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While foreign names are normally written in katakana , the names of Kinzo's children and grandchildren are written using similar-sounding kanji. The Ushiromiya head house is tended to by multiple servants. While there are more, only five servants are on duty at the time of the murders on Rokkenjima.

A majority of the servants were raised in an orphanage owned by Kinzo. It is suggested that these servants are actually furniture created by Kinzo's hands through magic, and are permitted to bear the One-Winged Eagle on their uniforms. The other servants and staff members are normal people hired by Krauss and Natsuhi.

In the world of Umineko When They Cry , witches are beings who hold powers that allow them to surpass human limitations, and are able to use that power freely. The term "witch" generally refers to females, while males are generally defined as "sorcerers". All witches were either once humans who learned how to use magic, or manifested from human emotions. Humans who can use magic but are unable to use it to its fullest potential are referred to as magicians.

Witches are classified by the types of magic they are able to use. The most recurring type of magic in Umineko is Endless Magic, which grants witches the power to break and repair anything infinitely, including human lives. Witches with this ability, such as Beatrice, are known as Endless Witches and are greatly respected, though they often lose their concept of life and death entirely and are easily corrupted. Even with this power, Endless Witches and all other witches of a lower class are very limited beings, as they are bound to certain territories and unable to use their powers outside of them.

Witches of an even higher order are Creators, beings who hold the ability to create something from nothing. Voyagers are said to become Creators at the ends of their journeys, which they fear for unknown reasons. The number and type of furniture summoned at one time depends on the summoner's skill.

The term is also used as a form of dehumanization. In addition to special powers, such as transformation and barriers, most furniture have the ability to conjure a magical ornate blade of light from one of their hands for offensive purposes. Unlike normal furniture, demons are not created by witches or sorcerers, but are contracted to do their bidding.

Due to their nobility in Hell, the 72 demons are well respected in the society of witches. There are seven of them, named after the corresponding demons of the seven deadly sins , and each one can gain power from said sin. The Stakes of Purgatory are described as being inescapable.

Only powerful mages can control the Stakes of Purgatory, but they cannot hurt any who have not committed the sins, or have strong magical resistance. The Stakes can take on a human form and their true form, a powerful stake. There was also a mystic communion of consecrated bread and water ; later wine possibly replaced the soma used in similar rites of Mazdaism. In the higher degrees, among participants, the effects of drinking the sacred wine, the manipulation of the light in the crypt, the administration of the oath, and the repetition of sacred formulae all contributed to induce a state of ecstatic exaltation.

Springett, in his Secret Sects of Syria, speaks of lustrations with fire, water, and honey, and after many tests ending with a fast of fifty days' continuance, spent in perpetual silence and solitude. The latter might represent their principles of Light and Darkness; the flaming sword is also a symbol among modern Rosicrucian and Cabalistic sects, where, on the Cabalistic Tree of Life, Adam Kad- mon, the Logos, is depicted with the flaming sword issuing out of his mouth ; it is the astral light, which can vslay or make alive, set in motion by a powerful will and a trained adept controlling it.

In these Mysteries, therefore, we again see the cult of nature and generation applied to the so-called re- generation of man, mental illumination through the action of the astral light, which in many cases leads to illusion, fanaticism, and at times even madness. In one of these he writes: " For centuries there have existed certain esoteric schools of mystical philosophy originating apparently in several Oriental cur- rents of thought meeting in the Levant, Egypt, arid the nearer East.

We find in these schools elements of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and Egyptian occultism mingled with Grecian mysteries, Jewish Kabalism, and fragments of ancient Syrian cults. To the same sources may be traced the ideas that inspired such political-religious movements of the Middle Ages as those of the Illuminati, Albigenses, Cathari, Waldenses, Trouba- dours, Anabaptists, and Lollards. To the same inspirations must be assigned the rise of early secret societies. The Templars are said to have been initiated by the Assassins into anti-Christian and subversive mysteries, and we find similar traces of an old and occult origin in the Alchemists, the Rosicrucians, and the later mys- tical cults of which the Swedenborgian is a familiar example.

From the Essen- ians Pythagoras derived much, if not all, of the knowledge and the ceremonies with which he clothed the esoteric school of his philosophy. The theoretical is divided into the literal and dogmatic. The dogmatic is nothing more than the summary of the metaphysical doctrine taught by the Cabalist doctors.

It is, in other words, the system of the Jewish philosophy. These letters are divided into: three Mother letters — shin, fire; mem, water; aleph, air; seven double letters, attributed to the planets; twelve single letters, attributed to the signs of the Zodiac. And above, uniting all, is the spirit or ether. The negative God was awakened, he became active. Again, Jehovah, the Jewish Tetragram- maton, so greatly used in cabalistic and magical opera- tions, is Yod, He, Vau, He, the Creative Principle in unity — the father, mother, son, and daughter or material basis, sometimes called the bride.

As it is said: the Absolute Being and Nature have one name only, which signifies God ; it represents all forces of nature. In crea- tion first, they say, there was merely emanation, like the sparks flying from an anvil, but being unbalanced they all vanished, as did the Edomite kings ; then the dual sexes appeared as separate forces, and with them came balanced creation. Franck holds that the Zohar or Book of Light, the genesis of the light of nature, begins where the Sepher Yetzirah left off. From the cabalistic point of view the Absolute is called the White Head, for all colours are mingled in its light.

