Suppose, for example, that Member States cannot agree on a measure related to energy policy establishing a Community independent agency, with both regulatory and control powers. Then a majority of them agree to create a reinforced cooperation between them with exactly the same content as the original Community measure. In more general terms: what is the justification for placing variable geometries as the second least integrationist scenario?
The answer to this question is of course contingent upon the definition we adopt of integration. By this word, or phenomenon, I understand the situation in which all Member States, with no exception, adopt measures using the Community institutional setting. This definition contains two different aspects.
In the first place, there is a merely numerical question. In this sense, only the presence of all Member States would indicate integration. In the second place, there is an institutional aspect. It is not only that all Member States have to be present; it is also that all of them have to have used the ordinary decision-making procedures and institutions established in the Treaties.
In the absence of any of those elements, Member States would be placing themselves outside the Community method, and therefore there would be a lesser degree of integration. As I have said before, the current Community situation is still characterised by the fact that the Community method is the rule and variable geometries the exception. This is, again, independent of the concrete degree of deepening that specific cases of variable geometries may adopt. For example, in the current scenario, one major instance of variable geometry is the EMU.
Only 13 Member States belong to the Euro. We could still argue that the current scenario would be a more integrationist one, since, independently of the degree of deepening of each of the policies one considers, the Community method is more frequent than variable geometries on the whole.
Its main restriction is that it does not capture the vertical dimension of the phenomenon of integration, but only the horizontal one. Despite this constraint, it is still useful, due to its greater simplicity. Identifying integration also with deepening would involve us in a very difficult discussion about the ways of measuring the different degrees of integration. In the first place, the EU, at present, can be depicted as a very complex mix of supranational and intergovernmental features, coupled with a certain dose of variable geometries, as said in the previous section.
Legally speaking, the supranational features are mainly composed of the EC Treaty, which contains, as is known, all the provisions relative to the European Community. From an institutional perspective, the supranational features are formed by the existence of three main institutions, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and an important number of administrative agencies.
Further, from the perspective of the decision-making rules, many Community legal acts are adopted through majority voting. This is a key supranational feature, which has been the battleground of profound and sometimes tragic political and also academic disputes. Finally, as far as policies are concerned, market policies constitute the core of the policies managed through supranational means. I refer, for example, to the EU environmental policy, its social policy and its consumer policy. Important as they are, this does not rule out my previous assertion: market policies continue to be the backbone of Community supranational integration.
This point has already been developed in the previous section, and it is not necessary to add more here to what has already been said. In the second place, when I characterise this scenario as a freezing of the current EU situation what I am essentially saying is that the EU is reformed in the next 10 years. From a substantive perspective, the bottom line that would characterise this scenario would be that the current equilibrium between supranational and intergovernmental features plus variable geometries would be kept from here to This said, it must be clarified that I do not include in this picture a total and absolute EU paralysis, as if the EU had become quadriplegic.
We could have more policies managed through variable geometries, or even new policies developed through the ordinary Community method. It is important to mention at this point the current process of Treaty reform that the EU is now undertaking. Two considerations can be made regarding this new reform. And secondly, even if the Reform Treaty goes ahead, it is not very risky to forecast that the ratification process will take a long time. The reform or reforms of the EU Treaties would have two main traits.
This would happen through two ways: either because parts of the intergovernmental pillars would be communitarised, or because new competences would be attributed to the EU. A mix of both would also be conceivable under this scenario. The enlargement of the supranational features of the EU would take place in a very incremental way.
El objetivo del presente consiste en contribuir al debate sobre el futuro de Europa promovido por esta iniciativa del Consejo. Este tipo de cuestiones son las que pretende dilucidar el presente documento. Hacer ejercicios de este tipo nos resulta ahora familiar en la UE. A efectos de abordar el asunto del futuro de la UE, el presente documento se divide en dos partes.
El segundo ejercicio consiste principalmente en comentar las variables que inciden sobre la probabilidad de que se verifiquen tales escenarios. Esto no significa que dichos Tratados sean inmortales. De hecho, en ocasiones, las partes que los suscriben ponen fin a los mismos.
No obstante, puede que esta concurrencia de voluntades no tenga lugar. En segundo lugar, encontramos casos de cooperaciones reforzadas. En segundo lugar, encierra un aspecto institucional. Con respecto a esta reforma, pueden plantearse dos observaciones. The concept itself is so multi-faceted and complex that intuitive approaches typically turn out to be incomplete, if not simply wrong-headed.
A counterintuitive reading on energy issues is more often than not the most accurate, or at least the most revealing.
But Hitler delayed, convinced that the priority should be the oil fields of the Caucasus and Baku — for him, the life-blood of the war and the future of the Reich. By the time he changed his mind, however, valuable time had been lost, and his forces were stopped just outside of Moscow by fresh Soviet troops and the onset of winter. But rather than persisting with another attempt to chop off the Soviet head, in the Spring he headed south instead, throwing all available manpower and resources into a new operation to seize Baku.
This monumental effort bogged down in the Caucasus mountains and never succeeded in anything but leaving the Sixth Army stranded just to the north at Stalingrad.
Justo imposible: Breve conferencia acerca de lo que es justo o injusto (Spanish Edition)
Convinced by his intuitive reckoning that the top priority had to be control over the oil fields of Baku, Hitler undermined the strategic viability of much of his forces on the Eastern Front. He paid dearly at Stalingrad for his intuition — which ultimately distorted his strategic view of German prospects in Russia - that he had to control the oil. The rest, of course, is history. Intuition also tells us that it was Persian Gulf members of OPEC who wanted much higher prices in , to the detriment of the world economy. However, as Sheikh Zaki Yamani has told the world for years, it might well have been Henry Kissinger who convinced the Saudis and the Iranians to increase their prices, by making the counterintuitive case that higher oil prices would not necessarily be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and therefore not something that the US government would refuse to tolerate.
Even in the face of the inevitable dismay of consumers and the certain damage to the advanced economies that higher prices would provoke, Kissinger would have been hoping that a dramatic price spike would stimulate non-OPEC production a development that actually occurred. A boom in oil production in the North Sea, Mexico, Alaska and elsewhere, in turn, might ultimately undermine the pricing power of the cartel something which also occurred , if not the cartel itself. Kissinger may have lost some of his shadowy covert battles over the years, but this — potentially one of the most daring diplomatic moves in modern history - would not have been one of them.
The history of energy security, both in real world politics and in think tank discussions, is littered with a trail of such intuitive fallacies and failures. Faces and Facets of Energy Security The standard, and overused, definition claims that energy security is a state of affairs that provides for secure — or reasonably guaranteed — flows of energy to consumers at reasonable prices. Unfortunately, this definition is so vague and incomplete as to be basically useless in any serious discussion of energy economics or geopolitics. Perhaps the only positive thing that could be said of this definition is that while it is almost always mentioned at the beginning of such debates, it is almost always quickly abandoned, at right about this point in the discussion.
Dictionary of spoken Spanish
The energy terrain must be profoundly dissected and pondered if anything useful is to come of a discussion of energy security. For consumers this issue with only few exceptions basically boils down to price and the perception that price will not experience increases which are economically painful. For producers, the issue boils down to income, and the perceived need for revenues to be maintained at sufficient levels to pursue serious, long-term economic development or, in a less than optimum scenario, for elites to capture their rents.
For better or for worse, these two perspectives are linked. Excessively low prices stimulate consumption and growth in consumer economies, but they undermine the potential for revenue-driven economic development in producer economies. Furthermore, low prices also limit the incentive for investment in future output in producer countries, setting the stage for much higher prices in the future — unless low prices become the door through which international private oil companies IOCs gain cheap access to the vast reserves of producer countries.
However, such a development has often created a perception on the part of producer countries that their economic and political sovereignty is being compromised, provoking various manifestations of energy nationalism which often augur higher prices in the future. Higher prices, on the other hand, tend to have harmful effects both on perceptions and real economic activity in consumer countries, boding dangerously for producer country revenues if demand collapses as a result.
