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What must schools teach about slavery? Not much

They essentially did a blockade of Boston. So things started to get really, really, really tense in the early s. And then you fast forward to , you have essentially the first conflicts of the American Revolutionary War, and we're going to do a whole series of videos on really the whole Revolutionary War. This is them right here drafting the Declaration of Independence.

And that's really just saying, hey, we've had enough of you Great Britain! We are now declaring ourselves as an independent country. No more of this colonies business. And so all the way until you have the American Revolutionary War. And once again, you can do a lot of videos on this, but I'm just going to go over it just so you have a sense of when everything happened and when everything ended.

And we can later dig deeper into the scaffold. And it ends with the Treaty of Paris. The US becomes a free independent state. And then you fast forward. But the Constitution that we have now, it was drafted in It was ratified-- it had to get at least nine of the states to ratify it-- that happened in And then it went into effect in So it depends what you consider the birth of the country. Well, it would definitely be the Declaration of Independence, but the country in its current form, with its current institutions, with this current constitution, started in And that was also the beginning of Washington's first of two terms as president, and those ended in And then John Adams comes into the picture.

And the reason why I put this-- obviously this is actually the only president that I showed-- is that it was actually very important that he decided to step down after two terms. He was hugely popular. If he wanted to, he probably could have become one of these characters that stick around maybe a little bit longer than some people would want. So it was really good that he set this example of stepping down after two terms, and that he wasn't this kind of power hungry dude.

You fast forward a little bit more. Louisiana isn't just what's the current state of Louisiana. It's this whole region that includes the state of Louisiana, but all the way up to roughly what the United States' current border with Canada. And after the French and Indian War, all of this business over here went to Spain. And then in , it went back to France. But then in , Napoleon had a bunch of stuff that he-- his Naval fleet was destroyed, he had a suffered some defeats in the West Indies, I guess we could call it. In particular in Haiti, and he said, well, you know I probably won't be able to control this territory anyway, so he sold it to the United States for what turned out to be a very, very, very cheap price.

But it was kind of like, it's not like he could have protected it anyway. The United States might have been able to take it from him without him being able to do anything. So he might as well get some money for it so that he could fund his battles in Europe. So in , the United States almost doubled in size. It went from these territories that it had after the American Revolution for Independence, and now it got all of this region over here in Then you fast forward a bit.

And the War of , it's an interesting one, because there weren't any really serious outcomes from it. But what was interesting about it, this whole time period, even after independence, the British continued to harass America. They continued to arm Native Americans who would maybe revolt or cause trouble for settlers.

They would impress American seamen-- and when I say impress, it didn't mean that they were doing something special. It meant that they were-- impressment of seamen meant that they were taking over these boats, taking the sailors, and forcing them to become part of the British military. So they were doing a whole series of things that was really kind of antagonizing the United States.

In , the United States declares war on Great Britain. You have the War of It ends in with the Battle of New Orleans. But there wasn't any real transfer of a territory or anything like that over here. What was good, some people call it the Second War for American Independence, is it really asserted that America was here to stay, or I should say that the United States was here to stay. That the Revolution wasn't just some fluke that isn't some just fly by night country.

It was able to defeat one of the greatest empires in the world again. So it's kind of here to stay. Now you fast forward a little bit more. This part of what we would call Texas, this area right over here. It was, before , it was part of Mexico. But the Mexicans actually encouraged English-speaking settlers-- these would be American English-speaking settlers into the area-- just because it was very sparsely settled. But these English-speaking settlers, a lot of them were slave owners, and then as we kind of go up to , the state of Mexico that this was all governed by, they were thinking about abolishing slavery.

So you can imagine that the settlers there, they didn't like this idea. So in , you had the War for Texas Independence, and that's where you remember the Alamo, and all of that. And then the first president of Texas is Sam Houston. That's why Houston is named Houston. And then you fast forward all the way to And in this time period, you have this whole talk in the United States of Manifest Destiny, that it's part of our God-given destiny as Americans, to one day extend our territory all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

So people were already eyeing a lot of the territory. Remember all of this territory, this was Texas. And Mexico still viewed it as their territory, even though it was being governed independently by the people who called themselves the Republic of Texas. And you had all of this territory that was Mexican territory.