He is the Ancient of Days or first Sephira on the Cabalistic Tree of Life, he is the Supreme head, the source of all light, the principle of all wisdom — unity. From this unity issues two parallel but ap- parently opposed principles, though in reality inseparable; the male, active, called Wisdom, the other, passive, female, the Understanding, for " all that exists, all that has been formed by the Ancient of Days can only exist through a male and a female. Under- standing is the mother, receiving and reproducing. From their mysterious and eternal union issues a son, having the traits of father and mother, thus bearing witness to both.

This son is knowledge and science. It also represents three successive and absolutely necessary phases in universal generation. The other seven Sephiroth of con- struction develop also in trinities, in each of which two extremes are united by a third. The second trinity is : Mercy, Chesed, male ; Severity, Geburah, female, that is, expansion and concentration of will. These are united by Beauty, Tiphareth, or the Sun, the trinity represent- ing moral force.

The third trinity is purely dynamic, showing divinity as the universal force, the Principe Generateur of all beings; it is Victory, Netzach, female; Splendour, Hod, male ; meaning the extension and multi- plication of all forces in the universe. These again are united by Foundation, Yesod, the Moon, and are repre- sented by the organs of generation, root of all that is.

The tenth Sephira is Malkuth, the Kingdom or material basis, in which is found the permanent and immanent action of the united Sephiroth, the real presence of God in the midst of creation as expressed by the Shekinah. The work of the Sun and Moon is to spread and per- petuate by their union the work of creation. The third trinity is the kundalini or caduceus, and by mysticism and yoga it is awakened, and rises through the Sephiroth to the Crown, the source of all light, uniting with the universal Creative Principal. Thus, according to the Cabala, every form of existence from matter to eternal wisdom is a manifestation of this infinite power.

The Cabala is, therefore, entirely pantheistic. Of its origin Franck writes : " When examining the Zohar, seeking some light on its origin, one is not slow to perceive in its inequality of style, want of unity in its exposition, method, and application of general principles, and finally in its detailed thought, that it is quite impos- sible to attribute it to one person. In these is found, sometimes in allegorical, sometimes in metaphy- sical, language a description of the divine attributes and their various manifestations, the origin of the world and God's relations with man.

Some declare that the Cabala was only developed towards the end of the thirteenth century, but Adolphe Franck holds that, according to proofs which he gives, it must have originated during the seventy years of Jewish Captivity in Babylon, and therefore owes much to the ancient religions of Chaldea and Persia. There, under civil and religious authority, the chiefs of the Captivity built the Synagogue of Babylon, which united with that of Palestine, and many religious schools were founded, in which finally the Talmud of Babylon was produced, the last and complete expression of Judaism.

Zoroaster had already commenced his religious mission, teaching the doctrine of dualism — Light and Darkness, Good and Evil, in B. Apparently no other nation exercised such close influence over the Jews as Persia and the religious system of Zoroaster with its long traditions. The Practical or Magical Cabala with, its combina- tions and correspondences was the astrological, magical, and magnetic basis used by the Alchetnists and Magicians of the Middle Ages in working their transmutations and conjurations. It was impregnated with the " fluidic magic " derived from very ancient cults, and still prac- tised at the time of the Captivity among the Persians and Chaldeans.

To-day, all Rosicrucians and cabalistic sects use this Magical Cabala for their works of divining, clairvoyance, hypnotic and magnetic healing, making of talismans, and contacting their mysterious masters. As the Jewish writer Bernard Lazare said : " Secret societies represented the two sides of the Jewish mind, practical rationalism and pantheism, that pantheism which, meta- physical reflection of the belief in One God, ended at times in cabalistic theurgy.

Gnosis, he says, is the science of the mysteries handed down from generation to generation in esoteric traditions. It is admitted that the cradle of Gnosticism is probably to be looked for in Syria and even in Palestine. Most of its expounders wrote in that corrupted form of the Greek used by the Hellenistic Jews. Pythagoras and Plato, the most mystical of the Grecian philosophers the fatter heir to the doctrines of the former , and who had travelled, the latter in Egypt, and the former in Phoenicia, India, and Persia, also taught the esoteric doctrine.

The dominant doctrines of Platonism were found in Gnosticism. Belonging to Asia by its origin, to Egypt by its residence, to Greece by its language and studies, it strove to show that all truths embedded in the philosophies of other countries were transplanted thither from Palestine. Aristobulus declared that all the facts and details of the Jewish Scriptures were so many allegories concealing the most profound meanings, and that Plato had borrowed from them all his finest ideas.

Philo, who lived a century after him, following the same theory, endeavoured to show that the Hebrew writings, by their system of allegories, were the true source of all religions and philosophical doctrines. According to him, the literal meaning was for the vulgar alone. The Jews of Syria and Judea were the direct precursors of Gnosticism ; and in their doctrines were ample Oriental elements.

These Jews had had with the Orient, at two different periods, intimate relations, familiarising them with the doctrines of Asia and especially of Chaldea and Persia. Living nearly two- thirds of a century, and many of them long afterward, in Mesopo- tamia, the cradle of their race; speaking the same language, and their children reared with those of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, they necessarily adopted many of the doctrines of their conquerors.

These influences represent in their colours the spectrum of the so-called " Divine White Brilliance " — electro-magnetic fluid — of the Rosicrucians, which adepts are taught to draw down upon themselves and project for magical purposes. As Albert Pike says : " The sources of our knowledge of the kabalistic doctrines are the books of Yetzirah and Zohar, the former drawn up in the second century, and the latter a little later; but they contain materials much older than themselves.