Furthermore, high prices can stimulate investment in future output, with moderating effects on prices in the middle run, but they often provide the incentive for the resurgence of energy nationalism which, more often than not, limits the rate of investment in new output over the long run. This equation is complicated even more by the fact that we cannot so readily assume that all consumer countries will always be price doves, or that all producer countries will always be price hawks.
Europe, meanwhile, has learned to live with high oil prices its consumers typically pay two to three times what Americans pay for gasoline and diesel — or more -- and its consumption growth has flattened out as a result. In fact, Europe is much more preoccupied with the reliability of Russian gas flows, as opposed to prices for oil or gas. Iran was first a price dove under the Shah, then a price hawk under the Ayatollahs, and now an increasingly irrelevant voice in the OPEC debate given its sanctions-imposed capacity limitations and its need to import gasoline.
Algeria and Libya have waxed and waned over the years on the price issue. Only Venezuela has been a consistent price hawk and, until recently, with severe short-term capacity constraints of its own to deal with, a consistent quota cheater. Even Russia cannot be accused of price gouging: its recent, brief gas cut-offs to neighbours have been part of a negotiation context in which Russia has hoped to eliminate at least some of the large subsidies which it still provides on gas exports to its former brother Republics from the defunct Soviet Union.
A large part of the energy security debate revolves around fossil fuels. Therefore, energy security, what ever it might really mean, is inextricably bound up with the production and consumption of fossil fuels, particularly oil and gas, which are the main internationally traded energy sources and which make up over half of the world energy mix coal tends to be consumed in the country of production. One could argue that electricity issues are even more relevant than a merely hydrocarbon-centred discussion of the issue, given that electricity is much more important to the foundation of the economy; that is to say, in homes and in government and business office buildings around the world.
While transportation to work and movement of merchandise are important, if the power goes off, it does not really matter whether we are able to leave the house or get to work. Furthermore, electricity is certainly the most important energy security concern of the 1. However, there is at least one other relevant angle in the energy security story — the insecurity that may well come if the world fails to displace fossil fuels from their dominant role in the energy economy.
Energy Security and the Energy Supply Chain Any complete discussion of energy security must address all of these angles. To facilitate such an analysis, it would be useful to address the energy security terrain through the prism of the energy supply chain, including the upstream, midstream and downstream. In the upstream of both oil and gas production — at the geographic source of reserves and production - there are a number of concerns. The well-known radical point of view sees the peak approaching fast, with record high prices one of the tell-tale signs.
This point of view claims that peak theories factor in only conventional oil, ignore the economic viability of unconventional or more difficult and expensive oil in offshore regions or the Arctic zones as prices rise, and simply deny the capacity of technology to increase recovery rates of oil fields, which traditionally have been only 30 percent of oil in place. Nevertheless, the debate over peak oil, as it is typically framed, is probably irrelevant, however counterintuitive such a conclusion might sound.
It is not just that some oil will inevitably be left in the ground, whatever happens, because it will never likely be economically or technically feasible to extract. More to the point: demand for oil itself is likely to peak long before any hard geological limitations impose a technical peak on production. To date, this geographic arc is one of the black holes of liberal market democracy and a major stumbling block for globalization. While Canada may be a model of stability and democracy, development of its tar sands would emit five times more carbon dioxide that conventional oils pumped from the traditional zones of the Middle East.
Venezuela, on the other hand, is a metaphorical powder keg, at least for the moment. The concentration of hydrocarbon reserves in problematic zones beyond the OECD presents a number of challenges to what is traditionally understood as energy security. As perceptions of globalization have soured in many parts of the non-Asian, non-OECD world, and as prices have skyrocketed in recent years, energy nationalism is on the rise again for the first time since the s and has taken root in new areas. While the epicentre of energy nationalism was once the Arab and Islamic world where it remains rooted , the most dramatic new examples of energy nationalism today are Russia and Venezuela, and both have spawned other examples among neighbours under their influence Kazakhstan, Bolivia and Ecuador.
The most significant challenge that such phenomena pose for the energy security of major consuming economies — and indeed for the collective energy security of the world — is the potentially damaging impact that the energy policies of such producer countries could have on the rate of future investment in exploration, extraction and maintenance of oil and gas production. Recent policy changes in Russia and Venezuela, for example, have significantly raised the fiscal burden on the IOCs operating in their energy sectors, diminishing their incentive to continue investing in new production.
Furthermore, while there are some exceptions like Saudi Aramco and Petrobras , the general rule is that producer states and their NOCs are less than efficient when it comes to channelling revenues in ways which optimize future investment and output levels. Such doubts are particularly acute concerning Russia and Venezuela, whose governments and NOCs appear to have a number of competing interests and priorities which do not coincide with the interests of consumers to see future output maximized.
As a result, a scenario is taking shape on the horizon in which hydrocarbons supplies in the middle run by will be insufficient to meet world demand, with the arbitrating influence ultimately being significantly higher prices. Exacerbating such a scenario would be a continuation of the recent trend of rising costs for inputs of all types raw materials, equipment and human capital all along the hydrocarbon supply chain. Recent Russian gas and oil cut-offs to the Ukraine and Belarus, along with Venezuela threats to halt the export of petroleum to the US, have rekindled the worst kind of fears that Europe and the US might experience an energy crisis more catastrophic than the Arab Oil Embargo and the first oil shock.
Citizens across the West are convinced that these energy producers have the will and the means to turn off their energy taps, generating a reactionary and protectionist attitude towards these countries and their business firms. Intuitively, such fears would seem reasonable, but they are probably ill-founded. First, the oil market is global. Oil export disruptions will either push up price for all consumers globally, or their diversion into other parts of the global market will provoke a readjustment of flows that will mute any effect on global oil prices.
Gas cut-offs represent a greater threat to importing countries highly dependent on pipelined gas from a single hostile source, but even in such cases Russian gas to Eastern and Northern Europe, Algerian gas to Southern Europe the risks are overblown. On the one hand, neither Russia nor Algeria is inclined to be as hostile to Europe as many believe.
On the other hand, such governments are too highly dependent on their revenues from gas exports to Europe to contemplate killing off the goose that lays their golden eggs. Global interdependence has gone too far to allow for such actions to yield anything more than pyrrhic victories. The consequences would be too dire to contemplate. There are, nevertheless, a number of factors — other than producer state use of the energy weapon — which do provoke supply disruptions. Some of them - like weather events hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and local instabilities social unrest in the Niger Delta - are found in the upstream.
Many others, however, occur in the midstream, at the level of oil and gas transportation. Oil and gas pipelines often lose flow or are shut down as a result of accident or sabotage often one masquerades as the other. Accidents, sabotage, piracy, terrorist or military action are all capable of stopping or slowing the flow of petroleum through certain chokepoints, at least temporarily, unleashing potentially devastating effects on world prices.
The most likely possibility for such action in the minds of many right now is the potential for Iran to affect the flow of oil through the Straits of Hormuz, possibly as a retaliatory action for a military strike on its territory. The downstream scenario is dominated, on the hydrocarbon side, by refineries, petroleum product distributions systems, internal gas pipeline networks, and strategic reserves. On the electricity side of the fence, energy security means sufficient, reliable and safe generation, transmission and distribution, along with adequate international electricity and gas connections, particularly in relatively isolated countries like the UK or Spain.
Although as a rule there are relatively few breaches of energy security in the downstream, the nature of the regulatory regime is of extreme importance in order to avoid an undermining of sufficient investment or a weakening of maintenance which can, in given moments, produce blackouts like those in California and New York in recent years, or even like that experienced in Barcelona last year.
The extreme importance of downstream security is highlighted by the fact that such disruptions hit consumers most directly and most suddenly, typically in the form of supply cuts only ameliorated with great difficulty and distress, as opposed to the more gradual price increases produced by the kinds of disruptions mentioned above that can occur in the upstream and the midstream.
Rather the key is to be inserted into the globally interdependent energy reality in the most diversified and, therefore, least vulnerable fashion. Diversity across the plane of the energy field is a more appropriate — and realistic — goal than energy independence. This means, where possible, diversity not only in energy types and geographic sources, but also of modes and routes of transportation. Better to have oil and gas from as many different geographic and political sources as possible, as well as a broad range of types of energy, ranging from fossil fuels to bio-fuels, from renewable energies to nuclear power, from combustion engines to electric hybrid motors and fuel cells.
