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It would be a true, and perhaps final, newspaper war. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. About the Author. Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. View Product. The Fisherman's Son. Drifting in a life raft off the northern California coast after a horrifying shipwreck, Neil Drifting in a life raft off the northern California coast after a horrifying shipwreck, Neil Kruger retreats from his fear by recalling scenes from his childhood.

He finds solace in memories of his father, a taciturn man who introduced him Full Spectrum 3. Ursula K. Le Guin and Poulsp okay Anderson are the best known of the Le Guin and Poulsp okay Anderson are the best known of the 22 talented contributors to this diverse and richly imaginative collection, the third in a series of speculative fiction anthologies. Van Name The Man Who Cycled the World. The remarkable true story of one man's quest to break the record for cycling around Scott Sigler reinvented the alien-invasion story in his bestselling novels Infected and Contagious… rebooted the Scott Sigler reinvented the alien-invasion story in his bestselling novels Infected and Contagious… rebooted the biotech thriller in Ancestor…now, in his most ambitious, sweeping novel to date, he works his magic on the paranormal thriller, taking us inside a terrifying Between the Confederacy and recognition by Great Britain stood one unlikely Englishman who hated the Between the Confederacy and recognition by Great Britain stood one unlikely Englishman who hated the slave trade.

His actions helped determine the fate of a nation. When Robert Bunch arrived in Charleston to take up the post of British consul in Created by Emma Orczy in , the Scarlet Pimpernel is the alter ego of Sir Percy Blakeney, a wealthy English fop who transforms into a formidable swordsman and a quick-thinking escape artist, establishing the "hero with a secret identity " into popular culture.

In the s, a resurgence of British writers and artists gained prominence in mainstream comic books, which was dubbed the " British Invasion " in comic book history. These writers and artists brought with them their own mature themes and philosophy such as anarchy , controversy and politics common in British media, but were never before seen in American comics. These elements would pave the way for mature and "darker and edgier" comic books that would jump start the Modern Age of Comics. Much of the folklore of the United Kingdom pre-dates the 18th century.

Though some of the characters and stories are present throughout all of the UK, most belong to specific countries or regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales of Offa of Angeln and Weyland Smith , others date from after the Norman invasion of England, such as Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham.

During the High Middle Ages tales originated from Brythonic traditions, notably the Arthurian legend. Another early figure from British tradition , King Cole , may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. The legendary monster has been affectionately referred to by the nickname "Nessie" since the s. The leprechaun figures large in Irish folklore. A mischievous fairy-type creature in emerald green clothing who when not playing tricks spends all its time busily making shoes, the leprechaun is said to have a pot of gold hidden at the end of the rainbow , and if ever captured by a human it has the magical power to grant three wishes in exchange for release.

In mythology, English fairy tales such as Jack and the Beanstalk and Jack the Giant Killer helped form the modern perception of giants as stupid and violent, while the dwarf Tom Thumb is a traditional hero in English folklore. English fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears is one of the most popular fairy tales in the English language. The Gremlin is part of Royal Air Force folklore dating from the s, with "gremlin" being RAF slang for a mischievous creature that sabotages aircraft, meddling in the plane's equipment.

Lovett who sells pies made from Todd's victims , and serial killer Jack the Ripper. On 5 November, people in England make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of Guy Fawkes ' Gunpowder Plot , which became an annual event after the Thanksgiving Act of was passed. Halloween is a traditional and much celebrated holiday in Scotland and Ireland on the night of 31 October. Other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires , and having firework displays. Mass transatlantic Irish and Scottish migration in the 19th century popularised Halloween in North America.

Witchcraft has featured in the British Isles for millennia. The use of a crystal ball to foretell the future is attributed to the druids. In medieval folklore King Arthur 's magician, the wizard Merlin , carried around a crystal ball for the same purpose. John Dee , consultant to Elizabeth I , frequently used a crystal ball to communicate with the angels. The ghost of Anne Boleyn is a frequently reported ghost sighting in the UK.

Differing accounts include seeing her ghost ride up to Blickling Hall in a coach drawn by a headless horseman, with her own head on her lap. Modern witchcraft began in England in the early 20th century with notable figures such as Aleister Crowley and the father of Wicca Gerald Gardner , before expanding westward in the s.

Crowley the founder of Thelema was described as "the most notorious occultist magician of the 20th century", and he remains an influential figure over Western esotericism and the counter-culture. English Heritage is the government body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall , is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs a total of 73 miles in northern England. Historic Environment Scotland is the executive agency of the Scottish Government , responsible for historic monuments in Scotland, such as Stirling Castle. Balmoral Castle is the main Scottish residence of the Queen. A statue of Robert the Bruce and a large monument and visitor centre operated by the National Trust for Scotland is located in Bannockburn near the site of the Battle of Bannockburn.

Many of Wales' great castles, such as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd and other monuments, are under the care of Cadw , the historic environment service of the Welsh Government. Tintagel Castle is a popular tourist destination in Cornwall, with the castle associated with the legend of King Arthur since the 12th century.

