun sus manos estaban tibias. Las rosas se marchitaron desde entonces y los perfumes se evaporaron al lugar de mansiones gelatinosas.
Hoy es de madrugada. El conserva la risa de su romance como el encaje de su camisa. Dice que en cada madrugada hay una risa fresca y placentera que lo transporta a contemplar los mismos besos. Penso: "Oh que gato tan lindo, pero es orgulloso". La perra sin fuerzas para levantarse lanzo algunos quejidos. El gato le volvio a insitir. La perra le hizo caso al gato. Entre todos la subieron a un costal de seda. Lociones y aceites finos cayeron sobre el mugre de su cuero.
Con buena comida y la comodidad llego por fin a su espinazo. Los hijos perrunos, poco a poco se acomodaron en las camas de los gatitos. No se hicieron investigaciones, porque los gatos que atendian la justicia, estaban enamorados encima de los tejados. Los jueces entre lo gatos, gozaban de vacaciones. La perra ya daba ordenes gobernando todo. Los gatos se revolucionaron con fuerza. Se unieron a otros amigos gatunos y entre todos sacaron de la lujosa casa escarpada a la perra con su perros. Al investigar y ver los esqueletos, alli estaban: 14 cachorros de perro, un esqueleto de perra flaca y uno de un hermoso gato.
Por Leomas Tu familia vive en la carpa. Tu piel es bella con ganas, tu figura es de fiesta y estas como las mejores gitanas. Tienes quince cumplidos. Me dijo ayer su hermana. Ella afirma que los dos podemos ir a la cima con ganas. Porque corres por los aires y prohiben que te hable de nacar. Porque oigo tus voces, en el cuarto de mi vida temprana. Hay una puerta cerrada con fino cerrojo de oro y hay un candado en mi vida, que no deja que otra te espante.
Adriana de la fragancia, porque no escuchaste mi ruego y no hubieras ido. Nos alejamos para siempre como dos horizontes perdidos, nos amamos como novios y como claveles encendidos. Las voces siguen igual como las rocas del viento. Los claveles dieron al aire su aroma. Adriana en todo este tiempo te espero y no he dormido. Adriana de mis recuerdos, hoy sigo esperando con mi amor escondido. Por Leomas Todos como el viento quedaron por fuera de la gigante casa. Al final de la pubertad el colegio y los amigos no entendieron aquello que pasaba.
Hoy a todos les produce risa el suceso. Los aromas de la primavera se estancaron como fuerte verano de asonada. Ellos eran adolescentes y salieron sin nada. Cajas y maletines viejos estaban al lado de las pocas pertenencias. Los alimentos escasearon por varios meses sin quien trabajara. Hubo noticias y esas crearon confusiones en las mentes doradas.
Nunca perdieron el abolengo de su raza. Esos llenaron de belleza el paisaje de la ramada. Fue bien recibido por una diosa llamada "gata" de rojo escarlata. Las calles de la nueva ciudad estaban mal pavimentadas. La luz de la vida y de cada estirpe estuvo lejos de los rincones de los negocios. No era precisamente una princesa quien lo transportaba.
cmnbvad.tk Ebooks and Manuals
Caricias y suaves mordiscos eran de danza en algunas madrugadas. La brisa de "Los Alisios" refrescaba la aventura como una telenovela escriturada. Aquel Diciembre fue de resplandor. El beso de ese primer amor de enamorado en la madrugada y la cocina de Rosa, guardan hoy el mejor de los recuerdos.
Seguramente los bailes y cada esfuerzo, llevaban el colesterol lejos del cuerpo de los romanceros. Tomaban jugos sin control de los grupos de higiene y no pagaban impuestos. Hoy ellos no se arrepienten. Todos pagaban con dinero extranjero. El valor del producto y cada ganancia iban a servir de acicate para las lociones, ropa fina y viajes del aventurero.
El billete hizo fiesta en los pantalones. Se inventaron muchos viajes y recorridos a varios municipios de la estancia.
Opties voor uitsnede
Al lado de las ventas, se llevaba ropa de baratija y era revendida en las calles como subasta. La camioneta negra estaba segura de llegar diariamente. El baile, las ventas y el vino se transformaron en convento. El sacerdote Gonzalo, era uno de los santos que el joven admiraba. Al llegar la segunda navidad estaba de nuevo fuera de casa paterna del adolescente. Todo estaba listo y las notas del colegio fueron sobresalientes. Los dos empezaron a ver la vida diferente. Hoy es rutina en cada jugada.