It also means diversity in the matrix of energy transportation from the upstream to the downstream. For example, rather than depending just on transit countries, like Ukraine, to pipeline Russian gas into Europe, or depending only on Russian pipelines which bypass the transit states and come directly into Germany, like the projected North Stream pipeline, Europe should encourage a balance between dependence on Russian gas that must pass through transit countries and dependence on Russian gas piped directly to the EU.
This would produce a balancing effect on lobby pressures which either Russia or Ukraine might bring to bear on the EU. It might also encourage Algeria to become, in addition to its key role as gas producer and exporter, a transit country for Nigerian gas passing through a future Trans-Saharan pipeline, on its eventual path to Europe via future trans-Mediterranean pipelines. The point is that diversity of supply increases energy flexibility and reduces vulnerability to any form of supply disruption, while diversity of transport modes and routes mitigates the political capacity — and the political will — to be tempted into using supply cuts as a political weapon.
Intuitive realism and independence or counterintuitive collaboration and integration Perhaps the biggest potential trap for intuitive thinking with respect to energy security comes from consumer governments insisting that energy is a strategic — as opposed to merely economic — good, even as they accuse producer states of letting politics poison their energy policies. Regulatory regimes and practices and tolerance of breaches which might be perceived by some governments as maximizing their own national energy security often have the effect of undermining optimum energy security across the broader integrated economic space.
Churchill said it in so many words; Roosevelt acted on these words in his dealings with King Saud. The Americans have been acting on such instincts ever since, and many Europeans fear that they lack the resources and tools to deal with what they feel is an obvious strategic challenge now. The Chinese have been behaving in a similar fashion through the expansion of their NOCs in recent years, although they seem to be wisening up through their interactions with the International Energy Agency to the trap they may have been setting for themselves.
It may be obvious to some that energy cannot be left to the market alone, but it should be obvious to everyone that nothing should be left to the market alone. Effective, efficient and playing-field levelling regulatory regimes are necessary so that markets do not fail, so that markets produce sufficient levels of investment for future supply, moderate unnecessary demand, allow prices to reach the optimum and, all other things being equal, lowest equilibrium, and generate at least minimal levels of research and development into new technologies, new sources and modes of goods, services and energy.
Most national economies in the OECD world have long since reached this conclusion, even if they frequently forget or ignore it. When dealing with international trade, of any sort, the key is to knit together national economies, based on the market but girded by sufficient regulatory frameworks, into a single global market founded upon an international regulatory regime rooted in either shared sovereignty or robust international collaboration.
While many other non-OECD economies have not yet firmly accepted this axiom, or continue to favour state regulation over market mechanisms, the priority should be placed upon international collaboration to extend the reach of market mechanisms and behaviour, and to forge an international regulatory system — a global governance — to deal with energy production, trade and consumption in a way in which the broadest number of national actors have their interests intertwined as much as possible. While many may intuitively feel that energy is a special case, and that energy security is an issue of national security something we could also say of microchips, steel, food and most everything else , the inescapable reality, however counterintuitive it may taste as we swallow it, is that energy security can only be collective.
To act otherwise is to set the stage for a different and more interesting, perhaps, but probably more dangerous repetition of the first half of the 20th century. El resto, por supuesto, es historia. Tales dudas resultan especialmente serias en lo que respecta a Rusia y Venezuela, cuyos Gobiernos y NOCs parecen tener ciertos conflictos de intereses y prioridades que no coinciden con los intereses de los consumidores de ver optimizado el rendimiento futuro. Por un lado, ni Rusia ni Argelia pretenden mostrarse hostiles hacia Europa, tal y como opinan muchos. Los oleoductos y los gasoductos pierden flujo o se cierran como consecuencia de accidentes o sabotajes a menudo se hace pasar el uno por el otro.
A gentle and relaxed sense of time. A yearning for a life more closely tied to the rhythms of nature. Fierce light and deep shadows that alter the intensity of colours, reviving beige, putty, earth grey, transforming blue into lava black, with the dark green of palms, stylised and enlarged to create abstract patterns and geometric motifs. In essence, a reflection of a languid southern Italian summer, the line regains a new softness, a swirl of pleats, knots and dashes imparting a fluorescent finish. Trousers are tied at the knee, with the same apparent nonchalance displayed by the flat leather sandals.
Skirts verge on sarongs, sculpted in form by an array of pleats. Black shawls, sometimes ironic, sometimes dramatic, soften the silhouette. The petite jackets, not quite boleros or spencers, revealing the lightly flared blouses. Evening dresses remain long, featuring a variety of necklines with intricate embroidery accentuating the quality of the workmanship and detailing.
Las faldas casi parecen sarongs, esculpidas por miles de plisados. Las chaquetas petites, que no llegan a ser ni toreras ni chaquetas Spencer, dejan al descubierto las blusas ligeramente acampanadas. Los fulares de malla al estilo marinero rinden homenaje a Atlantis, la misteriosa ciudad desaparecida de Armani, en la que los broches en forma de pez se aferran a los bolsos-cesta y a las chaquetas.
We could continue to pontificate about whether or not a genuine crisis exists. Unfortunately, however, the time for reflection is over, and the moment has come for the constitutional question to be tackled head on. In fact, the positions taken by the different Member States still differ widely, and the possibility of the negotiations on the new Treaty being based on the Treaty of Nice rather than the CT is a distinct possibility.
However, the Declaration does establish when —the chosen solution must be ready before the European Parliament elections in June —. This commitment will clearly have an impact on the calendar of events and probably also on how ambitious the content of the new Treaty will be. Prospects for the New Treaty: Brief Intergovernmental Conference with a Clear Mandate and Ratification Before June If, as would seem more than reasonable, the objective is to resolve the issue by the time European citizens go to the polls to elect new members of the European Parliament, the calendar of events is quite clear.
The next European Council of 21 and 22 June will have to produce a clear and precise mandate to make it possible to convene a new Intergovernmental Conference. This will undoubtedly mean tough negotiations in a difficult European Council under the direction of a Presidency that, through the system of sherpa meetings bilateral meetings between the Presidency and Member State representatives , has reserved to itself a clear leading role. In any event, this European Council will have to reach a final decision which leaves the way clear for the Intergovernmental Conference to begin its work by the end of September or the beginning of October at the latest.
By no means will this be easy to achieve, since the different positions of the Member States still range from those who want a new treaty that is as close as possible to the current CT to those who want negotiations to be based on the Treaty of Nice and whose objective is to kill off the TC. In addition, we imagine that whatever final content is chosen, the seal of approval of the European Parliament will also be desired. Given this, there is only time for an extraordinarily brief Intergovernmental Conference.
In fact, however difficult it may seem, the IGC must have completed its work by December , so that the European Council which is closed by the Portuguese Presidency can definitively approve the resulting text. At the very latest, this means that by the end of February the new Treaty must be ready for signing to allow sufficient time for ratification by all Member States before June Past experience shows that it would be extremely difficult to complete the entire ratification process in less than 16 to 18 months, which means that if there truly exists the will to meet the deadline contained in the Berlin Declaration, this is the only possible timetable, particularly since some Member States would subject the new Treaty to a referendum.
As a result, then, the really thorny issue will be establishing the content of the IGC mandate and —equally importantly— the starting point for the negotiations within the IGC whether based on the CT or existing Treaties. Thereafter, the CT would be ratified in the remaining Member States who had yet to do so. This is without doubt the most desirable way out of the current constitutional impasse. But, in our opinion, it is as desirable as it is impossible to achieve. In fact, the Dutch government has already ruled out this possibility. Nor can those Member States which have yet to ratify be expected to accept the Treaty at this stage without any problems.
It is true that the position of a majority of two thirds of the Member States which have fulfilled the commitment to ratify the CT in time and form cannot be ignored when planning the future of the European Constitution. Yet however we attempt to approach the problem and regardless of the somewhat forced arguments that are put forward, it is quite plain that, as things stand, in order for the CT to enter into force —or for any amendment of the current founding treaties Article 48 TEU to take place— ratification is required by all the High Contracting Parties Article IV The option of maintaining the CT in its current form must, therefore, be ruled out from the beginning.