The British Museum in London with its collection of more than seven million objects, [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, and sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. On display since , the Rosetta Stone is the most viewed attraction. The Natural History Museum, London was established by Richard Owen who coined the term " dinosaur " to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits. The Titanic Belfast museum, a visitor attraction in the Titanic Quarter , east Belfast, Northern Ireland on the regenerated site of the shipyard where Titanic was built, was opened to the public in The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square , which houses a collection of over 2, paintings dating from the midth century to The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.

The National Museum of Art, Wales, opened in The National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh holds 7 million books, 14 million printed items such as the last letter written by Mary, Queen of Scots and over 2 million maps. Blue plaques , the oldest historical marker scheme in the world, are permanent signs installed in a public place in the UK to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event.

Events commemorated by plaques include John Logie Baird 's first demonstration of television at 22 Frith Street , Westminster, W1, London, the first sub 4-minute mile run by Roger Bannister on 6 May at Oxford University's Iffley Road Track , and a sweet shop in Llandaff , Cardiff that commemorates the mischief by a young Roald Dahl who put a mouse in the gobstoppers jar.

From the time of the Scientific Revolution , England and Scotland, and thereafter the United Kingdom, have been prominent in world scientific and technological development. The Royal Society serves as the national academy for sciences, with members drawn from different institutions and disciplines. Formed in , it is one of the oldest learned societies still in existence. Sir Isaac Newton 's publication of the Principia Mathematica ushered in what is recognisable as modern physics.

The first edition of and the second edition of framed the scientific context of the foundation of the United Kingdom. He realised that the same force is responsible for movements of celestial and terrestrial bodies, namely gravity. He is the father of classical mechanics , formulated as his three laws and as the co-inventor with Gottfried Leibniz of differential calculus.

He also created the binomial theorem , worked extensively on optics , and created a law of cooling. Figures from the UK have contributed to the development of most major branches of science. John Napier introduced logarithms in the early 17th century as a means to simplify calculations. Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell unified the electric and magnetic forces in what are now known as Maxwell's equations.

Following his publication of A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field in , Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves in Naturalist Charles Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species and discovered the principle of evolution by natural selection. James Hutton , founder of modern geology, worked on the age of the Earth deep time which forms a key element of Darwin's theory. Other important geologists include Charles Lyell , author of Principles of Geology , who also coined the term Pleistocene , and Adam Sedgwick , who proposed and coined the name of the Cambrian Period.

Paul Dirac was one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics. Botanist Robert Brown discovered the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid Brownian motion. John Stewart Bell created Bell's Theorem. Harold Kroto discovered buckminsterfullerene. Other 19th- and early 20th-century British pioneers in their field include Joseph Lister antiseptic surgery , Edward Jenner vaccination , Richard Owen palaeontology , coined the term Dinosaur , Florence Nightingale nursing , Sir George Cayley aerodynamics , William Fox Talbot photography , and Howard Carter modern archaeology , discovered Tutankhamun.

Scholarly descriptions of dinosaur bones first appeared in the late 17th-century England. Between and , William Buckland discovered fossils of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific journal. The second dinosaur genus to be identified, Iguanodon , was discovered in by Mary Ann Mantell.

In , Gideon Mantell discovered fossils of a third dinosaur, Hylaeosaurus. Owen recognised that the remains of the three new species that had been found so far shared a number of distinctive features. He decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group, dinosaurs. John Harrison invented the marine chronometer , a key piece in solving the problem of accurately establishing longitude at sea, thus revolutionising and extending the possibility of safe long-distance sea travel. The aquarium craze began in Victorian England when Philip Henry Gosse created and stocked the first public aquarium at London Zoo in , and coined the term "aquarium" when he published The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in A crucial advance in the development of the flush toilet was the S-trap invented by Alexander Cumming in — it uses the standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of foul air from the sewer.

They patented it in May as an alarm system, and it was first successfully demonstrated on 25 July between Euston and Camden Town in London. Postal reformer Sir Rowland Hill is regarded as the creator of the modern postal service and the inventor of the postage stamp Penny Black — with his solution of pre-payment facilitating the safe, speedy and cheap transfer of letters. Forming the mathematical foundations of computing , Boolean logic laid the foundations for the information age.

Historically, many of the UK's greatest scientists have been based at either Oxford or Cambridge University , with laboratories such as the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge and the Clarendon Laboratory in Oxford becoming famous in their own right. In modern times, other institutions such as the Red Brick and New Universities are catching up with Oxbridge. For instance, Lancaster University has a global reputation for work in low temperature physics. Technologically, the UK is also amongst the world's leaders. Historically, it was at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution , with innovations especially in textiles, the steam engine , railroads, machine tools and civil engineering.

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Maudslay's most influential invention was the screw-cutting lathe , a machine which created uniformity in screws and allowed for the application of interchangeable parts a prerequisite for mass production : it was a revolutionary development necessary for the Industrial Revolution. The UK has the oldest railway networks in the world, with the Stockton and Darlington Railway , opened in , the first public railway to use steam locomotives.

Opened in , London Underground is the world's first underground railway. Josiah Wedgwood pioneered the industrialisation of pottery manufacture. In , Edgar Purnell Hooley added tar to the mix and named it Tarmac short for tarmacadam. Probably the greatest driver behind the modern use of concrete was Smeaton's Tower built by John Smeaton in the s. The third Eddystone Lighthouse the world's first open ocean lighthouse , Smeaton pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete.