So people were starting to eye this and say, wouldn't it be nice to get a little bit of that? So in , and this was in agreement with the settlers in Texas, with the Republic of Texas, the United States annexed Texas. The settlers there wanted this to happen, so wasn't a forced annexation of Texas.

But Mexico was not so happy about this because Mexico still viewed Texas as part of their territory. And America, to some degree, depends on how you view it, it seems like they kind of wanted to goad Mexico into war, so they sent military really close to the border of Mexico, even into some territory where Mexico might have had better claims to it or-- I'm not going to take sides on this, but it seemed like there was some instigation going on.

And there's some debate about the actual course of events. But in you have war actually breaking out between Mexico and the United States. And by , the United States essentially trounces Mexico, and most of the war actually does go on on Mexican land. And because of that, Mexico cedes over all of this area. So, California and all of the rest of Nevada, Arizona, what the part of New Mexico the didn't come along, that the United States didn't already have. And along that same amount of time, you both had the British and the Americans that were eyeing this territory, the Oregon Territory up here and it even included part of Canada.

And eventually they were able to resolve it relatively peacefully, and what they agreed is, is that the Americans would get all of this territory. And the British would get everything north of this line right over here. And that's why Vancouver and British Columbia and all of that, is Canada now. It stayed as part of the British Empire for a little bit longer. So by , the Manifest Destiny essentially had happened. The United States had gotten everything from California all the way from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast.

And clearly I'm really just covering the high levels, 30, level foot view of American history here. This whole time you had this tension developing. From the birth of the country through the election of Abraham Lincoln, you have this tension over slavery. A lot of people in the North didn't like it on moral grounds.

A lot of people in the South didn't like it-- well, they wanted slavery regardless of what they thought of it morally-- the South's economy, to a large degree, was based on slavery. And so all of this, the tipping point happened in Where Abraham Lincoln, who was pretty vocal about the fact that he did not like slavery, that he wanted to curb the spread of slave states. And up to this point, you had all of these compromises every time a state came into the Union.

The slave states wanted it to be another slave state. The free states wanted it to be another free state. Vermont is admitted to the Union as a free state. He will perform the largest manumission of slaves in U. Kentucky drafts a constitution permitting slavery and is admitted to the Union. Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act of , based on Article IV Section 2 of the Constitution and guaranteeing a slaveholder's right to recover an escaped slave. The demand for slave labor increases with the resulting increase in cotton production.

In the Slave Trade Act of Congress prohibits ships from engaging in the international slave trade. Tennessee is admitted to the Union as a slave state. Most other states reject the Resolutions, which claim that the states can negate federal laws that go beyond the federal government's limited powers. In the second Kentucky resolution of November , the Kentucky legislature says the remedy for an unconstitutional act is "nullification".

New York enacts a law that gradually abolishes slavery. It declared children of slaves born after July 4, , to be legally free, but the children had to serve an extended period of indentured servitude: to the age of 28 for males and to 25 for females. Slaves born before that date were redefined as indentured servants but essentially continued as slaves for life.

His will frees the slaves that he owns outright upon the death of his wife, Martha. They are freed by Martha in , about 18 months before her death. The U. He plans to seize the Richmond, Virginia armory, then take control of the city, which would lead to freedom for himself and other slaves in the area. The plot is discovered before it can be carried out; Gabriel, along with 26 to 40 others, is executed. Slavery already exists in the territory and efforts to restrict it fail; the new lands thereby permit a great expansion of slave plantations.

Three hundred Blacks live there and the legislature tries to keep others out. New Jersey enacts a law that provides for the gradual abolition of slavery. All states north of the Mason—Dixon line the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania have now abolished or provided for the gradual abolition of slavery within their boundaries. Following the revolution, under the orders of the radical general Jean-Jacques Dessalines , almost the entirety of the remaining white French population of Haiti is ethnically cleansed in the Haiti Massacre.