At the very least, some minor changes would be necessary. There is no alternative, then, but to accept that this option has no chance of succeeding. In other words, to use the Treaty of Nice as the starting point. Without doubt, this option has its supporters among the ranks of the most euro-sceptic Member States. Nevertheless, this option, which is at one end of the spectrum of possibilities, is in our opinion wholly unsatisfactory. In the first place, it does away at a stroke with almost 10 years of work which —it should not be forgotten— was reflected in the final agreement of the last IGC signed by all the Member States in Rome, including those who, while totally overlooking the time-honoured principle of pacta sunt servanda, now reject the political agreement that was signed.
Secondly, it does away with the work of the Convention which, despite the holes that some are now happy to pick in it, introduced an additional element of transparency, participation and legitimacy that the traditional intergovernmental conferences lacked. Thirdly, and most importantly from a political point of view, it is totally unacceptable for the two thirds of the Member States that, having fulfilled the commitments given by all in the last IGC, have already ratified the text, and in some cases for example Spain through a referendum.
In short, this option should not be allowed as the political compromise between not touching the CT and forgetting about it completely. If the 18 Member States which have already ratified accept that the CT is to be amended in order to be able to reach a final agreement that is acceptable to everyone, those which have yet to ratify should also accept that the negotiations in the future IGC be based on the text that all Member States accepted in Rome following the travaux preparatoires of the Convention. Anything else would not be about finding a compromise in the negotiations but rather caving in to the demands of the Member States that are most critical of the CT.
That said, the events of recent weeks do anything but suggest that this option will be finally ruled out. Instead, we fear that it may ultimately be the option which prevails. This would involve making some slight changes to the text, namely those amendments that are needed to make the resulting treaty acceptable both to those who have already ratified it in its original form and also to those who have encountered —or looked for— internal problems in the ratification process. Clearly, the main difficulty is to delimit the scope of these amendments.
The Member States which have already ratified would presumably aim for the fewest possible amendments, while those where ratification is pending would prefer the changes to much more substantial. In this regard, it should not be forgotten that the final text of the CT was the fruit of a difficult compromise which reflected a complicated political balancing act. Thus, there were Member States which finally —and reluctantly— accepted reforms in exchange for other new features being inserted into the Treaty as a sort of compensation for their sacrifice.
As a result, the temptation to engage in cherry picking runs the serious risk of reopening the debate on key institutional questions. This would lead, at the very least, to long negotiations that would make it impossible to comply with the timetable required for the resulting text to come into force before June It would effectively amount to going back to the state of negotiations left open in Nice. This would basically mean rescuing the irreducible elements of the CT. Ultimately, it is an option that could satisfy even those who favour a return to Nice, since the resulting text would probably differ quite markedly from that of the CT while it would still effectively be a new treaty amending the founding treaties currently in force which would contain the essence of the CT.
In addition, from the moment that it became a new treaty, there would not be any real difference between using the Treaty of Nice as the basis for negotiation while incorporating the most important elements of the CT into the new Treaty, and using the CT as the basis for negotiation while pruning it of those elements that were not essential. At least not if we take into account the difficult situation which we are currently in. This is particularly so since, in our view, it would be hard for the new treaty to avoid the need for ratification by all Member States, including the 18 which have already ratified the CT.
Es un usuario nuevo creo que hay que explicarle lo de relevancia en la Wiki. Te debo una. Lo invito cordialmente a solucionar el problema juntos , Gracias. Fidel [ Moquegua ] 29 nov UTC. Martin P. Mil disculpas, no me di cuenta. Cito el art 27 de la ley Esa es mi duda y pido la ayuda para que me asesoren. Ok, negro. Gracias por despejarme la duda.
Netito 22 dic UTC. Pues mira, el tema es complicadillo. Netito 24 dic UTC. Mi bloqueo ha sido confirmado por otro bibliotecario y, en general, aceptado como pertinente por el resto de bibliotecarios. No obstante, puedes acudir al TAB para pedir un desbloqueo. Antes que nada, muy felices fiestas para vos! Es bastante cortito y ese es un problema. Suerte con el Gol del Terremoto! Ey, igualmente, que sea mejor que Gracias Negro. Espero poder hacer mi aporte.
Apoyo a manera total tu proyecto. Repito, no digo que sea intencional, pero ese es el resultado. Hola, veo que es posible que no te conectes en un tiempo, pero no corre prisa. Algo nuevo he aprendido, lo del uso de las comillas en nuestro idioma. Buenas negro. En el de gimnasia, solo agregue la imagen de La 22 y una foto del primer equipo de basquet de la saque de la pagina oficial, ya hicieron la pagina de historia de basquet :D.
Perfecto, retiro las plantillas, gracias por solucionar los problemas. IP bloqueada y revertidos sus cambios. Gracias por el aviso. Lo acabo de inventar yo. Un saludo y gracias. Hola negro, estuve viendo el articulo de La Plata y parece dentro de todo completo, aunque le faltan referencias y algo mas de datos. Hola de nuevo. Un saludo cordial Antur mensajes 13 ene UTC. Bullrich y Copa Campeonato Intermedia. Muchas gracias. Los "antis" son muy recurrentes en nuestra historia, lamentablemente. No era neutral.
Saludos atentos. Bashebore 22 ene UTC. Netito 31 ene UTC. Para este cometido dispones de un mes de tiempo o en su defecto puede ser borrado. Tu actitud es incorrecta. Un saludo cordial. En Fin, Los Peronistas Argentinos y los Herreristas Uruguayos siempre hemos estado unidos por un lazo fraterno de amistad. Espero ponerme a trabajar en algunos arts del Peronismo, en especial los del 1er Plan Quinquenal y los del 2do Plan Quinquenal que tanto me interesan. Larga Vida al Herrerismo y al Peronismo!!
Para los atajos a los wikiproyectos se usa PR, no WP. Netito 5 feb UTC. Fotos de las instalaciones no tengo por lo menos no tengo fotos propias por el momento, si tengo bajadas de distintos sitios pero tienen copyright. Hola, Negro. Arme la categoria Intendentes de La Plata, estaria bueno hacer un anexo lista de los intendentes, pero no tengo la info necesaria, asi que si la tenes o la encontras bienvenido sea :D Bue eso es todo, pasate y deja tus opiniones en la pagina de discusion.
Tu ayuda es fundamental, porque no tengo nada de libros que hablen sobre La Plata y encima en internet todas las paginas dicen lo mismo :S. Netito 10 feb UTC. Que ya estamos en febrero, y el sol del 25 viene asomando Un saludo, Morza sono qui 11 feb UTC. Buenas, paso rapido Proponelo nomas para AB, que de ultima vamos arreglando lo que nos dicen que hace falta. Y las referencias? Felicitaciones y un abrazo.
Me ofrezco para ser moderador si es necesario, pero espero que no llegue a ese punto. Gracias por mantener el buen trato en Wiki! Buenas, sisi yo te ayudo. En un par de horas entro de nuevo y empiezo a arreglar algunos de esos problemas que quedaron sin resolver. No te preocupes, segui con el otro. Hay algo mas de informacion en gimnasiacampeon.
Me imagino que eres argentino, pero Te recuerdo que el plazo de espera para lo del bombardeo de Plaza de Mayo termina hoy. Has hecho un buen trabajo. Me parece perfecto que dialoguemos. Hasta pronto. Hoy me ha sido imposible, he llegado cansado a casa y con dolor de cabeza y me he ido a ver el Villarreal CF - Panathinaikos. Gracias desde ahora. De todos modos no se si este sea el caso del himno de GELP y no estoy totalmente seguro que exista en consenso al respecto. Pablo mezuak 1 mar UTC. Me interesa mucho tu respuesta.
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Un abrazao. Porque lo que se enlazan son urls normales, no libros. No, no soy de La Plata. Hola Negro, como va? Era solo eso, saludos! Bashebore 6 mar UTC. Lo que sirva Aceptado, se ha retirado la plantilla. Disculpa por el retraso de h. Hola Jose. Por ejemplo: Varias fuentes dicen que a la avenida 7 lo nombraron Ingeniero Luis Monteverde.