Situated 11 miles off east Scotland, it is the world's oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse. Portland cement , the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, was developed in England in the 19th century. It was coined by Joseph Aspdin in he named it after Portland stone , and further developed by his son William Aspdin in the s. Since then, the UK has continued this tradition of technical creativity. Alan Turing leading role in the creation of the modern computer , Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell the first practical telephone , John Logie Baird world's first working television system, first electronic colour television , Frank Whittle co-invented the jet engine — powered by Whittle's turbojet engines, the Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during World War II, Charles Babbage devised the idea of the computer , Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin.

Pioneers of fertility treatment Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards , achieved conception through IVF world's first "test tube baby" in Douglas , is regarded as a contender for the first video game. Dolly the sheep , the first mammal successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell by scientists at Roslin Institute in Edinburgh , became a celebrity in the s.

The Industrial Revolution began in Britain due to the social, economic and political changes in the country during the previous centuries. The stable political situation in Britain from around following the Glorious Revolution , in contrast to other European countries where absolute monarchy remained the typical form of government, can be said to be a factor in favouring Britain as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.

Britain also had high quality coal. Historian Jeremy Black states, "an unprecedented explosion of new ideas, and new technological inventions, transformed our use of energy, creating an increasingly industrial and urbanised country. Roads, railways and canals were built. Great cities appeared. Scores of factories and mills sprang up.

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Our landscape would never be the same again. It was a revolution that transformed not only the country, but the world itself. Pottery manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood was one of the most successful entrepreneurs of the Industrial Revolution. Meeting the demands of the consumer revolution and growth in wealth of the middle classes that helped drive the Industrial Revolution in Britain, Wedgwood created goods such as soft-paste porcelain tableware bone china , which was starting to become a common feature on dining tables.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of James Watt 's steam engine, and invention of modern coinage , Matthew Boulton is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. Selling Welsh flannel , he created mail order catalogues, with customers able order by mail for the first time, and the goods were delivered by railway. The UK has had a long history of car making. In addition to the company's reputation for superior engineering quality in its cars, Rolls-Royce Limited was known for manufacturing the high-powered "R" engines, including the iconic Rolls-Royce Merlin aero engine which was used for many World War II aircraft.

Bentley in in Cricklewood , North London, and, like Rolls Royce, is regarded as a British luxury automobile icon. Aston Martin was founded in by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford , and became associated with luxury grand touring cars in the s and s, and with the fictional British spy James Bond.

Jaguar was founded in The Jaguar E-Type sports car was released in ; Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car ever made". The Land Rover launched in and specialises in four-wheel-drive. The Mini was released by the British Motor Corporation in and became a s cultural icon. The performance versions, the Mini Cooper, was a successful rally car.

It has been named Britain's favourite car in a poll. The United Kingdom was created as an Anglican Christian country, and Anglican churches remain the largest faith group in each country of the UK except Scotland, where Anglicanism is a small minority. William Tyndale 's s translation of the Bible was the first to be printed in English, and was a model for subsequent English translations, notably the King James Version in The Book of Common Prayer of was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English, and the marriage and burial rites have found their way into those of other denominations and into the English language.

In 17th-century England, the Puritans condemned the celebration of Christmas. The calendar reform became a major point of tension between the Anglicans and Puritans. King Charles I of England directed his noblemen and gentry to return to their landed estates in midwinter to keep up their old-style Christmas generosity. Protests followed as pro-Christmas rioting broke out in several cities; and for weeks Canterbury was controlled by the rioters, who decorated doorways with holly and shouted royalist slogans.

Following the Restoration, Poor Robins Almanack contained the lines:. The diary of James Woodforde, from the latter half of the 18th century, details Christmas observance and celebrations associated with the season over a number of years. In the early 19th century, writers imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt celebration. In , Charles Dickens wrote the novel A Christmas Carol that helped revive the "spirit" of Christmas and seasonal merriment.

Dickens repeats the phrase at the end of the story; symbolic of Scrooge's change of heart. In the first commercial Christmas card was produced by Henry Cole , leading to the exchange of festive greeting cards among the public.


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The movement coincided with the appearance of the Oxford Movement and the growth of Anglo-Catholicism , which led a revival in traditional rituals and religious observances. In , the future Queen Victoria wrote about her delight at having a Christmas tree, hung with lights , ornaments , and presents placed round it. The oldest and largest youth charity in the world, its aim is to support young people to belong, contribute and thrive in their communities.

It seeks to bring salvation to the poor, destitute and hungry. The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world — a legacy of the British Empire. It is the ultimate legislative authority in the United Kingdom: the devolved parliaments and assemblies in Scotland , Northern Ireland and Wales are not sovereign bodies and could be abolished by the UK Parliament, despite each being established following public approval as expressed in a referendum.

The UK's two major political parties are the Labour Party and the Conservative Party , who between them won out of seats in the House of Commons at the most recent general election. The Scottish National Party Scotland only lost 21 of their seats in the House of Commons from the previous election; they remained the third-largest party by seats held, despite the Liberal Democrats making gains. The United Kingdom has an uncodified constitution , the Constitution of the United Kingdom , consisting mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes , judge-made case law , and international treaties.