In them, as in the teachings of Zoroaster, everything that exists emanates from a source of infinite Light. Its studies were only kept alive during the Dark Ages among the Jews who were the chief exponents of its Cabalistic aspect. But the term was first used according to Matter in its ultimate sense of supernal and celestial cosmic knowledge, by the Jewish philosophers of the celebrated Alex- andrian School.

A very characteristic production of this Jewish Gnosis has come down to our time in the Book of Enoch, of which the main subject is to make known the description of the heavenly bodies and their correct names are revealed to the Patriarch by the angel Uriel. This profession betrays of itself the Magian source from which the inspiration was derived.

Historians were falsified, still more they attributed entire works to them, and it is thus that they placed a History of the Jews under the name of Hecatee d'Abdere.

The most important of these inventions was that of the Sibylline Oracles, fabricated entirely by the Alexandrian Jews, which an- nounced the future era, when the reign of One God would eventuate. The Jews even attempted to ascribe to themselves Greek literature and philosophy. It became in the hands of the Judseo- Alexandrians, a formidable arm which, by the perfidious force of their veiled lies, enrolled Hellenism, in spite of itself, into the service of the exclusivism and the religious proselytism of the Israelites.

The attempt to ' Judaise ' Hellenism, which to-day appears to us so perfectly absurd and disastrous, has had, never- theless, the result of obscuring the intelligence of humanity for hundreds of years. The result was a mix- ture of men of different nations and religions, who gave rise to several philosophical and religious associations. Platonism was publicly taught by the Greeks in Alexandria, it was eagerly re- ceived by the Alexandrian Jews, who communicated it to the Jews of Judea and Palestine. In Egypt and Judea, before the commencement of Christianity the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato had thrust deep roots among the Jews, which gave rise to the dogmas of the Essenes, Therapeuts, Sadducees, Car- pocratians, Cabalistic- Gnostics, Basilideans, and Manichaeans; all these dogmatists adapted part of the doctrine of the Egyptian Magi and Priests to the above philosophy.

They spread in time into Asia, Africa, and Europe. These different Jewish-Christians preserved the mysteries of the Temple of Solomon with the allegory of the Grand Architect, who was the Jewish Messiah, an idea still preserved by the Jew to-day. According to Matter, the Carpocratians were the most universal communists; their theory was: " Nature reveals the two Great Principles, community and unity of all things. Human laws contrary to natural laws are guilty violations of the legitimate and divine order; therefore, to re- establish this order, it is necessary to institute com- munity of lands, goods, and women.

Manes like- wise condemned all possession of houses, land, or money. Finally, both Gnostics and Manichaeans were noted for their disordered morals. Manes proscribed marriage whilst allowing its pleasures, some excused themselves, saying, " to the pure all is pure. The disciples bound themselves by the most inviolable oath to keep the secrets of the sect. They were allowed to swear and perjure themselves, but never to reveal the secrets, according to their celebrated maxim: Jura, per jura secretum prodere noli.

One of the outcomes of Mithraism was Manichaeism, which derived its name from Manes, said by some to be Cubricus, a Persian slave and scholar, and others main- tain that he was educated by his father at Ctesiphon, was brought up in the religion of the " Baptists " of Southern Babylon, who were connected with the Mandeans, and later travelled much and far, including China and India, spreading his beliefs. Opposed by dominant Magian priests, he was eventually crucified. Manichaeism was an uncompromising system of dualism in the form of a fantastic philosophy of nature entirely materialistic.

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Manes had no " redeemer," only a physical and gnostic process of redemption, free- ing the spark of light from darkness or matter, that is, from within man's body, returning it to the universal light. In this we have the whole basis of modern Caba- listic and Gnostic sects. He rejected the Old Testament and reformed the New. Denying the inspiration of the Hebrew Prophets, he opposed to them the books of Seth, Enoch, and other Patriarchs, said to be truths received from good angels. This so-called wisdom still exists in books and schools of Oriental Philosophy.

Manes thought of the Divinity as a Living Light, a Father of all Lights, immaterial, eternal, residing in a Supreme luminous Heaven, also eternal, for nothing could be made out of nothing, and always accompanied byi Eons, emanations of this divine essence but inferior. God was a Cause in perpetual and eternal action Creative Principle. From the essence of the Father emanated the Son and the Holy Spirit, co-substantial but subordinate to the Father. Since the creation of the world and until the consumma- tion the Son has resided in the Sun as a power, and in the Moon as the reflected wisdom of the Mother of Life ; the Holy Spirit resides in the air, both carrying out the orders of the Father.

Here we have apparently a varia- tion of the Emerald Tablet of Hermes. In a corner of the vast space is a malignant power, also eternal, called philosophically matter, mystically Dark- ness, and by the vulgar the Devil. Light knew Darkness, but Darkness only became aware of Light when a revolt arose within that Kingdom Lucifer upon which Darkness invaded Light, and although the Primal Man Christ , assisted by the Living Spirit, of five elements, opposed and overpowered it, part of the Light was stolen and Darkness and Light became mixed together. The Living Spirit then separated the luminous substance which had not been seized by matter, and formed it into the Sun and the Moon, and other planets, also our inferior heaven; the rest went to form our sublunary world, with matter and light mixed together.

Wishing to retain the spark of Light, the Prince of Darkness or matter formed two bodies on the model of the Primal Man, but with different sexes, and enclosed these sparks or souls, charming. Then, according to Manes, good angels, Sages, and Prophets appeared to teach the forgotten truths, and finally came the " phantom M Saviour.

