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As indicated by the title, it compiles a number of Zappa's songs that have gained notoriety as being particularly offensive, and often satirical or parodic. Most of the tracks on the collection were previously available on other albums, but nearly all appear here in remixed form. The live version of "Dumb All Over" is a premiere recording. The recording of "Tinsel Town Rebellion" is listed as a premiere recording, as well, though it had previously appeared in the home video release Does Humor Belong in Music? The cover artwork was done by Ralph Steadman.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Each episode was codified, where explicit enough, as to:. Actions were coded as: omission, betrayal, injustice, unfriendly stance, deception, and misunderstanding;. Communicative acts as: increasing level of aggression, silence, refuse, exclusion, negative prediction, detraction, reproaches, negative formal evaluation, criticism, mockery, accusation, slander, aggression, insult. Personal and relational components: private vs. Causal attribution. The specific evaluations of lack of dominance include dependence, helplessness, inferiority, uselessness, and especially irrelevance, while lack of competence ranges from negligence to stupidity, to social competence to be a good mother.

In our database cases referred to female sexuality or masculinity are quite rare unlike in Cohen et al.

offend - Wiktionary

Even if the most frequent type of evaluation conveyed by offenses concerns the dominance criterion, this is not the most emotionally arousing: crossing type of evaluation with emotions, the negative evaluations of physical appearance result to cause shame significantly more than those on dominance, benevolence, and competence, respectively [3.

Differently, when conveying lack of competence and dominance offense causes a pride reaction more likely than when on benevolence and physical appearance [2. People not only admit they can feel offended by non-communicative actions or even non-actions as in case of an omission or an unfriendly stance of the offender , but also that in communicative acts too the negative evaluation can be communicated indirectly.

Further possibilities are silence, refuse, or exclusion. As to relations between offensive events and emotions, communicative acts cause shame more then do behaviors or inferred mental states 2. Feeling offended has been generally studied in relation to negative communicative acts McCullough, ; Mosquera et al. Results highlight that this emotional state is strongly associated with a strong attribution of responsibility to the other person 3. Fear is an interesting case: it may be associated with a more stable trait that the offended person acknowledges to herself and that she probably recognizes as a cause of future negative experiences.

Likewise, shame and guilt are related to an internal attribution of the offense. Stable attributions have an important effect on shame and pride: a t -test analysis points out that with negative evaluations attributed to stable causes the offended person feels significantly more shame and less pride than with unstable ones 2.


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Gender differences. When gender analysis is included, interesting differences emerge. The recalled contexts of feeling offended are mainly family 3. Moreover, with acquaintances and co-workers, gender differences are not significant. For males, then, feeling offended looks more associated with a violation of honor rules Mosquera et al.

Effects of feeling offended. From our ANOVA analysis with repeated measures it emerged that the positive image of the offending person, as expected, worsens after the offense [decreasing from 3. The correlations with self-conscious emotions such as pride and shame are less relevant for the effects of feeling offended, where rather basic dimensions prevail linked to violated rights or personal expectations. The second aim of our work was to investigate the role played by personal traits, in particular self-esteem, on the feeling of offense, conceptualized in a comprehensive way, including explicit and implicit causes.

In this perspective self-esteem is viewed as a buffer Andt and Goldenberg, , a coping potential against negative emotional reactions to feeling offended. Furthemore, we will explore the potential relation between self-esteem and associated emotions, by also assessing gender differences in feeling offended.

Such analysis can be linked to well-known studies stating how women have a lower self-esteem than men Baumeister et al. Half of the items are negatively formulated and were therefore coded in reversed form. A factorial analysis on the self-esteem scale confirmed a single-factor scale structure whose items saturate greater than 0.

For that index, subsequently, the median value was used as discrimination to distinguish high and low levels of self-esteem.


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  • Both internal attribution 2,32 vs. To outline the relation between gender, self-esteem, and negative emotions like shame and sadness in feeling offended, we performed six mediational analyses three for sadness and three for shame. To test the mediational hypothesis, a series of regression analyses was performed following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny This procedure consists of a three-step series of regression analyses.

    In the first regression, the independent variable is associated with the dependent variable; in the second regression, the independent variable has to be associated with the hypothesized mediator. The third phase consists of a regression where the effects of both independent variable and mediator on the dependent variable are tested. Mediation is demonstrated when the addition of the mediator variable into the third regression equation substantially decreases or eliminates the previously significant relation between the independent variable and the dependent variable.