Cada camino es un recuerdo y cada hecho llena de placer la nostalgia. Hoy todos siguen en la jornada. Es la vida, es el suelo y es el canto que alguien nuevo escucha sin fragancia. He was civilly registered after the baptism in the municipality of Floridablanca, Department of Santander, Colombia, on August 15, His father had a work contract with the American petrol oil company "The Morrison" and the father should travel Constantly looking for the "black gold", and taking his family with him. He is 63 years old. This proximity would play a major part in the history and identity of Spain and Portugal.
Genetic Diversity in the Iberian Peninsula Region: The people living in the Iberian Peninsula region are fairly admixed, which means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we see similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions. We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for the Iberian Peninsula. The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to this region. For the Iberian Peninsula, we see a fairly wide range of results. A number of Iberian civilizations had developed by the Bronze Age and were trading with other Mediterranean communities.
Celtic tribes arrived from central Europe and settled in the northern and western parts of the peninsula, intermixing with the local populations. Phoenician colonies later controlled by the powerful Carthaginians dotted the Mediterranean coast. Tartessian residual , Celtic — Turdetanian. Indo-European pre-Celtic , Iberian. Romanization: The Carthaginians were the naval superpower of their day, controlling most of the maritime trade in the western Mediterranean. They ran afoul of the growing Roman Empire in the 3rd century B.
Local disputes between city-states in Sicily escalated into a broader conflict between the two empires, triggering the Punic Wars B. Iberia was a major source of manpower and revenue for the Carthaginian military, which relied heavily on mercenary soldiers. The great Carthaginian general, Hannibal, led the Iberian forces in a surprise assault on northern Italy—and even Rome itself—by marching his armies, including several dozen war elephants, over the Alps.
Although Hannibal was a brilliant strategist and won several victories against the Romans, his invasion ultimately failed. He was forced to retreat to Carthage and the Iberian colonies and territories that had been controlled by Carthage then became a province of the Roman Empire, known as Hispania. Hannibal's Elephants by French artist Nicolas Poussin Rome launched a number of campaigns to conquer the remainder of the peninsula, bringing most of the region under Roman rule.
Latin replaced almost all of the locally spoken languages and eventually evolved into modern Spanish and Portuguese. One exception is the Basque language, which survived in the remote foothills of the Pyrenees. Many scholars believe Basque pre-dates the arrival of the Indo-European languages, brought by the Celtic and Iberian tribes during the Bronze Age. These wandering tribes completely transformed central and western Europe, conquering and displacing populations over the course of centuries. The Roman Empire had already been divided into two parts, with the emperor ruling from the new eastern capital in Byzantium.
The Western Empire, including Rome itself, was overrun by successive waves of Germanic invaders, including the Visigoths and the Vandals. The Visigoths continued west from Italy and established the Visigoth Kingdom, which occupied the majority of the Iberian Peninsula. They converted to Catholicism around A. Visigoth Kingdom, A. Islamic rule: North Africa remained part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires for centuries after the defeat of Carthage. But in the late 7th century, the region was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate, a vast Muslim empire based in Syria.
In A. Iberia became a province of the Umayyad Caliphate called Al-Andalus. While many converted to Islam and adopted the Arabic language, the majority of the population remained Christian and spoke Latin. He is considered to be one of the most important military commanders in Iberian history. The duration of Muslim rule varied, lasting only a few decades in the north and nearly years in the south. Al-Andalus broke away from the Caliphate after the overthrow of the Umayyads in Syria and became an independent emirate ruled by a succession of Muslim dynasties.
By then, Muslim rule had fractured into a number of smaller, competing emirates, which made them more vulnerable. Portugal was also established as a distinct country at this time, and the boundaries between the two nations have remained virtually unchanged since then. The year was especially busy for Ferdinand and Isabella. They also defeated the last Muslim stronghold at Grenada, bringing an end to the Reconquista. In addition, Ferdinand and Isabella financed the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World, beginning a period of exploration, colonization and exploitation of the Americas.
Called the Age of Discovery, it led to immense wealth and power for Spain, as they became an unmatched maritime power and extracted gold, silver and other resources from their colonies across the Atlantic. To this day, Spanish remains the second most widely spoken language in the world. Portugal kept pace with its neighbors, establishing the first trade route around the southern tip of Africa, as well as numerous colonies, including Brazil. The Portuguese explorer, Bartholomew Dias, was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa.