As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and "constitutional law," the UK Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.

British constitutional documents include Magna Carta foundation of the "great writ" Habeas corpus — safeguarding individual freedom against arbitrary state action , the Bill of Rights one provision granting freedom of speech in Parliament , Petition of Right , Habeas Corpus Act and Parliament Acts and A separate but similar document, the Claim of Right Act , applies in Scotland.

Jurist Albert Venn Dicey wrote that the British Habeas Corpus Acts "declare no principle and define no rights, but they are for practical purposes worth a hundred constitutional articles guaranteeing individual liberty". In Scotland the percentage is higher due to Scotland having a lower population as well having juries made up of fifteen people as opposed to twelve in England and Wales.

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The 17th-century English patriot John Hampden was a leading parliamentarian involved in challenging the authority of Charles I when he refused to be taxed for ship money in , and was one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by the King in the House of Commons in sparked the English Civil War. The wars established the constitutional rights of parliament, a concept legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in and the subsequent Bill of Rights Since that time, no British monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting.

Other important British political figures include Sir Edward Coke , 17th-century jurist; the legal directive that nobody may enter a home, which in the 17th-century would typically have been male owned, unless by the owners invitation or consent, was established as common law in Coke's Institutes of the Lawes of England. An influential thinker in the history of liberalism , 19th century philosopher, political economist and politician John Stuart Mill justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control.

A member of the Liberal Party , he was also the first Member of Parliament to call for women's suffrage. Robert Walpole is generally regarded as the first British Prime Minister — She became known as the " Iron Lady ", a term coined by a Soviet journalist for her uncompromising politics and leadership style. English poet William Cowper wrote in , "We have no slaves at home — Then why abroad? Slaves cannot breathe in England; if their lungs receive our air, that moment they are free, They touch our country, and their shackles fall.

That's noble, and bespeaks a nation proud. And jealous of the blessing. Spread it then, And let it circulate through every vein. The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. Candidates are identified by public or private bodies or by government departments or are nominated by members of the public. Nominations are reviewed by honours committees , made up of government officials and private citizens from different fields, who meet twice a year to discuss the candidates and make recommendations for appropriate honours to be awarded by the Queen.

Historically a knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. By the Late Middle Ages , the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Since the early modern period , the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the UK is damehood. The ceremony often takes place at Buckingham Palace , and family members are invited to attend.

A few examples of knights are Sir Nicholas Winton : for "services to humanity, in saving Jewish children from Nazi occupied Czechoslovakia", [] Sir Elton John : for "services to music and charitable services", Sir Ridley Scott : for "services to the British film industry", [] and Sir Richard Branson : for "services to entrepreneurship". The suffix " shire " is attached to most of the names of English, Scottish and Welsh counties. Shire is a term for a division of land first used in England during the Anglo-Saxon period. This suffix tends not to be found in the names of counties that were pre-existing divisions.

Essex , Kent , and Sussex , for example, have never borne a -shire , as each represents a former Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Similarly Cornwall was a British kingdom before it became an English county. The term "shire" is also not used in the names of the six traditional counties of Northern Ireland. The use of the British imperial system of measure , particularly among the public, is widespread in the United Kingdom and is in many cases permitted by the law.

An example of giving one's body weight would be: 11 and a half stone , or 11 stone and 7 pounds. Distances shown on road signs must be in yards and miles , while miles per hour appear on speed limit signs and car speedometers. Drivers in Britain drive on the left. Research shows that countries driving on the left have a lower collision rate than those that drive on the right, and it has been suggested that this is partly because the predominantly better-performing right eye is used to monitor oncoming traffic and the driver's wing mirror.

On being shown a design he is said to have remarked that it resembled a zebra. In , the Green Cross Code was introduced to teach children safer road crossing habits. From , Mungo Jerry 's song " In the Summertime " featured in drink driving adverts. The building of roundabouts circular junctions grew rapidly in the s; there are now more than 10, in the UK [] The Cat's eye retroreflective safety device used in road marking was invented by Percy Shaw in British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. Historically, British cuisine meant "unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it".

Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe. Each country within the United Kingdom has its own specialities. Traditional examples of English cuisine include the Sunday roast ; featuring a roasted joint , usually roast beef a signature English national dish dating back to the ballad " The Roast Beef of Old England " , lamb or chicken, served with assorted boiled vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

The full English breakfast consists of bacon , grilled tomatoes, fried bread, baked beans , fried mushrooms , sausages and eggs. Black pudding and hash browns are often also included.

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It is usually served with tea or coffee. Fish and chips are also regarded as a national institution: Winston Churchill called them "the good companions", John Lennon smothered them in tomato ketchup, while George Orwell referred to them as a "chief comfort" of the working class. The last of these is consumed cold. A quintessential British custom, afternoon tea , is a small meal typically eaten between 4 pm and 6 pm. The most popular drink in Britain, tea became more widely drunk due to Catherine of Braganza.

It is traditionally accompanied with biscuits , sandwiches , scones , cakes or pastries such as Battenberg cake , fruit cake or Victoria sponge. The first English recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts in London in , and arguably the earliest reference to an edible ice cream cone , "cornet with cream", appears in Agnes Marshall 's cookbook. When he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!