He held the Docetic belief that matter being evil, Christ's body was a mere phantom, that His acts and sufferings, including the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension, were only apparent and in reality merely mystical teach- ings. He also denied the Incarnation. For the elect he disapproved of marriage as being invented by Darkness to retard the return to the Light unused sex-force is required for this return!

The elect had to embrace poverty, and the only pleasures allowed were music and perfumes, both loosening the spark or soul from the shackles of matter. When sufficiently purified, this soul passed into the moon, receiving surface illumination, and from there was dis- charged into the sun, where it became luminous, and was finally remitted to the " Pillar of Glory," free from all matter. Transmigration was admitted, as one life was not enough to free the spark from the taint of matter. Those who have failed to free themselves in time will be made guardians of the devils, keeping them from again bringing matter into the kingdom of Light.

Such is the marvellous fable under which lies the nature-worship of ancient and modern Magism, known to-day as Illuminism, often called Chris- tian! And the redemption consists with them of a physical and gnostic process of freeing, by means of unused sex-force, the element of light from matter or the body, and uniting it with the universal magnetic agent without, more often linking one mind with another in a magnetic chain, the weaker dominated by the more powerful, producing a world-inundation of communications from so-called " Sages and Prophets," destructive both to Christianity and Western civilisation.

Yarker, in Arcane Schools, gives the Manichaean grades as : Disciples, Auditors or mystics, and the Perfect or elect, the priests; from these latter was formed the Magistri or Council of Twelve and a thirteenth as Presi- dent, as in the Chaldean system. Further, they had secret forms of recognition: word, grip, and breast. Finally, it is said that, as the body was considered evil, it had to be defiled or humiliated, hence the erotic and sexual practices found among Manichseans and other Gnostic sects, more often after their frenetic dances; all of which were supposed to free the spark and hasten deification.

As Gibbon stated, the great Manichaean system flourished in the Byzantine age from Persia to Spain, in spite of persecutions by Arian and orthodox emperors alike. Gnosticism, he points out, in one shape or another, was still surviving on the very headquarters of the Order, among their closest allies or enemies, the mountaineers of Syria. Therefore, he formed a carefully considered scheme to secretly under- mine what he could not openly attack.

His doctrine, subversive to the Khalifat, had to be veiled in mystery, and only revealed when by secret intrigue the power had been captured. Finally, he dreamt of destroying, not only what he called the errors of dogma and positive religion, but also the basis of all religion and all morals. He divided his doctrine into seven degrees, in this way gradually seizing and subverting the minds of his fol- lowers. Out of this doctrine arose the sect of the Kar- mathites, more open and more violent in their revolt against the Khalifat, both politically and morally. For a century the frightful doctrines of the Karmathites held their sway until at last the sect was extinguished in its own blood.

Finally, one of their most zealous Dais, Abdallah, who claimed to be a descendant of Mohammed, son of Ismail, escaped from prison, and seated himself upon the throne, founding the Dynasty of the Fatimites at Kairwan about a. As von Hammer writes: " The details which Macrisi has transmitted to us on the origin of this doctrine and the different degrees of initiation, which were extended from seven to nine, are the most precious and most ancient that we have on the history of the secret societies of the East, in whose steps those of the West afterwards trod.

The close agreement between this doctrine and that of the Assassins is worth noting. They upheld Ismail as founder of the " Path," and admitted men and women. There, under El Hakem, the sixth Fatimite Khalifa, a veritable monster of cruelty and crime, who to-day is venerated by the Druzes as a god-made man, the secret doctrine was taught and the nine degrees given.

Briefly, summed up from de Sacy, who quotes both Macrisi and Nowairi, who apparently drew their in- formation from one and the same source, they were: i The Dai, or missionary, affected devotion in order to seduce his proselyte; with the learned he applauded and agreed with their opinions, careful that his designs and secret were not betrayed. To the simple-minded, easily seduced, he explained that religion was a hidden and abstruse science, the inner meaning of which was known to the Imams alone. By questions on the con- tradictions of positive religion and reason, the obscuri- ties and absurdities of the Koran, he stirred up doubts and perplexities as well as a violent curiosity, refusing to satisfy this curiosity, and before giving further teach- ing the Dai demanded an inviolable oath, in which the proselyte swore not to betray the secret, not to lie to or league against the Lodge.

If he consented, a money pledge, the amount determined by the Dai, was exacted. Should he refuse either to take the oath or pay the money, he was left to his own perplexities and told nothing more. To each of these " speakers " was attached another, who received his doctrine and succeeded him after his death ; seven such mutes, who carried on the existent religion, succeeded uninterruptedly each law T -giver, until finally the seventh of these law-givers abrogated all preceding religions. According to the Ismailis, this last was Mo- hammed, son of Ismail, who instituted and revealed the new science of the inner and mystic meaning of all out- ward things.

He alone was the teacher, and all the world must follow and obey him. Agreeing to this, the proselyte renounced the Law of the Prophet Ma- homet, and therefore became an apostate. The Dai then pre- pared the proselyte to abandon all religions established by the prophets, leading him to the doctrines of the philosophers. The Dai then praised the principles of such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, etc. Deprived of all his beliefs, the proselyte was an easy prey. The teachings of the Koran were explained as meaning nothing " but the periodical revolution of the stars and the universe, the production and destruction of all things, according to the disposition and combination of the elements, con- formable to the doctrine of the philosophers" Cosmic forces and universal generation.