Located in the south of Europe, against the Mediterranean Sea, this region gave rise to some of the most iconic and powerful cultures the Western world has known. The Greeks were first, with their pantheon of gods, legendary heroes, philosophers and artists. They subsequently influenced the Romans, whose vast empire spread its ideas and language across Europe.
During the height of the Classical Era, the Greeks introduced cultural, civic and philosophical ideas and innovations that heavily influenced the Roman Empire and, in turn, laid the foundations of Western civilization. Ancient Greece was settled by four different Greek-speaking groups. It was one of the great powers of its time. The remaining group, the Dorians, rose to prominence around B. The influence of these groups spread beyond mainland Greece to the western coastline of modern Turkey and the islands of the Aegean Sea. The Greeks also founded colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. The Latins would later build their capital in Rome, drawing heavily on the culture of their Greek neighbors.
Colonies of Italy and Greece: Besides Sicily and southern Italy, the Greeks established many more colonies around the Mediterranean, from approximately B. Others were created by refugees when Greek cities were overrun and the displaced inhabitants looked for new land. More than 90 Greek colonies were established, from Ukraine and Russia to the north, Turkey to the east, southern Spain in the west, and Egypt and Libya in the south. The Classical Age of Greece began around the 5th century B.
After two bloody wars with the Persian Empire, Athens and Sparta went to war with each other, leading to the eventual decline of both. Alexander led his armies in conquest of the Middle East, part of India, and Egypt, spreading the Greek language and culture throughout much of the ancient world. Phillip II, king of Macedonia. The Granger Collection, New York. His triumph was short-lived, however; he died on his campaign and his conquered territories were divided among his generals. But many important Greek cities and colonies were established and remained under Greek rule, including Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria.
While Greece spread its influence eastward, the small city of Rome was growing into a regional power in Italy. As the Roman Republic expanded, it established colonies of Roman citizens to maintain control of newly conquered lands. By the time Julius Caesar seized power from the Senate, the Roman war machine was nearly unstoppable.
Soldiers who served for years in the military were rewarded with land in Roman colonies throughout the empire, which stretched from Turkey and the Middle East to Spain and northern France. The Empire was divided and, as the focus of power shifted away from Rome, the Western Empire was left vulnerable to a series of invasions by Goths, Huns, Visigoths and Heruli. In B. The Eastern Empire continued to flourish, becoming known as the Byzantine Empire. Odoacer was soon murdered by the Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric. Although the barbarians had seized Rome, they never established a major settlement in Italy.
Romulus Augustulus resigns the Crown before Odoacer. During the 8th and 9th centuries, the empire slowly freed Greece from these invaders. The Slavs had the most success at establishing permanent settlements in Greece, although they, too, were eventually defeated and banished from the Greek peninsula.
Many of the Greek scholars fled and migrated to Christian Western Europe. Ottoman colonies were established in several areas in Greece, and held on until Greek independence was declared in They established a wealth of trading relationships with the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic powers, all around the Mediterranean. The escalation in trade leads to a resurgence of financial power in Italy, allowing it to create Italian colonies as far away as the Black Sea. Did You Know? After the 2nd century B.
The Greeks were the first to develop an alphabet with vowels and it has been used to write the Greek language since B. The Europe West region is a broad expanse stretching from Amsterdam's sea-level metropolis to the majestic peaks of the Alps. Geographically dominated by France in the west and Germany in the east, it includes several nations with distinct cultural identities. From the boisterous beer gardens of Munich to the sun-soaked vineyards of Bordeaux and the alpine dairy farms of Switzerland, it is a region of charming cultural diversity.
Genetic Diversity in the Europe West Region: The people living in the Europe West region are among the most admixed of all our regions, which means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we often see similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions. We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for Europe West. This is most likely due to the fact that this area has not experienced any long-term periods of isolation.
Population History Prehistoric Western Europe : Due to its location and geography, Western Europe has seen many successive waves of immigrants throughout its history. Both peaceful intermingling and violent invasions of newcomers have resulted in a greater diversity in the genetics of the population, compared with neighboring regions.
The first major migration into Western Europe is arguably the Neolithic expansion of farmers who came from the Middle East. From about 8, to 6, years ago these farmers filtered in through Turkey and brought with them wheat, cows and pigs. It is possible; too, that these people could have been the megalithic cultures who erected enormous stone monuments like the famous menhirs of Stonehenge.