As a result of these events, white supremacists are bolstered in the Antebellum South. January: Slaves overpower and whip their overseer and assistants at Chatham Manor , near Fredericksburg, Virginia , in protest of shortened holidays. An armed posse of white men quickly gathers to capture the slaves, killing one slave in the attack. Two others die trying to escape and the posse deports two more, likely to slavery in the Caribbean. Virginia repeals much of the law that had permitted more liberal emancipation of slaves, making emancipation much more difficult and expensive.

Also, a statute permits a widow to revoke a manumission provision in her husband's will within one year of his death. With the expiration of the year ban on Congressional action on the subject, President Thomas Jefferson, a lifelong enemy of the slave trade, calls on Congress to criminalize the international slave trade, calling it "violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, and which the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country have long been eager to proscribe".

Previously about 14, new foreign-born slaves had arrived in the U. This number is dramatically reduced following the new law, but illegal smuggling continues to bring in about 1, new slaves per year. If ever there should be disunion, he prophesies, the line would be drawn between the states that did and those that did not hold slaves. Three-quarters of all blacks in Delaware are free. Louisiana is admitted to the Union as a slave state. The Hartford Convention , featuring delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island and others, discusses New England's opposition to the War of and trade embargoes.

The convention report says that New England had a "duty" to assert its authority over unconstitutional infringements on its sovereignty, a position similar to the later nullification theory put forward by South Carolina. The war soon ends and the convention and the Federalist Party which had supported it fall out of favor, especially in the South, although leaders in Southern states later adopt the states' rights concept for their own purposes.

The state constitution frees all the slaves within state lines. Mississippi is admitted to the Union a slave state. Illinois is admitted to the Union as a free state. Missouri's possible admission as a slave state threatens the balance of 11 free states and 11 slave states. Three years of debate ensue. Alabama is admitted to the Union as a slave state. Representative James Tallmadge, Jr. The proposal would also free all children of slave parents in Missouri when they reached the age of Representative Thomas W. Cobb of Georgia threatens disunion if Tallmadge persists in attempting to have his amendment enacted.

7 Books Every American Needs To Read To Understand The United States's Complicated History

Many Southerners argue against the exclusion of slavery from such a large area of the country, but the compromise passes nevertheless. August Missouri is admitted to the Union as a slave state. Its legislature soon passes a law excluding free blacks and mulattoes from the state in violation of a Congressional condition to its admission.

The Vesey Plot causes fear among whites in South Carolina , who are convinced that Denmark Vesey and other slaves are planning a violent slave uprising in the Charleston area. The plot is discovered and Vesey and 34 of his presumed followers are seized and hanged. Congregationalist minister Charles Grandison Finney , a leader of the religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening , includes abolitionism among its social reforms.

New Jersey, later followed by Pennsylvania, passes the first personal liberty laws , which require a judicial hearing before an alleged fugitive slave can be removed from the state. The process of gradual emancipation is completed in New York state and the last indentured servant is freed. Congress passes the Tariff of It is called the "Tariff of Abominations" by its opponents in the cotton South.

In , Vice President John C. Calhoun admits he was the author of the previously unsigned South Carolina committee report. David Walker , a freed slave from North Carolina living in Boston , publishes Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World , calling on slaves to revolt and destroy slavery.

Mann , the Supreme Court of North Carolina rules that slave owners have absolute authority over their slaves and cannot be found guilty of committing violence against them. Daniel Webster delivers a speech entitled Reply to Hayne. Webster condemns the proposition expressed by Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that Americans must choose between liberty and union. Webster's closing words become an iconic statement of American nationalism: "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable! Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing The Liberator , a greatly influential publication.