To suit the new doctrine, the Dai, by allegorical interpretations, twisted the words of whatever religion was professed by the proselyte always in favour of the prophet, Mohammed, son of Ismail, as the sole prophet inspired by God. With regard to this prophet, at first they said he would return to the world, then modifying this, said that " he could be contacted spiritually through meditation on the mysti- cal doctrines; as for his manifestation, it consisted in preaching his doctrines, communicated to men by the tongues of his faithful servants.

The whole of this philosophy could be resumed in two words: believe nothing and dare all. These principles destroyed from top to bottom all religion, all morals, and had no other aim than to realise sinister projects carried out by clever ministers, to whom nothing was sacred. We thus see those who should have been the protectors of humanity abandoned to an insatiable ambition, buried under the ruins of thrones and altars in the midst of the horrors of anarchy, after having brought misfortune upon nations, and deserving the curse of mankind.

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To-day, in these numerous sects, cabalistic and illu- minati, much the same methods as with the Ismailis are used, and the same doctrine taught. It is always a gradual re-orientation, first an attempt to adapt these doctrines of the Magi,. Manes, and the philosophers to Christianity, destroying the very essence of Christian beliefs, leading to pantheism, dualism, and materialism, often ending in pantheistic mysticism. Through mys- tical meditation and yoga they achieve magnetic but con- trolled union with their sinister masters, from whom they receive the universal teachings necessary for their master's " Great Work," unification and world control — religious, political, and intellectual.

Speaking of the House of Wisdom, Springett quotes Ameer Ali's book, A Short History of the Saracens, in which he says : " Makrisi's account of the different de- grees of initiation adopted in the Lodge forms an in- valuable record of Freemasonry. In fact, the Lodge at Cairo became the model of all the Lodges created after- wards in Christendom.

Among these sectaries, all passions, even the most shameful, are regarded as sacred. This absolute despotism of the Grand Masters of Chaldean cabalism was that of the Prince of the Assassins, and the Druses preserve the doctrine and the morals of this cabala. Realising that as a political society it must have a fortress, by further intrigues he purchased the Castle of Alamoot, on the Caspian Sea, where he even- tually founded his Order. He gained many castles in Persia, obtaining great power, inspiring terror in the hearts of all by sudden assassinations of caliphs and viziers.

Their head or Sheikh was known as " The Old Man of the Mountain," and it was said " the initiates worked with their heads and led the arms of the Fedavis in execution of the orders of the Sheikh who with his pen guided the daggers. In his Secret Sects of Syria, Springett traces the influence of the Jewish philosophers of the celebrated Alexandrian School upon Gnostics and Manichaeans and through them upon the Templars. He quotes King and von Hammer to prove that the constitution of the Tem- plar Order " is a servile copy of that of the Assassins.

The statutes of the latter prove the fact beyond gainsaying; they were found upon the captives of their capital Alamoot by the Mogul Halakoo, in the year , when by a singular coincidence, Caliph and Pope were busied in exterminating the model and the copy in the East and West, at one and the same time. In this Order the divinity of all founders of religious systems was alike denied. Religion was shown to be a mere step to knowledge, its narratives to be merely allegorical, and exhibiting the progress of civil society; thus, Man's Fall signified political slavery; Redemption his restoration to liberty and equality.

These are almost identical with the tenets of the Illuminati. Von Hammer, in his History of the Assassins, further elucidates this " Catechism of the Order," as he calls it. Of the fourth he says that, after taking an oath, the candidate promised a blind obedience, and at the same time swore " to communicate to none but his superiors any doubts he might have about the mysteries and doctrines of the Ismaelites.

Should I at any time find myself unable any longer to keep this pledge, I will say nothing to my brothers or sisters of the Order to weaken their faith, but I will quietly pass into abeyance. With regard to the seventh degree, we find the same idea in the Jewish School of Alexandria, for, as we have already said, Aristobulus declared that all the facts and details of the Jewish Scriptures were so many allegories, concealing the most profound meanings.

The literal meaning was for the vulgar alone. Like Philo, Steiner, of Anthropo- sophy, taught the same interpretation, that the Bible was merely an allegory of the gradual and mystical deifica- tion of man as symbolically portrayed in all ancient and modern mysteries.

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This deification is symbolised by the " hidden God " Amoun of the Egyptians and the crux ansata, the latter being the centre of the Theo- sophical symbol and means the dual forces of generation — the kundalini ; again, the Caduceus of Hermes, placed on the lower part of the pantheistic figure Baphomet of the Templar cult, represents the generative forces within man, the means of deification. Further, among the Khlysty and other primitive gnostics is found this same allegorical interpretation of the Gospels and Old Testament, with the same deification or creation of " Christs " in view.

Ribot says, there are many ways of producing artificial ecstasy or having divinity within oneself — rhythmic dances, soma, wine, blood, orgies, and drug intoxication, including no doubt hasheesh, such as was used by " The Old Man of the Mountain " which prepared his fanaticised Fedavis, intoxicated by every lure of the senses, a so- called foretaste of paradise, or perhaps hypnotised, thus made ready and willing to carry out by dagger or poison the plotted murders of the Grand Master's victims.