There were dozens, if not hundreds, of monuments scattered throughout prehistoric Europe, some serving as tombs, others possibly having astronomical significance. By B. The Celts either conquered or assimilated the previous inhabitants of the area, and almost all languages and cultural and religious customs were replaced. The only exception, most scholars believe, is the Basque language, which managed to persist in the Pyrenees of southern France and northern Spain.
In the early 4th century B. In the 5th century B. It is unclear what prompted their movement, but it may have been climate related, as they sought warmer weather and more fertile farmland. This map shows the expansion of Celtic tribes by A. Dark green areas show regions where Celtic languages are still spoken today. It began turning its attention northwest toward the Celtic-dominated region known as Gaul, which more or less covered the area of modern-day France.
Julius Caesar led the campaign to conquer Gaul. A Celtic chieftain, Vercingetorix, assembled a confederation of tribes and mounted a resistance, but was defeated at the Battle of Alesia in 52 B. The battle effectively ended Celtic resistance. Many generals and even emperors were born in Gaul or came from Gallic families. Celtic culture and influence still held sway in parts of the British Isles, and the Basque language continued to survive in the Pyrenees. It is interesting to note that the Basque share genetic similarities to the Celts of Ireland and Scotland, despite being culturally and linguistically dissimilar and geographically separated.
While the exact relationship of the groups is difficult to determine, this does highlight the interesting interplay between genetic origin and ethno-linguistic identity. The Migration Period: By A. Rome was no longer the heart of the Empire, as the seat of power had been moved to Byzantium in the east. The Romans had begun to adopt Greek customs and language as well as Christianity, which had become the official state religion.
Control of the provinces in the west had waned, and Rome itself was militarily weakened. Many of the groups involved were Germanic tribes, whose expansion had previously been held in check by the Romans. To some degree, the earlier Germanic tribes of the Migration Period, notably the Goths and Vandals, were being pushed west and south by invasions from the Middle East and Central Asia.
These successive attacks may have been a factor in several waves of population displacement and resettlement. The western part of the Roman Empire was rapidly overrun as the invaders swept in, eventually dividing the remainder of the Roman provinces into new, Germanic kingdoms. An anachronistic 15th-century miniature depicting the sack of Over the course of almost four centuries, a succession of Frankish kings, including Clovis, Clothar, Pepin and Charlemagne, led campaigns that greatly expanded Frankish control over Western Europe.
Charlemagne's kingdom covered almost all of France, most of today's Germany, Austria and northern Italy. In , Charlemagne's grandsons divided the Frankish empire into three parts—one for each of them. Charles the Bald received the western portion, which later became France. Lothair received the central portion of the empire, called Middle Francia, which stretched from the North Sea to northern Italy. It included parts of eastern France, western Germany and the Low Countries. Louis the German received the eastern portion, which eventually became the high medieval Kingdom of Germany, the largest component of the Holy Roman Empire.
Statue of Charlemagne. By Agostino Cornacchini - Located at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican. Charles the Bald — Lothair - Louis the German Additional cultures of note: In addition to the Basque in the area of the Pyrenees in southern France, there are a number of other cultures with unique ethnic or linguistic identities in Western Europe.
Among them are the Normans of northern France. Descended from Viking settlers who arrived sometime during the rule of the Frankish kings, the Normans controlled a powerful region known as Normandy. Their territories were subject to the French crown, which countenanced them in exchange for protecting the northern coast against other Viking raids. Just to the west of Normandy was Brittany, named after the Celtic Britons who arrived there from the British Isles in the 5th century.
Some scholars believe that the migration may have been due to the Anglo-Saxon invasion of England after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Brittany resisted the Frankish kings and remained independent until It is one of the few places where Celtic languages are still spoken. Many people think that Henry Ford invented the modern automobile, but it was two German engineers, Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, who each independently came up with the concept around the same time.
Great Britain. The history of Great Britain is often told in terms of the invasions with different groups of invaders displacing the native population. However, the story of Great Britain is far more complex than the traditional view of invaders displacing existing populations. In fact modern studies of British people tend to suggest the earliest populations continued to exist and adapt and absorb the new arrivals.
We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for Great Britain. Population History Prehistoric Britain : At the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, 12, years ago, the sea levels around northern Europe were low enough for Stone Age hunter-gatherers to cross, on foot, into what are now the islands of Great Britain. Farming spread to the islands by about B. Beginning in about B. The Celts were not a nation in any sense, but a widespread group of tribes that shared a common cultural and linguistic background.