Netito 10 mar UTC. Gracias por darte cuenta. Ya estoy buscando alternativas para eso. No nos dejan en paz con las referencias en la wiki en ingles, son de molestos jeje. Fijate si encontras algo y cambialo. Hola negro. Bueno, le mostre lo que dijiste y le explique sobre los diarios platenses.
Ademas pidio un par de referencias que no andaban, que ya las cambie. Ya fue. Una cosa mas que me digan del articulo y los cago a puteadas xD. Me esta calentando mal el tema. Intentemos mejorar los articulos en los otros idiomas y ver si podemos hacer que los aprueben ahi. El de portugues tiene un solo voto encontra. El frances tengo pensado agregarle todo lo de historia, por guachines que me borraron el articulo de la historia. Y habria que intentar tmb mejorar el italiano. No se que otro idioma se pueda traducir facilmente.
Ya lo hice en la inglesa y francesa. El truco fue cambiar sports club, por football club, y hacer otro para los demas deportes. Ya hice la mayoria de los cambios que pidieron, asi que no te preocupes. Supongo que ya no quedan muchas cosas para que no sea articulo bueno. Vi que el articulo quedo medio estancado. Encontre la plantilla cada dia aprendo a buscar de otra forma en la wiki xD y la complete. Netito 19 mar UTC. Error de Huggle. Bueno, vi que pasaste y estuviste corrigiendo un par de cosas.
La verdad no se que pasara con el articulo, pero ya me canse. Tengo que estudiar y no estar pendiente del articulo. Deje un mensaje para que dejara comentario de las cosas a cambiar o con su ultima revision aprobada o rechazada. Y en el articulo de historia de gimnasia expandi un poco mas. Bue por fin se digno a decir uqe para el no era apto el articulo.
La verdad que me sacaba la cabeza el chabon, nos hizo hacer todos los arreglos para nada. Yo lo cree como parte del intento de mejorar el contenido sobre la ciudad de La Plata. Pasate y comenta que te parece. Ok, no sabia que existia una seccion llamada wikinoticias, soy nuevo. Hola amigo, te felicito ya q has logrado llegar a las 5 mil ediciones el dia 24 de marzo.
A tus ordenes y las de Wikipedia, un placer ayudarte. Edmenb Mensajes 1 abr UTC. Es lo mismo, y se usan ambos. Te pido por favor, tengas a bien el volver a agregarlo.
Yo la empece, y veo un dignisimo continuador. Te felicito por tus articulos creados, Dante Panzeri debia estar en la wikipedia. Buenas negro, como va? Bueno, todavia no rendi el examen, pero para desenchufarme un poco y seguir colaborando agregue y ordene un poquito mas el articulo de la historia del lobo. Creo que es un dato interesante. No sebes si se puede llevar mate para tomar?? Un saludo, -- Vaya, gracias por la bienvenida. Lamento mucho que piense que por el echo de que yo soy de San Lorenzo no sea imparcial.
Te pregunto a vos porque soy nuevo y no se si sos biblotecario. La problemo estas ke mi ne parolas la hispanan kiel patrina lingvo. Mi estas germana. La teksto en la hispana pri la futbalklubo estas ege granda kaj mi ne estas specialisto pri futbalo. Saludos y buena suerte en tus ediciones. Josegacel29 Quejas y reclamos 18 may UTC.
Perdona, pero debe de haber un error. Hola, Jorge Baltazar Cordero es un jugador peruano, no boliviano. Gracias, espero no haber neutralizado demasiado. Bashebore 16 jun UTC. Entonces el nominador debe ponerse contento, dudaba entre la espera o el desaprobado, mira si lo evaluabas vos!!! NegritoJose Lamento no hayas entendido el motivo del enlace. Al parecer no visitas sitios de serigrafia a menudo. Uno de los enlaces que conservas como referencia es a un sitio reciente, y el famoso manual de Sindicato de la Imagen casi no tiene contenido, en el mismo, el grupo editor reconoce no ser experto.
De todos modos mi aporte se mantiene vivo, aunque no cuente con un enlace desde Wikipedia. Ante todo pido disculpas si me estuve excediendo un poco con la cantidad de contribuciones consideradas "no neutrales". Pido disculpas nuevamente si te parece que escribo desde un punto de vista no neutral. Que milonguita esa mi cumpa querido.
Hola Negro Jose. Estuve viendo la pagina de la burger king y me parecio publicitaria. No tiene un contenido wikipedico. Faltan muchisimos datos y viola los reglamentos de wikipedia. Estoy buscando arhgumentos y no lo encuentro. Solo me encuentro con quejas de otros usuarios diciendo que esta haciendo vandalismo en la wikipedia. Si podes fijate y hacelo entrar en la comunidad para ver que hacen con la usuaria andrea. No hay Edicion arbitraria de los articulos mios. Pero en tros casos no los habia referenciados asi que pido mil disculpas.
Errores de principiantes. Si vuelve a repetirlo, favor avisar. Muchas gracias por tu ayuda. Muchas gracias, espero tengas una buena vida, disculpas por el mensaje tan largo. Saludos LF. Voy a tratar de comunicarme con los realizadores de wikipedia para alertar sobre estas maniobras. No me dice nada de los terroristas que han ubicado A ellos no los sacan.
No creo que el inventor de wikipedia haya imaginado que su invento fuera hecho para excluir gente decente y que queden los delincuentes. Bonasso, Verbitsky, Walsh, nunca han negado ni se han arrepentido de lo que hicieron. Quien conoce a Grondona sabe perfectamente que puede haber sido una frase en chiste, como las que muchas veces pronuncia en sus programas. Creo que nadie puede dudar de la diferencia existente entre Bosch educador, escritor y Walsh, Bonasso, Verbitsky y otros terroristas. Creo que el que elige quien es el bueno y quien es el malo no soy yo.
Forest fires are today the main risk factor for the conservation of these ecosystems for sustainable management. The areas that are mainly affected by fires are ordinary and pollarded copses. The species and habitats for which the sites have been designated are to be maintained or restored in a favourable conservation status. Oggetto: Anoressia e bulimia in aumento in Europa. Nei paesi industrializzati sono in continuo aumento i disturbi psichici alimentari denominati anoressia e bulimia.
Non ritiene che, a tal fine, sarebbe opportuno prevedere un Anno europeo sull'importanza della corretta alimentazione nella prevenzione dei disturbi alimentari? La Commissione non intende condurre campagne di informazione sull'anoressia e la bulimia. In industrialised countries, psychological eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are becoming more widespread. The phenomenon is almost unheard of in the third world and it seems that, in industrialised countries, it is driven by the Western model of physical appearance and body shape.
In a society in which traditional values have now collapsed and where true culture has been substituted by a widespread subculture of mass media, young people in particular are easily afflicted by these disorders, making their physical appearance their number one concern. Anorexia nervosa is characterised by the refusal to eat for fear of putting on weight.
In addition to abstinence from food, anorexia often causes individuals to make themselves vomit, even after having eaten very small quantities of food. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which individuals binge-eat a huge quantity of food, completely losing control over their eating and continuing to eat until they feel unwell. Studies conducted in the United States and Europe in the s showed a prevalence of 0. Does the Commission have percentage data on the spread of anorexia and bulimia throughout the Member States? Does the Commission intend to run an information campaign aimed at young people targeting young girls and high risk categories in particular?
If so, how will this be implemented? Does the Commission not believe that, in light of this, it would be opportune to plan a European year on the importance of a good diet in the prevention of eating disorders? The Commission does not have data on the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia in the European Union EU Member States and is not in a position to undertake data collection on these disorders. The Commission does not intend to carry out information campaigns on anorexia and bulimia.
This project, led by the Heidelberg University in Germany and involving seven Member States, has established an Internet portal. La Commissione condivide le preoccupazioni dell'onorevole deputato sugli effetti nocivi dell'abuso di alcool, in particolare tra i bambini e i giovani. La legislazione in questo ambito rientra per l'essenziale nelle competenze degli Stati membri. In molti Stati membri le scuole conducono campagne di prevenzione dell'alcolismo su scala nazionale, molto spesso in forza di un obbligo legale. La Commissione ha inoltre istituito il Forum Alcool e salute per mobilitare l'azione volontaria da parte degli attori interessati.