According to von Hammer there were seven grades of Assassins closely akin to those of the Templars : 1. Grand Master, or " Old Man of the Mountain. Dailkebir, or Grand Prior. Dais, or initiated Masters, recruiters. Refik, or companions. Fedavis, blind instruments, the guards of the Order. Lassiks, aspirants. Batini, or secret brethren, affiliates. Among the seven silent Imams was the " Invisible Imam," in whose name the Grand Master exacted obedience from the people.

The Assassins were not a principality, but merely a confraternity or Order similar to that of the Knights of Saint John, the Teutonic Knights, or the Templars. As von Hammer says : "The nature of the functions that in the last-named Order were filled by its Grand Master and Grand Priors, its religious institutions, the political tendency of its spirit and its doctrines, all even to its clothing gave it some resemblance to that of the Assassins. The fundamental rule of the two Orders was to seize fortresses and castles in the neighbouring countries in order more easily to control the people; both were dangerous rivals for the princes and formed a state within a state.

Causing fanatical riots at Cairo by proclaiming the divinity of the Khalifa El-Hakem, he was forced by the people to fly, and was sent to Lebanon by El-Hakem, where, under his instructions, the Druses acknowledged El-Hakem's divinity. Some years later the real founder of their religion, Hamzeh, a Dai or missionary of the House of Wisdom, further sent Moktana Baha-edeen to replace Dorazi, and prevailed on the Druses to accept the initia- tion system of the Grand Lodge at Cairo, thus forming; the religion as it is to-day.

Mackenzie describes their religion as a compound of Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism; they have a priesthood, a kind of hierarchy, passwords and signs, and both sexes are admitted. As stated by Mme Blavatsky, who was a member of the Druse Order, it is Gnostic and Magian; they believe in the Unity of God, who is the essence of life, invisible but known through occasional manifestations in human form. She calls it a last survival of the archaic Wisdom- religion known to-day as " Kabalism, Theosophy, and Occultism. Outwardly, as incul- cated in their sacred books, they profess to read the Koran and the Gospels, while secretly following their mystery doctrines.

In an early issue of the Theosophist Mme Blavatsky quotes Laurence Oliphant as writing : " The Druse has a firm conviction that the end of the world is at hand. Christians and Mohammedans will surrender and march before it to Mecca, El-Hakem will then appear as the last divine incarnation. The Druses are eagerly waiting for an Armageddon in which they believe themselves destined to play a prominent part.

As Rene Guenon remarks, " We should have to conclude that she must have begun her studies at her birth, if not indeed a little before! It is pantheistic mysticism. The Sufee doctrine, King says, involves the idea of one universal creed which could be secretly held under any profession of an outward faith.

The Dervish guide instructs the candidate in the mystic philosophy, and if it in any way shocks the pupil, is supplied with a double sense so that he can turn aside any fears or objections. In the same way the pantheistic teachings of the Stella Matutina of to-day could be twisted so that even a Christian priest might be per- suaded to see Christianity in them. Speaking of the Initiation of a Dervish, Springett says of the Kadiri Order that, after many months of probation in the monastery, the Sheikh, at the assembly of the brethren, places on the candidate's head a white felt cap, having attached to it a cloth rose of eighteen petals with the interlaced triangles of Solomon's Seal in the centre — the Jewish symbol of the dual forces of nature, as above so below.

Education in the United Kingdom

Before being fully accepted as a Dervish, he passes through intermediate stages under the guidance of a Superior or initiate of the highest degree. The Guide must be the neophyte's shield against all worldly thoughts and desires let go the material! He now enters into spiritual communion with the Prophet himself, into whose soul his own has become absorbed.

The mystic now resumes his outward observance of the rites of Islam, and prepares for his pilgrimage to the Holy Cities. They finally go out among the people spreading the ideas, often in the name of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, leading them astray under the direct or indirect influence of these sects and their outside manifestations, international, universal, socialist, com- munist, and atheist. There is in them a strange mixture of Sabeanism, Christianity, and Moham- medanism, with a tincture of the doctrines of the Gnostics and Manichaeism; Sabeanism, however, appears to be the prevailing feature.

In Le Juif, des Mousseaux, quoting authorities, tells us that Chaldea has always been the cradle of the demonic cabala, descended from the Cainites, and from the Sabeans, who adored the sun, stars, spirit of the stars, and the evil principle. This cabala penetrated among the Yezidis and Druses. After many tortured attempts to find the magic formula, his little sister Janie unwittingly provides him with a clue to working out the winning numbers.

Amazingly, his numbers come up, but his joy soon turns to grief when everyone lays claim to their share of the winnings, and things become very nasty. Parents and lawyers are involved…. This is a very funny book, first published in America in and now updated and Anglicized for a UK market, though keen-eyed readers will spot a few Americanisms that have escaped the editorial net. Age range 8 This time the hapless family of dog- owner Trevor manage to create mayhem on a cross-Channel ferry before inflicting their beloved pet on a French camping and caravanning site.

Here there are misadventures with barbecues and canoes, arrests and some unexplained thefts, but fortunately, Streaker has a new love interest: the smooth-talking, French accented Pascal, who just happens to be a bloodhound. How will he cope with a new arch-rival in the massive Barbarossa? Can he help Streaker sniff out the stolen goods?

As theft turns into kidnap, and all seems lost for the dogs and the children, there is an unexpected turn of events. This is a pacy and engaging first-person narrative in the voice of the endearing floppy-eared joker Streaker. Susan Barratt Online review This is the story of the first case of teen detective Darkus Knightley and his father. Darkus is a bright year-old boy who likes tweed and has a stache of top secret files. Father and son face a desperate challenge. The book might relate to a weird organisation known as the Combination.