About this time, abolitionism takes a radical and religious turn. Many abolitionists begin to demand immediate emancipation of slaves. At least 58 white persons are killed. Whites in turn kill about blacks in the area during the search for Turner and his companions and in retaliation for their actions. Turner is captured several months later, after which he and 12 of his followers are executed. Turner's actions outrage Southerners and some suspect abolitionists supported him. They prepare for further uprisings. Congress enacts a new protective tariff, the Tariff of , which offers South Carolina and the South little relief and provokes new controversy between the sections of the country.

He argues that nullification is not secession and does not require secession to take effect. Dew writes Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature of and , a strong defense of slavery and attack on colonization in Africa by freed slaves. The convention declares the tariff void because it threatens the state's essential interests. The South Carolina legislature acts to enforce the ordinance. Jackson also urges Congress to modify the tariff, which they soon do.

No other states support South Carolina's argument and position and, after Clay's compromise legislation passes, South Carolina withdraws its resolution. The movement soon splits into five factions [84] that do not always agree but which continue to advocate abolition in their own ways. Wendell Phillips and Charles Sumner are persuaded to become abolitionists. Lane had been founded by abolitionist evangelist and writer Theodore Dwight Weld with financial help from abolitionist merchants and philanthropists Arthur Tappan and Lewis Tappan.

A Georgia law prescribes the death penalty for publication of material with the intention of provoking a slave rebellion. May The U. House of Representatives passes the Pinckney Resolutions. The first two resolutions state that Congress has no constitutional authority to interfere with slavery in the states and that it "ought not" to do so in the District of Columbia. The third resolution, from the outset known as the "gag rule", says: "All petitions, memorials, resolutions, propositions, or papers, relating in any way, or to any extent whatsoever, to the subject of slavery or the abolition of slavery, shall, without being either printed or referred, be laid on the table and that no further action whatever shall be had thereon.

He argues that the Slave Power , as a political interest, threatens constitutional rights. In , Angelina publishes "An Appeal to the Christian Women of the South", inviting them to overthrow slavery, which she declares is a horrible system of oppression and cruelty. Lovejoy , whose newspaper angered Southerners and Irish Catholics.

Kentucky Congressman William J. Graves kills Maine Congressman Jonathan Cilley in a duel. Slaves revolt on the Spanish ship La Amistad and attempt to return it to Africa, but the ship ends up in the U. After a highly publicized Supreme Court case argued by John Quincy Adams , the slaves are freed in March , and most return to Africa. He makes his argument by quoting slave owners' words as used in southern newspaper advertisements and articles. Birney of Kentucky for President. The last lifetime indentured servant in New York is freed.

The British give asylum to slaves but not the 19 ringleaders accused of murder. In Prigg v. Pennsylvania , the U. Supreme Court declares the Pennsylvania personal liberty law unconstitutional as in conflict with federal fugitive slave law. The Court holds that enforcement of the fugitive slave law is the responsibility of the federal government. Massachusetts and eight other states pass personal liberty laws under which state officials are forbidden to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves.

Best Books About the Civil War

Florida is admitted to the Union as a slave state. The book details his life as a slave. Representative and Governor of South Carolina and future U. Whigs defeat an annexation treaty but Congress annexes Texas to the United States as a slave state by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress on a joint resolution without ratification of a treaty by a two-thirds vote in the U. The Walker Tariff reduction leads to a period of free trade until Republicans and Pennsylvania Democrats attack the low level of the tariff rates. DeBow establishes DeBow's Review , the leading Southern magazine, which becomes an ardent advocate of secession.

DeBow warns against depending on the North economically. The administration of President James K. Polk had deployed the Army to disputed Texas territory and Mexican forces attacked it. Antislavery critics charge the war is a pretext for gaining more slave territory. Army quickly captures New Mexico. House of Representatives pass the Wilmot Proviso which would prevent slavery in territory captured from Mexico.

Southern Senators block passage of the proviso into law in the U.