White's Lemonade sold in Irn-Bru is the best-selling domestic soft drink. Sausages are commonly eaten as bangers and mash , in sausage rolls or as toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew. Popular cheeses include Cheddar and Wensleydale. Sweet British dishes include scones, apple pie , mince pies , spotted dick , Eccles cakes , pancakes , sponge cake , trifle , jelly , custard , sticky toffee pudding , Tunnock's teacake , and Jaffa cakes ; the best-selling cake in the UK.

Marmalade is a popular British spread for toast or sandwich: a spread famous for its association with Paddington Bear , a beloved bear in UK culture that featured in the critically acclaimed films Paddington and Paddington 2 Home baking has always been a significant part of British home cooking. Influential cookbooks include The Experienced English Housekeeper , Modern Cookery for Private Families by food author Eliza Acton that introduced the now-universal practice of listing ingredients and giving suggested cooking times for each recipe, and Isabella Beeton 's Book of Household Management A popular cake to bake, Victoria sponge named after Queen Victoria who enjoyed a slice with her tea , was created following the discovery of baking powder by English food manufacturer Alfred Bird in , which enabled the sponge to rise higher in cakes.

The hot cross bun is a popular British sweet bun traditionally eaten on Good Friday, but are now eaten all year round. With its logo and green-and-gold packaging having remained almost unchanged since then, Lyle's Golden Syrup was listed by Guinness World Records as having the world's oldest branding and packaging. Brown sauce is a traditional British condiment, with its best known variety HP Sauce named after and featuring an image of the Houses of Parliament on the label a popular spread on chicken and Bacon sandwiches.

Scotland's Angus cattle is the UK's most popular native beef breed. The pub is an important aspect of British culture, and is often the focal point of local communities. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are typically chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, and the availability of pub games such as darts or snooker. The pub quiz was established in the UK in the s.

In , Richard II introduced a law that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them easily visible for passing ale tasters who would assess the quality of ale sold. The owner or tenant licensee is known as the pub landlord or publican, while barmaids are a common feature in pubs. Alcoholic drinks served in pubs include wines and English beers such as bitter , mild , stout , and brown ale. On Christmas Day, goose was previously served at dinner ; however since appearing on Christmas tables in England in the late 16th century, the turkey has become more popular, with Christmas pudding served for dessert.

Invented in London in the s, Christmas crackers are an integral part of Christmas celebrations, often pulled before or after dinner, or at parties. Chinese restaurants and takeaways in addition to Indian are among the most popular ethnic food in the UK. The Quakers , founded by George Fox in s England and described by the BBC as "natural capitalists", had a virtual monopoly in the British chocolate industry for much of the 19th and 20th centuries, led by Cadbury of Birmingham, Fry's of Bristol and Rowntree's and Terry's of York.

Created in Doncaster, Yorkshire, Butterscotch boiled sweets is one of the town's best known exports. After Eights are a popular after dinner mint. A stick of rock a hard cylindrical stick-shaped boiled sugar is a traditional British seaside sweet, commonly sold at seaside resorts throughout the UK such as Brighton , Portrush and Blackpool. A " 99 Flake " commonly called a "99" which consists of ice cream in a cone with a Cadbury Flake inserted in it, is a hugely popular British dessert.

Most of the major sports have separate administrative structures and national teams for each of the countries of the United Kingdom. With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th-century Victorian Britain , in , IOC President Jacques Rogge stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognized as the birthplace of modern sport. It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations.

It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum". Both in participation and viewing, the most popular sport in the UK is association football. The rules were first drafted in England in by Ebenezer Cobb Morley , and the UK has the oldest football clubs in the world. The top three Welsh football clubs feature in the English league system. The first international football match was between Scotland and England in The first recipient of the Ballon d'Or , Stanley Matthews was knighted while still a player.

Scotland's Celtic and Rangers also have a global fanbase. Leicester City 's Premier League title win is regarded among the greatest sporting upsets ever. Early references to dribbling come from accounts of medieval football games in England. Geoffrey Chaucer offered an allusion to such ball skills in 14th-century England.

In The Knight's Tale from the Canterbury Tales he uses the following line: "rolleth under foot as doth a ball". Football in Britain is renowned for the intense rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants , which are one of the last remaining sources of an oral folk song tradition in the UK. The purchase of a football programme a pre-match magazine produced by the home team that gives details on that days game, including player profiles, recent form, interviews etc.

The Football Association dropped its ban on floodlights in , and night games attracted increasingly large crowds of fans—some of them unruly—as well as large television audiences. The modern game of golf originated in Scotland, with the Fife town of St Andrews known internationally as the " home of golf ". In , rugby union was created when the first rules were written by pupils at Rugby School , Warwickshire.

The first rugby international took place on 27 March , played between England and Scotland. In , the Home Nations combined to form what is today called the British and Irish Lions , who now tour every four years to face a Southern Hemisphere team. The Wales team of the s, which included a backline consisting of Gareth Edwards , J. Williams and Phil Bennett who were known for their feints, sidesteps and attacking running rugby, are regarded as one of the greatest teams in the game — all three players were involved in The greatest try ever scored in Jonny Wilkinson scored the winning drop goal for England in the last minute of extra time in the Rugby World Cup Final.