Children in Years 5 and 6 who like suspense, mystery, humour, fantasy, action and detective stories will enjoy reading this. The pace is fast and it is highly entertaining. I look forward to reading his next book. Aimed at ages 7 to 11 years, this is a fun and action-packed adventure about the twists and turns faced by the heroic Prince Frog during his quest to find of the End of the World.

This is a creative way to open the tale and would appeal to a lot of young readers as the text appears handwritten and the content is peppered with a beautiful carefree array of spelling and grammatical errors perfect as a reference device in a range of literacy lessons. This provides a great basis for a very humorous and imaginative tale of adventure and marvel and opportunities to play around with some inspired character names. The story should make children laugh-out-loud, yet provides ample opportunity for cross-curricular lessons in subjects including art the book includes many wonderful black and white illustrations of the story , Social and Emotional Literacy what makes a good leader and hero and English literacy first and third person narrative, inventive descriptive language and a range of vocabulary.

The Milo Adventures are a series of light hearted, fast paced stories centring on the exploits of Milo, his best friend Shane and a rather ghostly Mister Lewis. This particular story involves time travel through portals, night time wanderings through cavernous castles and encounters with feudal chieftains along with minor skirmishes with the ubiquitous bad guys from their school. She really does help to save the day, although her methods are somewhat unconventional and Milo is left feeling more than a little uncomfortable: a situation which the younger reader might find a trifle amusing.

While reading this, I also found myself being transported back in time to my own childhood and my obsession with adventure stories: stories where the feisty heroes and heroines sneak around dark woods in the middle of the night while their parents slept soundly, blissfully unaware of the dangers that their children were encountering. From the safety of the pages, the reader is able to share the fears, shivers and dangers of the characters: possibly considering how they might respond in a similar situation: maybe even pining for an ethereal friend such as Mister Lewis.

This is the third book in a series becoming ever popular with girls aged , melding as it does Malory Towers with the performance aspects of High School Musical. Cassie has returned to the performing arts school she adores for the summer term. She is excited at the prospect of choreographing a duet from The Sound of Music , but her energies are soon taken up by a surprising friendship with a new pupil with something mysterious about her past.

This book may well appeal to young girl readers with a passion for performing and a love of boarding school adventures, but I am afraid it did not work for me. The main protagonist Cassie was irritatingly meddlesome, with no control over her tongue, so that she was responsible for a lot of misunderstandings and upset. Perhaps I needed to have read the other two first Danny is trying to find out who killed his parents and why.

He feels betrayed when he learns that the Mysterium, the circus he loves, has reformed without him in Barcelona. He rejoins them, catching up with friends like Sing Sing, but also meeting up with some shifty characters who may be his enemies. Who is the strange La Loca? The mysterious 49 are never far away. The story is intriguing and moves at a fast pace. The quotations at the start of the acts and the chapter headings encourage reflection. Mnemonics, memory games, clues, tells, codes and ciphers are threaded through the story and advice from dad and his memory palace plays a key part in the plot.

En route there are vivid descriptions of the circus, and the story ends with Danny participating in a dangerous stunt. There is an informative glossary including circus terms at the back of the book. But do we? For it ends up being Annie who is the crime solver in this mysterious tale. Cross makes us feel very clever, as she enables us, if we have our detective hats on, to start solving the crime even before Annie and her friends. Inevitably of course, there are some surprises in store along the way to keep us turning the pages.

This story follows the adventures of Wil Calloway, a young teen trying to prove his innocence after being accused of the murder of another young boy. The author has worked extensively with ESL and SLCN children and the careful adaptation of this tale is wonderful for engaging the less confident reader, or those moving towards Young Adult and Adult fiction.

The Demon's Den

This makes it an ideal tool in the classroom to help weaker and improving readers, whilst keeping their interest through the intrigue, twists and creative language used within the story. I loved the inclusivity of genders in the story both female and male role models play equal parts in this tale , and there is lots of opportunity for discussions around morality and difficult choices in the face of adversity personal interests versus loyalty to others , which would make it great for SEAL or PSE sessions.

It is a great introduction to the fantasy genre, and includes an appendix for more challenging words. I would highly recommend this to schools to help bridge the gap in reading material for the developing reader. This book is American. Once the reader has acclimatised, the story is rather heart-warming; three misfits foil the school bully, getting into all sorts of scrapes on the way. This book deals with quite a few pertinent issues: cyber-bullying; anti-social behaviour as a direct result of not being able to access the curriculum; social status and lack of it in school; divorce; eccentric grand-parental behaviour etc.

These are not dealt with directly, but are incidental to the story and the astute reader will quickly pick up the implicit messages. This book is important because it links the First World War with the world of football. Tom Palmer is an accomplished, successful writer whose books motivate reluctant readers, especially boys.

Shenfield High School

Over the Line is his first venture into non-fiction writing. It tells the story of heroic Jack Cock, one of the first generation of professional footballers. Jack enlisted in the Footballers' Battalion and went on to play in the Flanders Cup. He also experienced the horror and tragedy of World War One. The first-person narrative is powerful and moving. Jack survived the trenches and scored England's first international goal after the end of the war. This is a text that will connect with children. At the bottom of each page there are attractive black and white illustrations.