Diverse delle oltre iniziative lanciate dai membri del Forum sono rivolte ai giovani. Nell'ultimo quinquennio il programma Salute dell'UE ha ulteriormente sostenuto diversi progetti multi-paese volti a far opera di sensibilizzazione e a ridurre il danno dell'alcool tra i giovani.
The consumption of alcoholic products, which contain psycho-active substances that can create dependency, causes harm not only to drinkers but also to their families and to society as a whole, in that it can lead to violent behaviour, abuse, neglect, loss of social opportunities, an inability to develop emotional ties and stable relationships, disability and accidents at work and on the road. Young people, who are more vulnerable to the physical and psychological effects of alcohol, are at greater risk.
In Europe, one young person in four aged between 15 and 29 dies as a result of alcohol consumption, which is the prime risk factor for disability, premature death and chronic illness among young people. Public health policies and measures designed to reduce the damage caused by alcohol are therefore regarded as having very high priority.
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In view of the above, can the Commission state what legislative measures it has put forward to combat alcohol abuse, particularly among young people, and whether there are European anti-alcohol programmes and strategies aimed at raising awareness among young people of the importance of not consuming alcoholic products to excess?
The Commission shares the Honourable Members' concern about the harmful effects of alcohol abuse, in particular in children and young people. Legislation in this area falls mainly under Member States' competence. In the context of the abovementioned strategy, the Commission has promoted a higher minimum age for buying alcoholic beverages. The Commission is pleased to note convergence in Member States' regulations on these points. In many Member States, schools carry out alcohol prevention education nation-wide, quite often as a legal obligation.
In addition, the Commission has established the Alcohol and Health Forum to mobilise voluntary action by stakeholders. Many of the over initiatives launched by Forum members are targeted towards young people. Tym samym mniejsze podmioty, np. The structure of those programmes makes it possible to easily identify those targeted by measures and individual actions. The new programme, however, provides for a subject-based approach which does not distinguish between actions tailored to individual categories of recipients.
As a result, under the new programme, some beneficiaries, including schools and young people not studying, will compete for the funds with beneficiaries of an entirely different institutional profile, such as large universities. Access to European funding may thus be blocked for smaller entities, such as small schools or small non-governmental organisations. It is not clear, however, how the Commission is planning to improve and increase cooperation between these instruments.
Who will be responsible for managing the joint operation of the programme and the ESF? The Erasmus for All proposal aims to promote an integrated approach of education, training and youth policies, in order to make lifelong learning a reality for more citizens. All education, training and youth sectors are targeted by the programme, as is the case today under the LLP and Youth in Action programmes and there is no restriction on the size of organisation or institution which can participate.
The Commission proposal does not foresee that small schools or NGOs compete with universities or academic institutions. The emphasis on European added value is particularly stressed and should be a basic requirement of any action to be supported at EU level. Regarding complementarity between funds, this will be ensured at different levels throughout the implementation of the programmes and through cooperation between the different services of the Commission.
The implementing documents, in particular the Common Strategic Framework for the structural funds, will specify eligible target groups and the guide for beneficiaries under Erasmus for All will also provide guidance. All EU funds must seek synergies and avoid risk of double funding in line with sound and efficient management.
La exactitud de los datos queda limitada a veces por la calidad de las declaraciones de los Estados miembros.
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Le nombre de navires relevant de chacun des segments de flotte figure dans le tableau 1. Oggetto: Informazioni riguardanti la flotta, le catture totali e il valore delle catture sbarcate negli Stati membri. Le informazioni richieste sono inviate direttamente agli onorevoli parlamentari e al segretariato del Parlamento. In connection with its proposals for the reform of the common fisheries policy and in the light of their likely impact on small-scale fisheries artisanal and coastal , can the Commission provide accurate, up-to-date information on:. The information requested by the Honourable Members is sent directly to the Honourable Members and to Parliament's Secretariat.
The accuracy of the data is sometimes limited by the quality of Member States' declarations. For this reason, the Court of Auditors made a series of recommendations to the European Commission in order to increase the efficiency of veterinary checks. Can the Commission say what progress has been made in implementing the recommendations over the one-year period that has passed since they were received?
The intention is to also address the level of checks imposed on imports under equivalence agreements with third countries, as part of an over-arching, risk-based approach to controls. Currently there are local authorities who have been promised the necessary resources. They have made plans, based on this promise, to provide broadband to the people they represent.
This prolonged delay is compounding the increasing economic difficulties faced by these rural communities in my constituency. In March the Commission sent a request for information to the UK authorities. They have not re-activated the notification, so the Commission cannot take any action. The Commission is closely cooperating with the UK Government to decide quickly on the BDUK umbrella scheme, but it is still too early to give indications on timing. According to the state aid rules, the Commission examines proposed aid within two months. This period starts running once the Commission has received all the information needed to assess the case.
So the length of the process depends on complete notification of the measure, but also on its compliance with the state aid rules. Individual measures that would be covered by the scheme are on hold until the BDUK scheme has been approved. Given the threat of milk quotas coming to an end, this was an absolutely necessary initiative. The milk sector is currently drowning in a rising tide of production costs which are not transmitted along the rest of the chain.
The dramatic situation, to which a number of milk-producing regions have recently been drawing attention, involves the drop in both milk prices paid to producers and those on supermarket shelves bordering on dumping and the increase in production costs, currently mainly due to rising grain prices. In this context, many producers fear they will be unable to survive another milk year. Among other aspects, this highlighted:.
What is it doing to promote a fair distribution of income along the milk chain, thereby making it possible for producers to survive? What urgent measures will it apply to the milk sector to promote sustainable production in traditional milk-producing regions and guarantee fair returns to producers? The European cereals prices are in line with the world market prices and have increased significantly during summer due to the difficult climatic conditions in US and the Black Sea region which affects significantly the harvest forecast.
The situation is however continuously monitored with the view to take measures, if necessary. Milk margins are effectively under pressure due to the combined effect of the decrease of farm gate milk prices observed in the first half of and increasing feed costs. The latest average for July already shows that the downward trend has stopped. It is therefore too early to know which concrete impact it will have on the dairy sector. This year, the European Parliament adopted two own-initiative reports which request the European Commission to take action.
Firstly, the Taylor report — on the functioning and application of established rights of people travelling by air — calls for measures that would make it possible to harmonise commercial practice concerning hand luggage so as to protect passengers against excessive restrictions and allow them to carry on board a reasonable amount of hand luggage, including purchases from airport shops. The Commission is aware of the suggestions contained in both reports mentioned by the Honourable Member.
It is however not yet in a position to confirm whether or not legislative or non-legislative measures will be pursued. The appropriateness of any intervention would have to be carefully studied. Er der tale om forskelsbehandling? In and respectively they reached the retirement age at which payments from Germany began. However, in the German Finanzamt tax office sent them a demand for back payment of taxes from According to the German authorities the two Danes are not covered by the personal allowance, and therefore have to pay tax.
It was explained to them that the personal allowance does not apply to people living outside Germany. The two Danish citizens feel that they have been discriminated against by the German authorities and that they are not being given the same treatment as other citizens covered by the pension insurance scheme in Germany, even though they are not a burden on the German health and social security systems.
Does this constitute discrimination?
Justo imposible. Breve conferencia acerca de lo que es justo o injusto
Oggetto: Soia, possibili effetti collaterali ed indicazione del quantitativo giornaliero consigliato. I fitoestrogeni contenuti nella soia aiutano a prevenire l'insorgere di patologie legate alla prostata negli uomini ad es. Occorre in particolare che tale valutazione del rischio, le cui conclusioni sono successivamente valutate dalla Commissione, sia effettuata sulla base dei dati scientifici disponibili. La Commissione prende atto dello studio sull'assunzione di soia e sui suoi effetti, compresa l'azione preventiva del cancro alla prostata. In questa fase, tuttavia, non vi sono dati sufficienti tali da giustificare le prescrizioni in materia di etichettatura proposte dall'onorevole parlamentare.