Originating in central Europe, they spread to dominate most of western Europe, the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula. They even settled as far away as Anatolia, in modern-day Turkey. Their dominance could not withstand the rise of the Roman Empire, however. Most of southern Britain was conquered and occupied over the course of a few decades and became the Roman province of Britannia. Those tribes who were not assimilated into the Roman Empire were forced to retreat to other areas that remained Celtic, such as Wales, Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Brittany.
The Roman presence largely wiped out most traces of pre-existing culture in England—even replacing the language with Latin. As the Romans left, tribes from northern Germany and Denmark seized the opportunity to step in. The Germanic Angles and Saxons soon controlled much of the territory that had been under Roman rule, while the Jutes from Denmark occupied some smaller areas in the south. The new settlers imposed their language and customs on the local inhabitants in much the same way that the Romans had. The Germanic language spoken by the Angles would eventually develop into English.
Invasion of Germanic tribes after A. The region was divided into several kingdoms, with the more powerful kings sometimes exerting influence or control over smaller bordering kingdoms. There was nothing like a single, unified English kingdom, however, until the early 10th century and the rise of the House of Wessex. Viking invasions and the Danelaw: During the 8th century, seafaring Scandinavian adventurers began raiding coastal areas in Europe.
Known as the Vikings, they were not just warriors and pillagers. They also established numerous trade ports and settlements throughout the Western world, including the British Isles, Russia, Iceland and the Iberian Peninsula. A group of Vikings that settled in northern France became known as the Normans and, by the early 11th century, ruled a great and powerful region, sanctioned by the French crown.
Viking long ships Danish Vikings began to invade northern and eastern England in and eventually came to control a third of the country, defeating several smaller Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The rulers of the Danelaw, as the Viking area became known, struggled for nearly 80 years with the remaining English kings over the region.
The balance of power swung back and forth a number of times, with an English king, Edward the Elder, gaining the upper hand in the early s and a Danish king, Cnut the Great, ruling England, Norway and Denmark from to The Normans of France, led by William the Conqueror, sailed across the English Channel and claimed the throne of England, defeating the only other rival, Harold Godwinson, at the Battle of Hastings in In , William extended his control to Scotland and Wales.
The Danelaw in A. Beginning in , Edward I put down a revolt in Wales and led a full-scale invasion, bringing Wales under control of the English crown. He then seized political control of Scotland during a succession dispute, leading to a rebellion there. The House of Plantagenet continued to reign until the 15th century. Towards the latter half of the 15th century the houses of York and the Lancaster, the most powerful Plantagenet branches fought a series of wars for control of the throne.
Those wars ended with the Battle of Bosworth Field on the 22nd August The British Empire: After the defeat of the Spanish Armada in , England established itself as a major naval power. As European nations began founding colonies around the world, England was well positioned to compete for control of the largely untapped resources of the New World. Religious and political upheavals in England in the 17th and 18th centuries played critical roles in establishing and defining early American history, as dissidents left England seeking religious freedom.
Subsequent emigrations from England to the Americas ensured a primarily English-derived culture and social structure. English ships and the Spanish Armada This led to the American War of Independence with and the Thirteen Colonies gaining independence and forming a new nation, the United States of America.
In the Americas, Britain shifted its attention north to Canada where many of the defeated loyalists from the revolution had migrated to. And to make up for lost wealth in America, Britain now paid greater attention to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa. Shortly after Britain set up penal colonies in Australia transporting large number of convicts to Australia. Over 80 years over , convicts were sent to Australia. By the end of the 19th Century it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire, since it stretched around the world.
At lunchtime on the 28th February an American and British scientist, James Watson and Francis Crick, walked into the Eagle pub in Cambridge and announced that they had "discovered the secret of life". Crucial to their discovery was the work of another British scientist, Rosalind Franklin, whose X-Ray photographs of DNA gave vital clues to its structure.
The European Jewish region is not geographically defined in the same way as most other ethnic regions. The historic dispersal of the Jewish population from its origin in the Levant on the east coast of the Mediterranean resulted in insular communities scattered throughout Europe, North Africa, Central Asia and the Middle East. Although some Jewish communities enjoyed positions of relative peace and prosperity, many more were segregated from mainstream society by law, custom and prejudice, experiencing sustained persecution and discrimination.
Genetic Diversity in the European Jewish Region: The people living in the European Jewish region are much less admixed than most other regions which means that when creating ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we rarely see similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions. We have used our reference panel to build a European Jewish genetic profile.