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The Wilmot Proviso never becomes law but it does substantially increase friction between the North and South. Congress also rejects a proposal to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the west coast and other compromise proposals. The Massachusetts legislature resolves that the "unconstitutional" Mexican—American War was being waged for "the triple object of extending slavery, of strengthening the slave power, and of obtaining control of the free states". Calhoun asserts that slavery is legal in all of the territories, foreshadowing the U.

Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision in This theory of popular sovereignty would be further endorsed and advocated by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois in the mids. Senate rejects attempts to attach the Wilmot Proviso during the ratification vote on the treaty. The party names former President Martin Van Buren as its presidential candidate and demands enactment of the Wilmot Proviso.

The party argues that rich planters will squeeze out small white farmers and buy their land. Taylor expresses no view on slavery in the Southwest during campaign. After the election, he reveals a plan to admit California and New Mexico to the Union as free states covering entire Southwest and to exclude slavery from any territories. Taylor warns the South that he will meet rebellion with force. His moderate views on the expansion of slavery and the acceptability of the Wilmot Proviso angered his unsuspecting Southern supporters but did not fully satisfy Northerners who wanted to limit or abolish slavery.

Lopez is defeated and flees to the United States. He is tried for violation of neutrality laws but a New Orleans jury fails to convict him. The California Gold Rush quickly populates Northern California with Northern-born and immigrant settlers who outnumber Southern-born settlers. California's constitutional convention unanimously rejects slavery and petitions to join the Union as a free state without first being organized as a territory. President Zachary Taylor asks Congress to admit California as a free state, saying he will suppress secession if it is attempted by any dissenting states.

She makes about 20 trips to the South and returns along the Underground Railroad with slaves seeking freedom. Senator William H. Seward of New York delivers his "Higher Law" address. He states that a compromise on slavery is wrong because under a higher law than the Constitution, the law of God, all men are free and equal. Senator Henry S. Foote of Mississippi pulls a pistol on anti-slavery Senator Benton on the floor of the Senate. Although he is a New Yorker, Fillmore is more inclined to compromise with or even support Southern interests. Under the Fugitive Slave Act of , a slave owner could reclaim a runaway slave by establishing ownership before a commissioner rather than in a jury trial.

Clay's initial omnibus bill that included all these provisions failed.

Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois then established different coalitions that passed each provision separately. Southerners cease movement toward disunion but are angered by Northern resistance to enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. Anti-slavery forces are upset about possible expansion of slavery in the Southwest and the stronger fugitive slave law that could require all U.

Only 29 slaves are found in the territory in Southern Unionists in several states defeat secession measures. Mississippi's convention denies the existence of the right to secession. In the gunfight that follows, three blacks and the slave owner are killed while his son is seriously wounded. In Lemmon v. New York , a New York court frees eight slaves in transit from Virginia with their owner. The powerful novel depicts slave owner "Simon Legree" as deeply evil, and the slave "Uncle Tom" as the Christ-like hero.

Millions of people see the stage adaptation. By June , Southerners move to suppress the book's publication in the South and numerous "refutations" appear in print. Democrats control state governments in all the states which will form the Confederate States of America. The purposes of the Gadsden Purchase are the construction of a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route and the reconciliation of outstanding border issues following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican—American War.

Many early settlers in the region are pro-slavery. When they are forced to retreat to California and put on trial for violating neutrality laws, they are acquitted by a jury that deliberated for only eight minutes. Democratic U. Douglas of Illinois proposes the Kansas—Nebraska Bill to open good Midwestern farmland to settlement and to encourage building of a transcontinental railroad with a terminus at Chicago.

Whether slavery would be permitted in a territory would be determined by a vote of the people at the time a territory is organized. Especially in Kansas, many voters are pro-slavery Missouri residents who enter Kansas simply to vote. Republicans win most of the Northern state seats in the U. House of Representatives in the fall elections as 66 of 91 Northern state Democrats are defeated. Abraham Lincoln emerges as a Republican leader in the West Illinois. Four months after the dispatch is drafted, it is published in full at the request of the U.