According to a study published recently in the authoritative scientific journal Neurology, soya is a food which has a beneficial effect only if consumed in small quantities. The phyto-oestrogens which it contains help to counter the development of prostate diseases e. In women, it helps to relieve menopausal symptoms, countering the development of a range of conditions and disorders, including endometriosis and fibroadenosis.
However, an excessively high daily intake of soya can result in persistent headaches and migraine in both men and women. This is due to the effects of soya isoflavones, which dilate blood vessels in the brain, affecting the neurones in the periaqueductal grey matter — the main centre for headache pain control.
This requires, in particular, a risk assessment to be carried out on the basis of the available scientific data, conclusions of which are further evaluated by the Commission.. Under the abovementioned legislation, the risk assessment is conducted by the European Food Safety Authority. Thus, any labelling requirement providing for health warnings or suggested daily intakes for the specific category of food shall be based on the scientific evidence assessed by the European Food Safety Authority.
The Commission takes note of the study on soya intake and its effects including in prostate cancer prevention. However, at this stage, there is not sufficient data which would justify the labelling requirements as proposed by the Honourable Member. It does not apply when they seek to practice in the same country in which they obtained their qualifications. Consequently, the directive does not restrict the terms of any national law provisions applicable to architects qualified in the territory of the Member State in question. Dit leidt tot juridische onzekerheden voor bedrijven die actief zijn op de Europese interne markt.
Duidelijke en samenhangende definities zijn belangrijk om eerlijke concurrentie te garanderen; daarom is het cruciaal dat stoffen correct en op dezelfde manier worden ingedeeld in alle lidstaten. Het Hof heeft geconcludeerd dat een stof die opzettelijk is geproduceerd geen productieresidu is en dus ook geen afval met zich meebrengt. Daarom verzoek ik de Commissie de volgende zaken op te helderen:. Zal de Commissie bij haar op stapel staande werkzaamheden op het gebied van duurzaamheidscriteria voor vaste en gasvormige biomassa voorzien in de behoefte om deze definities in verband met de richtlijn inzake hernieuwbare energiebronnen te verduidelijken?
Een productieresidu kan worden beschouwd als een materiaal dat niet opzettelijk in een productieproces is geproduceerd, maar dat al dan niet daadwerkelijk een afvalstof is. Deze mededeling kan echter niet de juridische grondslag leveren om de lidstaten ertoe te verplichten eenzelfde lijst van residuen te gebruiken.
Ter beantwoording van de tweede vraag van het geachte Parlementslid wordt opgemerkt dat een nadere omschrijving van het begrip reststoffen niet het eerste doel is van het komende verslag inzake de duurzaamheid van biomassa. Clear and coherent definitions are important to ensure fair competition, and it is therefore essential that materials are correctly classified in the same way in all Member States. It has concluded that a material that is produced intentionally is not a production residue, nor consequently waste.
Will the Commission, in its forthcoming work on sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass, address the need to clarify these definitions in relation to the RES Directive? A production residue can be construed as a material that is not deliberately produced in a production process but may or may not be a waste. Therefore the Commission can only provide its interpretation and guidance of what should and should not constitute a residue in Member State's legislation.
In answer to your second question, the definition of residues is not the primary focus of Commission forthcoming report on biomass sustainability. Kunt u aangeven hoeveel deze campagne gekost heeft? Dat wil zeggen, alle kosten die samenhangen met deze campagne. Wat is het precieze doel van deze campagne en op welke leeftijdscategorie is deze campagne gericht? Deelt u mijn mening dat deze campagne volstrekt onduidelijk is voor kinderen? Deelt u de mening dat campagnes gericht op kinderen per definitie zoveel mogelijk vermeden moeten worden? Deelt u de mening dat deze campagne wederom aantoont dat de Europese bureaucratie werkelijk de meest gekke dingen verzint om maar geld uit te kunnen geven?
Kunt u mij in een helder en duidelijk document een overzicht geven van alle lopende, afgelopen en toekomstig geplande campagnes, gericht op kinderen en betaald uit Europees geld? Zo wordt onder meer geadviseerd bij de aankoop van speelgoed te controleren of het speelgoed een CE-keurmerk draagt. De campagne voor consumenten is in december opgestart en omvat een videoclip, een website en kaarten die in speelgoedwinkels worden uitgedeeld.
De clip richt zich indirect via kinderen die geboeid worden door de aardige CE-E-robot vooral op de ouders. Doel is de veiligheid van speelgoed eenvoudig en grappig te illustreren en de ouders bewuster te maken van dit belangrijke thema, zodat ze geen gevaarlijk speelgoed kopen en ongevallen met speelgoed kunnen worden voorkomen. Can the Commission state how much this campaign cost, specifying all expenditure incurred in connection with this campaign? Does the Commission agree that advertising campaigns aimed at children should by definition be avoided as far as possible?
Does the Commission agree that this campaign shows once again that European bureaucrats will think up the craziest things just in order to spend money? Can the Commission provide a clear and unambiguous summary of all current, past and planned advertising campaigns aimed at children and paid for with European money? It targets in particular parents, indirectly via their children, attracted by the friendly CE-E robot. The aim is to explain toy safety in a simple and funny manner, and raise parents' awareness of this important issue in the interest of avoiding the purchase of inappropriate toys, or accidents from using toys.
The effectiveness of the campaign is measured by the number of cards distributed in toy shops during the Christmas holidays , the number of connections to the campaign website, You Tube, EUtube and the dedicated Facebook page constantly evolving , and the amount of press coverage received which has been rather extensive all over the EU.
In dat kader de volgende vragen:. Kunt u een toelichting geven waarom dit zo is en wat de justificatie is dat deze landen oververtegenwoordigd zijn in het personeelsbestand? Wat gaat u eraan doen om een evenwichtiger personeelsverdeling te krijgen qua nationaliteit van de medewerkers? Bij alle EU-instellingen is er een verschil tussen het maximumaantal toegestane posten volgens het personeelsformatieplan en het aantal personeelsleden in actieve dienst.
Hiermee wordt rekening gehouden bij de begroting voor salarissen en daarmee samenhangende kosten. Deze factoren wegen juist bij de EDEO bijzonder zwaar, aangezien het een nieuwe dienst is, die nog in oprichting is. Daarnaast bevat de personeelsformatie voor twintig nieuwe AD-posten waarvoor alleen begrotingsmiddelen zijn gereserveerd voor de laatste drie maanden van het jaar.
De salarissen van de personeelsleden van de EDEO worden vastgesteld overeenkomstig het personeelsstatuut dat geldt voor alle EU-instellingen. Het belangrijkste criterium op grond waarvan personeel bij de EDEO wordt aangeworven, is verdienste, waarbij tegelijkertijd wordt gestreefd naar een zinvolle vertegenwoordiging van onderdanen van alle lidstaten. De verdeling naar nationaliteit van AST en arbeidscontractanten wijkt niet wezenlijk af van de situatie in andere instellingen die in Brussel zijn gevestigd.
Vier van hen vervullen een managementfunctie: de directeur Veiligheid in Brussel en de delegatiehoofden in Zuid-Afrika, Colombia en Eritrea. However, the draft EU budget for the financial year gives the number of AD posts for as and the number of AST posts as p. As in all EU institutions, there is a difference between the maximum number of authorised posts in the establishment plan and the number of staff in active service and this is taken into account in the budget for salaries and related costs. This is to allow for normal turnover and posts that are vacant pending selection and recruitment procedures and a necessary degree of flexibility in managing different categories of staff.
These factors are particularly significant in the case of the EEAS given the challenges of setting up the new service. The overriding principle of recruitment to the EEAS is merit, while at the same time aiming for a meaningful presence of nationals from all Member States. Of these, 42 were actually murdered and another 30 suffered attempts on their lives.
The EU is well aware of the fact that the protection of vulnerable Human Rights Defenders remains a challenge in Brazil. Human Rights Defenders and their advocates continue to report intimidation, bodily harm and death threats. Nevertheless, important challenges remain with respect to the full and effective implementation of the Programme. The EU also addressed recent individual cases of killings of or intimidations to HRDs with particular focus on land and environmental rights defenders.