The book is supported by an excellent website www. I will certainly be using it with my classes. So many children long for a pet, or love to read about the idyllic adventures of animal-child pairings. This book caters wonderfully to such children, particularly in the upper primary bracket, providing a range of extracts and short stories by a variety of authors, all with a short introduction by Jacqueline Wilson. From classic writers such as Dick King-Smith and an unavoidable extract of The Hundred and One Dalmatians , to relatively recent work such as Love that Dog by Sharon Creech and even some short stories by Wilson herself, this book is a real treasure trove of stories and poems.

Even if some children, who prefer to lose themselves in a longer story, find the extract style off-putting, it is nevertheless a useful book for the class teacher who wishes to recommend longer stories to animal-loving children. Furthermore it would be a lovely addition to any classroom bookcase, with the short stories or extracts being the perfect length for a child to dip into, or for an end-of-day read.

Rachel Cordon Online review Luckily they meet the boys called PIE Paranormal Investigations Edinburgh , and get swept up in the quest to get a sighting of the Grey Lady who haunts the castle ruins. Enid Blyton is both evoked and kindly critiqued in this humorous and entertaining adventure and there are plenty of sensitive insights into these likeable characters.

Readers who fall for Pea and her family will find other books in the series to explore, but each can be read and enjoyed in its own right. All sorts of cold hearted cut-throats and bloodthirsty buccaneers sail in and out of the pages of this treasure chest of pirate stories. Chris Mould has compiled a highly entertaining collection of original short stories and well chosen extracts from classic books. Readers can share Jim Hawkins' voyage on the Hispaniola to Treasure Island and then board a tanker with modern day pirates in the Strait of Malacca to steal the Jewel of Bengal.

Each page is well designed and the atmospheric dark illustrations complement the stories to make the landlubber's blood run even colder as the tales unfold. The stories written by Mould himself are particularly enjoyable. They are rich confections with vigorous language that read out loud well. He treats readers to gripping short stories about greed and treachery, each one with a twist in the tale. They are alive with large characters like the fearsome Captain Sneerstout who lurk around taverns called The Blind Eye and think nothing of imprisoning luckless captives deep in the dark brig surrounded by gunpowder connected to a slow fuse It is nail biting stuff offered in easily digestible segments that boys in upper key stage 2 will thoroughly enjoy.

This book presented cutting edge information that we did not have elsewhere in our Library. The illustrations and format are attractive but it was the facts that impressed us. We did not know that only female polar bears are fitted with radio tracking collars because male polar bears have necks wider than their heads so the collars would fall off. Pupils were fascinated by the equipment, vehicles and relocatable research stations that scientists use.

Blogs and the internet help scientists of all nationalities to share research quickly. We were intrigued to learn that scientists have used new technology to combine fifty years of data and millions of new measurements from satellites and aeroplane surveys to make a 3-D map of the Antarctic. This should help them understand and protect the fragile environment of the Poles. Highly recommended for upper Key Stage 2. For a book bursting with magical powers, mischief and trouble-dodging, look no further than The Quirks in Circus Quirkus! The Quirk family has secret magical powers Grandpa Quirk can twist time and Finn Quirk is invisible unless he is chewing gum, to name just two!

In this sequel to The Quirks: Welcome to Normal, the circus comes to town and the Quirk children are learning to perform circus acts at school. The magical powers give the story an entertaining twist and every chapter is full of fun — children will laugh out loud at the antics of the Quirks as they try to guess how the comical situations will end.

This book is aimed at children between 9 and 11 years old; however, the content is such that it would be perfect for advanced younger readers. Claire Williams, Year 5 teacher, St. Published and available in hardback, this is a collection of real-life stories about street children from across the world. An insightful, informative and ultimately uplifting collection, the raw and honest accounts of the children provide fantastic stimulus for a number of curriculum areas geography — maps, habitats and environments, society; art — graffiti, street art, photography; and English — factual writing as well as popular themes such as ESDGC, Philosophy 4 Children and SEAL.


  • So oder auch anders... - Fiktionalität und mögliche Welten in Gottfrieds Tristan (German Edition).
  • Ages 9-11 [Upper Key Stage 2] 2014.
  • The Demon's Den?

The illustrations and photos provide further prompts for enquiry and make the book more accessible to a range of readers and appropriate for a variety of learning styles as well as different age groups. Fourth in the series of books about teenage Rebecca, through the pages of her very frank journal we eavesdrop on her day-to-day life. Now 15, Rebecca writes about her friends, her family, her fears and her hopes. Reading the book feels like overhearing a typical teenage conversation, where relatively minor things to the adult mind take on huge significance.

The book is endorsed by chick-lit author Marian Keyes, a writer whose books Rebecca fans are likely to move on to, I suspect. Age-range The plot begins in Australia shortly after a disastrous storm has hit. We are introduced to the character of Red at the outset, covered in Mud. The descriptive nature of the first chapter alone would easily spur a cascade of writing, including detailed and interesting descriptions. The principle character is Red, a young girl who has no idea of who she is, calling out the name Jay Martin. Red has to rely on a boy named Peri, who will help her through the adventure.

This is a great undertone in the story of how relationships can be formed in the most difficult of times. The gripping adventure takes the reader on a journey to the darker sides of disaster and back again. The leading character being female is the reason that the story is captivating for the most reluctant of boys and the adventure driven girls.

The story not appropriate for all children and is definitely suited to the more able Year 6 and more likely to early teens due to the emotional content and the twists and turns of the plot. A really good adventure story made tangible by the possibility of the disaster one day being a real adventure.