See chart above, in green. While there is some archaeological evidence to support certain details of the Biblical account, often it remains the only source and is given varying amounts of credence by different scholars. According to this source, the Jews are descended from Abraham, a Sumerian who traveled west from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan, which lay along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. Around B. The Kingdom of Israel in B. The Assyrians conquered and deported many of the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom in the 7th century B.
- Pediatric Foot Deformities, An Issue of Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, E-Book (The Clinics: Orthopedics)!
- Pas de quoi rire : Louis C.K. et l’art du stand-up (French Edition).
- Títulos relacionados?
- Homicides multiples dans un hôtel miteux des bords de Loire (Hors collection) (French Edition).
In about B. A large number of Jews were expelled from their former kingdom and forced to resettle in Babylon. Many historians mark this event as the beginning of the Jewish diaspora, which refers to the scattering of the population. When Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in B. The former Kingdom of Judah, renamed Judea, was made a province of the Persian Empire—although its size was significantly reduced. Many Jews returned to Jerusalem, but many more stayed in Babylon, where Talmudic scholarship study of the central text of Judaism was founded.
Over time, prominent Jewish communities were established in Alexandria, Rome and Greece. When his territories were divided after his death, Judea became part of the Seleucid Empire. The Judeans were commanded to accept Greek polytheism, leading to rebellion. Fighting for years under Judas Maccabee, the Judeans won the right to rededicate the Temple, an event commemorated by the holiday of Hanukkah.
When King Herod assumed power with the help of the Romans, however, Judea became a client state of the Roman Republic. There were three major Jewish revolts against the Romans in Judaea, the first of which began in 66 A. It was quelled in the year 70 when Titus sacked Jerusalem.
The city was burned and most of the Jews were killed or sold into slavery throughout the Roman Empire. The second revolt, called the Kitos War, lasted from to At the end of the Bar Kokhba revolt , the Romans completely razed Jerusalem. Once again, they sold the majority of the survivors into slavery, this time placing severe restrictions on those who remained. By the 2nd century, Jews were located throughout the Roman Empire.
By the 5th century, there were scattered communities from Spain in the west to the Byzantine Empire in the east. Because Jews were usually restricted by law from owning land, they turned toward occupations in commerce, education and medicine. Over the centuries, the Jews settled where they could throughout western Europe, enduring frequent discrimination and periodic expulsions from various countries. Facing increasing persecution in the west during the 11th and 12th centuries, many of the Ashkenazi Jews moved from England, France and Germany to eastern Europe, where Poland and Lithuania encouraged Jewish settlement.
Historically, Ashkenazi Jews lived in separate towns known at shtetls. In , approximately , Jews lived in Poland. By the middle of the 17th century, there were more than 1 million. Jews today: During the late 19th century, government-condoned persecution of the Jews in Russia, called pogroms, forced many to move to the United States and to Palestine. In Theodor Herzl, an Austro-Hungarian journalist, established the Zionist Organization and became the charismatic figurehead of the growing modern Zionist movement. He and his supporters continually lobbied foreign governments for help in the establishment of a Jewish state.
After the Ottoman Empire was defeated in World War I, its territories, including Palestine, were divided into mandates administered by the British and French. The British government, with its Balfour Declaration in , announced its support of establishing Palestine as a national home for the Jews. A small number of Jews have lived in this region for generations, tracing their ancestors back thousands of years, with the majority returning in the last century.
It is the only remaining part of the Second Temple, destroyed by the Romans in 70 A. Your genetic ethnicity estimate indicates that you have ancestry from the region that is home to the indigenous people of the Americas. This vast region stretches over two continents to include the rugged territory of Alaska and Canada, mountains and plains of the United States, dry valleys of Mexico, tropical jungles of Central America and South America, and the Patagonian steppes of southern Argentina and Chile. Genetic Diversity in the Native American Region: Individuals from the Native American region are much less admixed than individuals from most other regions.
This means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we rarely see similarities to DNA profiles from other regions. The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to the area. See green chart above. Population History: North and South America were the last inhabited continents to be populated by humans.
Much of the native population remained nomadic hunter-gatherers, but a number of more advanced cultures developed as well. Many places had rich soils, warm temperatures and plenty of rain. The Mississippian culture, centered in the region later named for it, farmed maize and had a complex, stratified society. The Mayans of Central America were highly advanced, known for their writing, astronomy, art, mathematics and highly developed religious institutions that built enormous stone pyramids.
Possible land route from Asia across the Bering Strait The first contact with Europeans likely came when Leif Erickson and his Icelandic Vikings established a temporary settlement in Canada.