House of Representatives. Northern states view the document as a Southern attempt to extend slavery. European nations consider it as a threat to Spain and to Imperial power. Radical abolitionists attack the courthouse and kill a deputy marshal in an unsuccessful attempt to free Burns. Marshal Stephen V.

Bibliographic Information

Quitman begins to raise money and volunteers to invade Cuba, but is slow to act and cancels the invasion plan in spring when President Pierce says he would enforce the neutrality laws. The party demands ethnic purification, opposes Catholics because of the presumed power of the Pope over them , and opposes corruption in local politics. The party soon fades away. Violence by pro-slavery looters from Missouri known as Border Ruffians and anti-slavery groups known as Jayhawkers breaks out in " Bleeding Kansas " as pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters try to organize the territory as slave or free.

Many Ruffians vote illegally in Kansas. Over 95 percent of the pro-slavery votes in the election of a Kansas territorial legislature in are later determined to be fraudulent. Meanwhile, the initial fraudulently elected but legal Kansas legislature operates separately. May Missouri Ruffians and local pro-slavery men sack and burn the town of Lawrence, Kansas , an anti-slavery stronghold. Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina—as in love with a prostitute slavery and raping the virgin Kansas.

Brooks is a hero in the South, Sumner a martyr in the North. The Democratic Party candidate, James Buchanan , who carries five northern and western states and all the southern states except Maryland, wins. The book receives wide acclaim among secessionists in the South and much derision from anti-slavery politicians in the North, even though some historians think Kettell intended it as an argument that the two regions are economically dependent upon each other.

He decrees the reintroduction of slavery. Many of Walker's men succumb to cholera and he and his remaining men are rescued by the U. Navy in May George Fitzhugh publishes Cannibals All!

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Or Slaves Without Masters , which defends chattel slavery and ridicules free labor as wage slavery. This charge angers many Southerners. Supreme Court reaches the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, a 7 to 2 ruling that Congress lacks the power to exclude slavery from the territories, that slaves are property and have no rights as citizens and that slaves are not made free by living in free territory.

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney concludes that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional. If a court majority clearly agreed which it did not in this decision , this conclusion would allow all territories to be open to slavery. Scott and his family were purchased and freed by a supporter's children.

Northerners vowed to oppose the decision as in violation of a "higher law". Antagonism between the sections of the country increases. The convention adopts the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution. Meanwhile, anti-slavery representatives win control of the state legislature. Southerners tout the small effect in their section as support for their economic and labor system.

A bitter feud begins inside the Democratic party. Douglas's opposition to the Lecompton constitution erodes his support from pro-slavery factions. Hunter of Virginia, uses the Walker Tariff as a base and lowers rates. Minnesota is admitted to the Union as a free state. House of Representatives rejects the pro-slavery Lecompton constitution for Kansas on April 1.

Five are killed and five wounded. In , the Old School church splits along North—South lines. Pro-Douglas candidates win a small majority in the Illinois legislature in the general election and choose Douglas as U. Senator from Illinois for another term. However, Lincoln emerges as a nationally known moderate spokesman for Republicans and a moderate opponent of slavery. Lincoln asks whether the people of a territory could lawfully exclude slavery before the territory became a state. In effect, this question asks Douglas to reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision. Douglas says they could do so by refusing to pass the type of police regulations needed to sustain slavery.

This answer further alienates pro-slavery advocates from Douglas. No power on earth dares to make war upon it. Cotton is King; until lately the Bank of England was king; but she tried to put her screws, as usual They advocate reopening the African slave trade and the formation of a Southern confederacy. Seward says there is an "irrepressible conflict" between slavery and freedom.

Similarly, a Charleston, South Carolina jury acquits the crew of The Echo , another illegal slave ship which is caught with Africans on board. Southerners block an increase in the low tariff rates of Senator Albert G. Brown of Mississippi says that if a territory requires a slave code in line with Douglas' Freeport Doctrine, the federal government must pass a slave code to protect slavery in the territories.