In , rugby league was created in Huddersfield , West Riding of Yorkshire , as the result of a split with the other Rugby code. The Super League is the sports top-level club competition in Britain, and the sport is especially popular in towns in the northern English counties of Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cumbria.

The Challenge Cup is the major rugby league cup competition. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England in the s, and after its creation, tennis spread throughout the upper-class English-speaking population, before spreading around the world.

The tournament itself has a major place in the British cultural calendar. The eight-time Slam winner and Britain's most successful player Fred Perry is one of only seven men in history to have won all four Grand Slam events, which included three Wimbledons. The 'Queensberry rules' , the code of general rules in boxing , was named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in , that formed the basis of modern boxing. The s saw the emergence of heavyweight Frank Bruno who would become hugely popular with the British public.

In the s, Chris Eubank , Nigel Benn , Steve Collins and Michael Watson had a series of fights against each other in the super-middleweight division, drawing audiences of up to 20 million in the UK. The Nigel Benn vs. Gerald McClellan fight in drew 13 million. The modern game of cricket was created in England in the s when round arm bowling was legalised, followed by the historical legalisation of overarm bowling in Influential to the development of the sport, W.

Grace is regarded as one of the greatest cricket players, devising most of the techniques of modern batting. The rivalry between England and Australia gave birth to The Ashes in that has remained Test cricket's most famous contest, and takes place every two years to high television viewing figures. The County Championship is the domestic competition in England and Wales.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Horse racing was popular with the aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings. The name " Derby " has since become synonymous with great races all over the world, and as such has been borrowed many times in races abroad. It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history. Bolton company J. The most successful male rower in Olympic history, Steve Redgrave won gold medals at five consecutive Olympic Games.

Cycling is a popular physical activity in the UK. In , inventor Frank Bowden founded the Raleigh Bicycle Company , and by , Raleigh was the biggest bicycle manufacturing company in the world. The Raleigh Chopper was named in the list of British design icons. Chris Froome has subsequently won the Tour de France four times , , and Welsh cyclist Geraint Thomas won in Sprint specialist Mark Cavendish has won thirty Tour de France stages, putting him second on the all-time list. In ice dancing , many of the compulsory moves were developed by dancers from the UK in the s.

Eddie was portrayed by Taron Egerton in the biographical sports comedy-drama film Eddie the Eagle. A great number of major sports originated in the United Kingdom, including association football, golf, tennis, boxing , rugby league , rugby union , cricket , field hockey , snooker , darts , billiards , squash , curling and badminton, all of which are popular in Britain.

Another sport invented in the UK was baseball, [] and its early form rounders is popular among children in Britain. Participation in women's team sport in addition to profile in the media has seen a rapid increase in recent years. The Highland games are held throughout the year in Scotland as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture and heritage, especially that of the Scottish Highlands , with more than 60 games taking place across the country every year.

The public also votes for the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year , presented to a non-British sportsperson considered to have made the most substantial contribution to a sport each year which has also captured the imagination of the British public. All of the services were founded in , based on legislation passed by the Labour Government that had been elected in with a manifesto commitment to implement the Beveridge Report recommendation to create "comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease".

The NHS was born out of a long-held ideal that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. At its launch by the then minister of health, Aneurin Bevan , on 5 July , it had at its heart three core principles: That it meet the needs of everyone, that it be free at the point of delivery, and that it be based on clinical need, not ability to pay.

Florence Nightingale laid the foundation of modern nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London. It was the first secular nursing school in the world , now part of King's College London. Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing in The book served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools. Her social reforms improved healthcare for all sections of society in the UK and around the world. The top five pets in the UK for , starting with the most numerous, are: [].

The breed's broad cheeks and relatively calm temperament make it a frequent media star. Even if Carlson's work is known to the future by virtue of being included in a blast-proof time capsule, it nonetheless merits more attention and study than it has thus far received. A typical example of George Carlson's organically entwined visual-verbal play that found its ultimate expression in his comic book work from to George Carlson's art and design for the cover of one of the best selling books of the 20th century.

This epic historical romance about the American Civil War sparked a cultural phenomenon that led to the creation of one of the most famous films in American cinema history. As it happens, much of the novel transpires in — and is about — Atlanta, the very city where the Crypt is located. A sort of time capsule in itself, Gone With The Wind featured, in its first and numerous subsequent hardcover printings, a dust-jacket designed by an artist whose mother worked for General Ulysses S.

Grant -- none other than George Carlson. Much of Carlson's prodigious output as one of the busiest graphic artists of the early twentieth century explores the mythic nature of both the past and the future. His Jingle Jangle stories use the trappings of timeless fairy tales to tell stories in a deconstructionist, modernistic manner.

Much of his work presents surreal concepts encased in old-fashioned graphic styles. Where the surrealists envisioned fur-covered teacups and melted clocks, Carlson created dishes that spout poetry and clocks run like dogs through the foothills. Carlson -- as it turns out -- was just as capable of creating a vivid image of ancient Greece as he was of depicting the modern engineering marvels of the Queen Mary ocean liner. George Leonard Carlson was one of the most accomplished and skillful artists that worked in comics of the s.