    So, women are more likely to have a lower self-esteem than men and the relation between gender and self-esteem makes them more likely to feel sadness and shame when feeling offended. Mediational regression analyses of gender and self-esteem on sadness associated to feeling offended. Solid lines between variables denote direct paths between two variables.

    Dotted lines denote paths when self-esteem is included as mediator. Values denote standardized beta weights. Mediational regression analyses of gender and self-esteem on shame associated to feeling offended. This mediation data highlight the importance of detecting personal features in the feeling of offense, especially when it comes to stable traits like gender and self-esteem, since low self-esteem blatantly contributes to a significant negative reaction in terms of sadness and even shame, by potentially reinforcing a negative evaluation of oneself.

    Like in Mosquera et al. This feature distinguishes insult from other acts of discredit: while a criticism or a reproach may concern a single action that the Target has done in one case but might amend in future, being unstable and controllable, less inhesorable, and permanent, an insult claims a negative property of the Target so stable and out of control as to become definitorial of the Target Poggi et al. This is why insult is a prototypical cause of offense: criticism, accusation, silence, omission, carelessness are more seriously offensive to the extent to which the negative evaluation explicitly understood or simply inferred is read as permanent and unamendable.

    Since inferences are drawn from previous beliefs, the more I am convinced of my low value, the more easily can I infer a pervasive negative evaluation from even an innocent remark. In this case the Target prefers to refrain from her possible previous dependence on the Offender, and to give up any relationship with him.

    Don't Get Offended

    Feeling offended is an adaptively relevant emotion because it monitors the goals of image and self-image, in the same vein as shames does. All negative emotions have the function to alert the subject that an important goal is at risk of being thwarted, and to induce immediate reactions aimed at a repair. Here, the very pain of feeling offended alerts us that our goals of image and self-image are challenged by the other, but while in a proud reaction the result may have a function to claim our own personal value though sometimes at the cost of breaking the relationship , in a person with low self-esteem the wound could remain open by leading to a negative processing finally confirming such low value, hence inducing a more passive emotional reaction.

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    This work has presented a survey study investigating nature, contexts of occurrence, affective, and relational effects of the feeling of offense: an emotion that monitors our goals of image and self-image, that are so basic for the human animal as to make the connected emotions really basic too. An offense is a blow to our image and our self-image, which makes us feel offended. Responsibility for the offense is attributed not only to the other, but sometimes to oneself, mainly by women, who pay more attention to personal relationships, and by persons with low self-esteem.

    Yet, a previous high self-esteem, seen as an antecedent of the offense, works as a protection factor to support people from aggressive communicative contexts, a coping potential against negative emotional reactions to feeling offended. This study can be framed within research on the emotions of image and self-image. The complex field of the relations among self-esteem, gender, and the feelings of offense is here explored only on the personal ground, neglecting its important historical—cultural aspects.

    Future research might investigate it through cross-cultural comparison. Moreover, the specific emotion of feeling offended might be compared with close but subtly different emotional states like feeling humiliated, demoralized, mortified, and taking it personally. The paper is due to both authors to the same extent, though the order of names mainly recalls responsibility for the very first idea of the research topic. The methodology of the study has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Roma Tre University, in accordance to the Ethical Principles of research involving Human participants.

    The two authors are responsible for the ideation of the whole article, discussion, and conclusion. FD is in particular responsible for related studies review, quantitative data analysis, and interpretation of results. IP is responsible for topic ideation, introduction and theoretical part, and qualitative data analysis. They both ensure the integrity and accuracy of the work. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The handling Editor declared a shared affiliation, though no other collaboration, with the authors.

    National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Sep 1; Accepted Dec 7. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

    No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract The paper presents a survey study that investigates the self-conscious emotion of feeling offended and provides an account of it in terms of a socio-cognitive model of emotions. Nglish: Translation of offend for Spanish Speakers. Britannica English: Translation of offend for Arabic Speakers. What made you want to look up offend? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.

    Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Getting a handle on some usage advice. You all would not have guessed some of these. Some imitative words are more surprising than others. How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. The awkward case of 'his or her'. Test your knowledge of words related to the season of longer days and vacations. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?

    How To Get Offended - Ultra Spiritual Life episode 52

    Definition of offend. Other Words from offend offender noun. Synonyms for offend Synonyms err , fall , sin , stray , transgress , trespass , wander Visit the Thesaurus for More. Choose the Right Synonym for offend offend , outrage , affront , insult mean to cause hurt feelings or deep resentment.