Cenelec the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation , which has responsibility for standardisation in the electrotechnical engineering field, has been working with the National Standards Committees of EU Member States with a view to formulating a new industry standard for Power Line Technology PLT apparatus EN The Commission observes that there has been no significant number of PLT disturbance cases until now.
The technical development of standards is a matter for the standardisation organisations. Other stakeholders can also participate as observers. The current results are the outcome of a long process in which all stakeholders participated. To our knowledge the procedure for submitting the draft standard to vote has been scrupulously adhered to. Once the proposed harmonised standard is submitted to the Commission, the Commission and the Member States have the possibility to raise a formal objection in cases when the standard does not fulfil the essential requirements of the EMC Directive.
Is the Commission aware of these proposals? On the basis of the information and explanations made available to the Commission, this change presents no conflict with EU VAT law. Oggetto: Installazione MUOS — possibile violazione delle direttive relative all'impatto ambientale e alla salute della popolazione. I lavori di tale impianto, che secondo alcune stime potrebbe arrivare sino a 2 milioni di Watt di potenza, stanno causando grave allarme e preoccupazione nella popolazione locale, oltre che gravi danni paesaggistici ed ambientali e serie ripercussioni negative sulla fauna e sulla flora presenti.
In conclusione, la Commissione non ravvisa alcuna potenziale violazione delle disposizioni summenzionate. Under the regional development plan, no further constructions or infrastructures including antennae and pylons are authorised there. The compatibility of such developments with the protection of the concerned sites needs to be determined on a case by case basis. It is up to the competent national authorities to assess whether a project could cause significant negative effects on the relevant species and habitats and to authorise it only after having ascertained that it will not adversely affect the integrity of the site.
According to the available information, it appears that a study has indeed been carried out in relation to the possible impacts of the project on the SCI and that, on the basis of its findings, the Italian authorities have granted the authorisation for the concerned installation.
In any case, it contains a similar exclusion for plans and programmes whose sole purpose is to serve national defence purposes. In conclusion, the Commission cannot identify any potential breach of the abovementioned provisions. Betreft: Vergunning voor dextropropoxyfeen bevattende geneesmiddelen. In besliste de Europese Commissie, na onderzoek door het Europees Geneesmiddelenbureau, om de vergunningen voor het in de handel brengen van dextropropoxyfeen bevattende geneesmiddelen, in te trekken. Voor het geneesmiddel gelden vervolgens surveillancemaatregelen na het in de handel brengen.
De vergunning voor het in de handel brengen kan ondermeer om veiligheidsredenen worden gewijzigd, opgeschort of ingetrokken. Op basis van de beoordeling van de gegevens betreffende werkzaamheid en veiligheid van deze middelen heeft het CHMP geconcludeerd dat de balans tussen de voordelen en de risico's negatief uitvalt. In the Commission decided, following a study by the European Medicines Agency, to withdraw the licences for the marketing of medicines containing dextropropoxyphene. Patients suffering from chronic pain who had formerly been prescribed these medicines were suddenly faced with its withdrawal from circulation.
However, the alternatives are unsatisfactory and patients are again having to cope with chronic pain, significantly worsening their quality of life. Does the Commission have any plans in the short term to review the licenses for this substance and thus give these patients a renewed prospect of a better future? The medicinal product is further subject to post-marketing surveillance.
Amongst other, the marketing authorisation may be varied, suspended or revoked because of safety concerns. Based on the assessment of efficacy and safety data, the CHMP concluded that the benefit-risk balance of these products is negative. For the suspension to be lifted, the marketing authorisation holders would need to provide the evidence of a patient population in which the benefit-risk balance of parenteral use of dextropropoxyphene is favourable. In the last few days work has begun on the clearing of forest to prepare for a limestone quarry in an area known as Ojnaredsskogen on the island of Gotland.
In spite of this, a decision has been taken that the area may be made available to become a limestone quarry. Does the Commission propose taking action to protect such areas from exploitation in the future? The Commission will take appropriate action should its investigation lead to an assessment that Sweden is in breach of EU legislation.
According to the external consultants used by the Commission, representatives of plant breeding firms consider that plant variety protection does in fact provide protection for new plant varieties, while representatives of the Council and the Member State governments consider that this protection does in fact provide an incentive to the production of new plant varieties. Does the Commission have any plans to investigate how it can be that stakeholders in the industry see a different set of advantages in the legislation than the legislators themselves? The external consultants listed the UPOV study in the annex of their report.
The Commission considers that the views expressed by breeders and authorities of Member States are not mutually exclusive. Breeders consider that Plant Variety Protection regime provides protection for their breeding works, resulting in new varieties, and opportunities for return on investment, while authorities consider it as a tool to promote breeding activity and consequently as an incentive for the breeder to make available on the market more innovations, e.
The steadily growing number of varieties protected by a Community Plant Variety Right is a clear indication that the regulation on Plant Variety Protection achieves its objectives. Il y avait 5 tirets. Pourriez-vous fournir cette liste? Serait-il possible d'en avoir une? Peru and Colombia currently benefit from the GSP plus regime effectively imposing zero tariffs on all their products. In your answer you refer to additional non-liberalised lines to which a graduated preferential treatment would apply under the new GSP plus agreement.
However, the annexes to the agreement do not specifically identify the additional lines. Can the Commission provide a list? Which products might significantly affect the usual range of exports from these countries to the EU? Would it be possible for a reply to be given? Has lactoserum been included in the list of liberalised products with a view to the industrial production of foodstuffs? If so, has this request come from European producers in Colombia and Peru? However, this also applies to the other chapters of the agreement. Why does the Commission therefore not apply the same logic throughout and why does it threaten sanctions which would penalise industrial services or entire farming sectors?
How does it intend to offset the colossal imbalance arising from the difference in administrative treatment required and the excessive burden which will be borne by the Andean countries? The tariff schedules in EU trade agreements or preferential arrangements are arranged according to tariff line nomenclature.
The elimination of duties on dairy products, including lactoserum, is included in the tariff schedules. The negotiations took into account the views of relevant industries on both sides. Predictability and transparency are vital for businesses to increase trade and investment flows. Thus, a clearly sequenced and transparent dispute settlement process is a key part of any trade agreement, with a potential suspension of trade benefits as a last resort. However, for the Chapter on Trade and Sustainable Development, the Commission believes that the created dialogue, arbitration and monitoring mechanisms can promote and preserve high levels of labour and environmental protection better than a sanction based approach.
Colombia and Peru asked for protection of two and four Geographical Indications GIs and the procedures are complete. The majority of EU submitted GIs have also been published and passed the opposition period. Related administrative workload is addressed by close collaboration of the administrations, including by EU Delegations. Neste caso, quais? It is essential for its nine islands to be connected by the civil protection service.
The communication problems affecting the outermost regions are well known and all the more acute in situations of natural disaster or earthquake. At these times, it has been shown that the only stable form of communication and the main, primary source of assistance to the population and emergency services is the connection via radio and television. What measures has it taken or does it plan to take in relation to it?
If so, which ones? If not, is there any plan to set aside funding for this purpose? If not, is there any plan to create such programmes and include them in civil protection funding? If not, is there any plan to provide support for them? The Commission has no current plans to take measures in relation to the network. This programme also finances projects related to the development and implementation of emergency contingency plans, telecommunications emergency networks and emergency situations.
The current ERDF programmes for the two Portuguese outermost regions, Madeira and Azores, do not provide financing for projects in the field of public radio and television equipment or facilities. This would allow funding to support actions related to public information, education, awareness raising and associated dissemination actions meant to minimise the effects of disasters. In connection with the above it should be noted that since the entry into force of the EEA Agreement in only two agreements on further liberalisation have been concluded, in and respectively.
Does the Commission agree that Norway wishes to access the European market for its own goods, such as salmon, and yet is permitted with impunity to block the sale of goods by EU firms by juggling with customs rates and classification rules? What is the Commission able to do, and what action does the Commission propose to take on this matter?
The Commission is currently examining the issue of customs classification of hydrangea macrophylla in Norwegian customs nomenclature that is referred by the Honourable Member. To finalise the examination, the Commission has asked for detailed information concerning the description of the product and customs codes used in the past.