Michael Barrier and Martin T. This may be because Carlson himself was not much of a self-promoter. For example, there is no known interview with him. So far, only one photograph of him has surfaced, in a place that few would look — a book called From the Wandering Jew to William F. Buckley Jr. A rare photograph of George Carlson. This image appears to have been captured around , judging by the items on display behind Carlson, including his Gone With The Wind cover. It's very likely that this is how Carlson looked when he began drawing his Jingle Jangle comics.

Carlson was more concerned with production than promotion. His work burns with enthusiasm for inventing and perfecting new design ideas. His range and versatility are nothing short of astonishing. Some of the Paul Tumey collection George Carlson. Believe it or not, this is only a part of it all! Most critics and commentators have written about Carlson as if his seven years of comic book work for Eastern Color from to were the primary work of his career, but it turns out this important work is only part of his story.

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Information on Carlson's long career outside of comics has been largely unknown. This gap has led even the best comics historians to misframe Carlson's contribution to comic books, and his stature as an artist. In fact, in the world of s American comic books, George Carlson is unique.

He came to the form at age 55 as a fully developed, mature artist, grounded in children's literature, the craft of book and magazine illustration, and early 20th century commercial art. It was with the supreme skill and confidence forged from a highly successful thirty-year career as an artist that Carlson created the Jingle Jangle stories. At a time when comic book stories were formulaic, repetitive, and machined like products in a factory, George Carlson's explosively imaginative, hand-crafted comics represent a high point in the history of the American comic. It is only in the early 21 st century, about one hundred years after Carlson began his career, that we can use newly available resources on the Internet to figure out the puzzle of George Carlson.

Some biographical details about George Carlson can be gleaned from an article about him that was published on the occasion of his death. The article ran on September 27, in the Bridgeport Telegram. Grant just after the Civil War presumably as a housekeeper. She was among the first people to cross the Brooklyn Bridge on the day it opened in George Carlson studied with Dan McCarthy in the early s. It may have been McCarthy that influenced Carlson to become a cartoonist. There is some similarity in the jaunty, jocular attitudes of both McCarthy's and Carlson's cartoon figures, although Carlson's renderings are generally considerably more defined.

From a late s World double-page jam with several other staff cartoonists. It appears that Carlson served in World War One in some capacity that is not currently known. In his later years, Carlson was active in an American Legion WWI post he served as the Post's historian, which shows his interest in the past extended beyond his artwork. He maintained a studio in Fairfield, Connecticut until he moved to Bridgeport sometime after A close-up portion from a Federal census form that reveals a few biographical details on George Carlson.

A Federal census of Fairfield yields a few more biographical details. They owned a radio. According to the census, both George's and Gertude's mothers were born in Sweden. Carlson's profession is listed as "artist. Carlson died in and his remains were buried in Bridgeport's Mountain Grove Cemetery, which was designed by P. Carlson's art first appears around , in popular national magazines like Judge and Li fe, and continues in such publications for several years. It's likely that he was also working in various shops and factories at the time to supplement his income.

A useful framework for studying George Carlson's long and varied career is to divide his work into the following six categories:. This column, the first of two on Carlson, will look at the first three categories, and the following column Part 2 will examine the rest. Seemingly from the start, Carlson possessed great skill and talent, for his first known published works are impressive.

Carlson renders a classic Thomas Nast styled Santa Claus in a decorative layout that also functions as a gag cartoon. The image is titled "Conscience" and shows a tiny boy feeling the weight of his imagined misdeeds as he contemplates just how the gargantuan, God-like Santa may decide to judge his worthiness. The cover is a clever and artful design that presents an eye-catching, poster image while also offering context and humor. Carlson's Printer's Ink Monthly ad above describes his style as a combination of "poster and cartoon" and this aesthetic certainly seems to be in play throughout much of his forty-year career.

Carlson contributed a dramatic double-page spread in the September 30, issue of Life that excelled in both ambition and execution, reflecting the dark power of the first machine-age war. George Carlson's dramatic, war-themed double page spread in Life Sept 30 shows a fascination with ships that would recur throughout his career. Carlson's line art cartoons appeared regularly on the interior pages and covers of Leslie-Judge publications from approximately to These are also impressive, and sometimes revolve around Carlson's experiments in relative scale for effect, such as his Noah's Ark cartoon that depicts 11 pairs of automobiles and a dozen airships, all dwarfed by the massive ark Carlson would return to this effect in his pamphlet on the Queen Mary.

In it's printed version, this jam-packed, masterful rendering is only five inches wide! This line art cartoon by Carlson for a Leslie-Judge publication circa , once again shows his fascination with large-scale ships -- this time, Noah's ark. The relatively free and varied format of the Leslie-Judge publications allowed Carlson to experiment with various ways to show sequential graphic scenes, such as his clever multi-tiered building cartoon circa , "The Penetrating Qualities of a Drop of Acid. Carlson also gravitated towards storytelling in his Leslie-Judge cartoon work.