If it does not, Brown says he will urge Mississippi to secede from the Union. Booth , the U. Supreme Court rules that the Fugitive Slave Law is constitutional and that state courts cannot overrule federal court decisions. Douglas supports the proposed annexation of Cuba. Republicans block funding.

Many members think this would lessen feelings that the slave trade was immoral and provide an incentive or tool for Southern nationalism.

No slaves join him and no rebellion ensues but 17 persons, including 10 of Brown's men, are killed. Brown and his remaining men are captured by U. Members come to the sessions armed. The House of Representatives requires eight weeks to choose a Speaker. This delays consideration of vitally important business. President James Buchanan vetoes a homestead act. Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi presents a resolution stating the southern position on slavery, including adoption of a Federal slave code for the territories.

Southern radicals, or " fire-eaters ", oppose front-runner Stephen A. Douglas ' bid for the party's Presidential nomination. The Democrats begin splitting North and South as many Southern delegates walk out. After 57 ballots, the convention adjourns to meet in Baltimore six weeks later.

Senator John C. Seward of New York, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, and Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania are leading contenders for the Republican presidential nomination, along with the more moderate Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, when the Republican convention convenes in Chicago. Lincoln supporters from Illinois skillfully gain commitments for Lincoln.

Breckinridge of Kentucky for President. Their platform endorses a national slave code. They capture and execute him before a firing squad on September 12, November 6: Abraham Lincoln wins the presidential election on a platform that includes the prohibition of slavery in new states and territories.

Douglas wins 3. November 7: Charleston, South Carolina authorities arrest a Federal officer who had attempted to move supplies to Fort Moultrie from Charleston Arsenal. Senators James Chesnut, Jr. Stephens of Georgia , later Vice President of the Confederate States of America , speaks to the Georgia legislature in opposition to secession.

On November 29, the legislature votes for an election on December 29 for delegates to a convention to meet on January 7 to consider whether the State should secede from the Union. Craven rightly suspects Southern States will try to seize federal property and military supplies. House of Representatives appoints a Committee of Thirty-Three to consider "the present perilous condition of the country".

Floyd , a former governor of Virginia , whose actions appear to favor the Southern secessionists. He arranged to shift weapons from Pittsburgh and other locations to the South. Floyd resigns on December The War Department stops the transfer of weapons from Pittsburgh on January 3. Anderson is authorized to put his command in any of the forts at Charleston to resist their seizure. Later in the month Floyd says Anderson violated the President's pledge to keep the status quo pending further discussions and the garrison should be removed from Charleston.

Floyd soon will join the Confederacy. He believes President Buchanan should reinforce the Charleston forts and is unhappy about Buchanan's lack of action. The document cites "encroachments on the reserved rights of the states" and "an increasing hostility of the non-slaveholding states to the institution of slavery" and "the election of a man to the high office of President of the United States, whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery" as among the causes. Crittenden of Kentucky proposes the " Crittenden Compromise ".

Its main features are a constitutional amendment that would reinstate the Missouri Compromise line between free and slave territory and retention of the fugitive slave law and slavery where it existed, including in the District of Columbia. Douglas, to consider the state of the nation and to propose solutions to the crisis. House of Representatives, but on December 24 the House refuses their resignations.

Buchanan states he needs more time to consider the situation. Army, asks permission from President Buchanan to reinforce and resupply Fort Sumter but receives no reply. Army can do no more to relieve Fort Sumter and only the U. Navy could aid the fort's garrison. Senators from seven deep South states meet and advise their states to secede. The men flee. After being struck twice, the ship heads back to New York. Revenue Schooner Washington on January 31, [] and the U. Paymaster's office at New Orleans on February Congress resign.

This became an important base of supply, including coal, for blockaders and other vessels on January Senators Clement C.

Runaway-slave games. Sanitized textbooks. Schools do a terrible job teaching about slavery

Clay, Jr. Yulee and Stephen R. The 34th state is a free state under the Wyandotte Constitution.