In "The Wonderful Garden that Jack Owned," circa , Carlson rather stiffly stretches out a one-note gag in a page that, while beautifully drawn, lacks his whimsical touch. Movies were an exciting new form of entertainment in Carlson's first decade as a professional cartoonist and commercial artist. Judge and Film Fun both ran a version of movies on paper silent movies, with title cards , which were often simplified, compressed comic book stories.

Greening created some truly funny cartoons in this series, and may have well been the originator of the concept see my article on Greening at my Masters of Screwball Comics blog. Carlson took to the format like a duck to water, creating whimsical, off-the-wall stories, such as "The Ambitious Vacuum Cleaner," that anticipate the stream-of-consciousness freedom in his Jingle Jangle comic book work of the s. Bateman's cartoon, "Possibilities of A Vacuum Cleaner. While Carlson ends his comic with the explosive release of the machine's contents, Bateman solipsistically concludes his sequence with the vacuum inhaling its owner and then, itself.

M Bateman's "Possibilities of a Vacuum Cleaner" page 4 of 4. Carlson did several "films on paper" for the Leslie-Judge company. They often embrace the absurd in much the same way as his Jingle Jangle comic book stories. Where many of Carlson's Jingle Jangle stories use a journey as their driving engine, so do some of his "film" parodies, thirty years earlier. Not all of Carlson's Leslie-Judge work was light-hearted. Carlson's first years as a professional cartoonist-illustrator occurred during the time of World War One, and he was obliged, as many artists at the time were, to address the great conflict in his work.

George Carlson's anti-war cartoon from a Leslie-Judge publication. In , Carlson drew Uncle Sam, yet another larger-than-life mythic figure, in a poster-cartoon style for the September 21, cover of Judge. In this piece, "Ring It Again," Carlson's unique way of combining objects into something new is on display, as a washing machine drying roller is fastened onto the Liberty Bell and used to flatten the German Kaiser.

Concurrent with his freelance career as a humor and topical cartoonist with various national magazines, George Carlson also developed a career as an illustrator, artist, and puzzle-maker for children's publications. According to Daniel Yezbick in his splendid essay on Carlson, " Riddles of Engagement ," Carlson contributed regularly to several children's magazines from the teens through the twenties, including St. Carlson employed a number of styles for his work in this area, from simple, diagrammatic cartoons to lush, textured illustrations in the tradition of Howard Pyle and Maxfield Parrish.

The subject matter of his illustrations for stories by others included classic elements of children's adventure and fantasy stories -- elements that Carlson would use and in some senses subvert in his Jingle Jangle stories some 30 years later. By far, Carlson's most significant work in the field of children's magazines and publishers was his work from approximately to with John Martin's Book.

Prometheus Press, , writes about the magazine, stating that "in its time it was the most entertaining magazine published in this country for boys and girls aged five to eight. In many ways it was a pioneering publication. I grew up on Gardner's puzzle and games pages that were inspired by Carlson. Gardner wrote, "I took up, so to speak, where Carlson left off. From , until the magazine's end, in , George Carlson had work in virtually every issue. He provided illustrations signed and unsigned , spot drawings, and numerous decorative layouts. By Gardner's estimate, Carlson also created at least fifty covers for the magazine.

Carlson's JMB covers are, in themselves, outstanding works of graphic design, with patterns, cartoons, and colors combined into delightful visual treats. It appears that Carlson enjoyed the support and freedom to explore his own ideas about design and creating visual art for children. Gardner writes, "The key to this magazine's success was the unfeigned delight taken by its publisher and editor, and by his associate George Carlson. To this end, Carlson also created nearly all of the magazine's many puzzles, activities, and riddles. Gardner notes:.

There were pictures that turned into something else when you inverted the page. There were optical illusions, shaped poems, cut-outs that cast startling shadow pictures on the wall, stories with blanks in which children put their own adjective [anticipating Mad-Libs - P. Gardner goes on for another two paragraphs, describing Carlson's numerous novelties and innovations. Of all these, Carlson's regular feature, Peter Puzzlemaker, stands out.

In almost every issue of John Martin's Book , the short, squat pragmatic Pilgrim would offer a simple but amusing puzzle. Many of these were collected into a beautiful book, published in by Platt and Munk apparently beginning a long association between Carlson and the publisher that would result in a small library of original children's books. Martin Gardner who oversaw the publication of two collection of Carlson's Peter Puzzlemaker pages in the early s praised the collection, saying "No better collection of puzzles for young children was ever published.

It also plays with the formal aspects of children's book, encouraging young readers to cut out and paste a "lock" in the book onto the answers section in the back, so they wouldn't be tempted to cheat. There is an impressive array of different types of puzzles and activities -- rarely is one form repeated in the book's pages. More than one of the Peter Puzzlemaker pages pays tribute to a classic work of children's literature, such as the puzzle featuring the hookah-smoking caterpillar from Lewis Carroll's Alice In Wonderland seen in the illustration below.

It would be valuable to know the extent to which these two men influenced each other in their work and personal lives. Certainly, some aspects of Shepard's freewheeling, fanciful approach his life and work seem to have made a mark on Carlson's way of making marks. Martin Gardner writes of Shepard, "When he was with children he liked to ask them to make squiggly lines on paper while he jiggled their elbow, then he would add more lines to create what he called a 'quiz-wiz' animal.