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Returns policy. Take a look at our Returning an item help page for more details. Mejia, an Argentine, lived in Italy, and presided over the Vatican Library and its secret archives. De Caro befriended Mejia, and they began having long conversations about faith. On February 12, , De Caro and Mejia made an unusual exchange. De Caro provided the library with sixteen incunabula—books printed before —and three fifteenth-century manuscripts, worth approximately a hundred thousand dollars.

The Vatican had other copies of the Galileo texts, and had been expanding its collection of incunabula. One cent. But in the desert you can pay millions of dollars. The copy had once been in a private library in the city, the Trivulziana, and the police told the book dealers that they planned to investigate its provenance. Two days later, the carabinieri returned to the booth. In separate interviews with the police, De Caro, Rotundo, and Pastore each accused the others. The book could not be found, and the case was dropped.

Perhaps his most important client was Richard Lan. De Caro was beginning to think that Lan would buy anything from him. Once again, De Caro was working with Rotundo and Pastore. Usually, they sing. I have an ear for that. But there was a stiffness in the paper. While the prospect of forgery hung over every transaction in the art world, fakes had not been much of an issue for antiquarian book dealers. But instances of fraudulent typesetting were isolated and amateurish. No one, as far as Watson knew, had successfully simulated an entire letterpress book.

All these elements would have to match those used by the original publisher. Then, in arranging the type, the forger would have to insure that the spacing between letters precisely followed the original book—for dozens, if not hundreds, of pages. A forged painting could sell for millions. He feared that De Caro, a relative newcomer to the trade, had been conned.

Ga·li·le·o Ga·li·lei

At the book fair, Watson pulled De Caro aside to express his concerns. They had told him that they had important business to discuss. Rotundo, a bespectacled man of forty-one, urged Lan to sit down. Lan could hardly contain his excitement. In Argentina, he had met an American book collector who worked for a Russian billionaire, Viktor Vekselberg. Governments jockeyed for his attention: the Democratic Republic of Congo asked him to be an honorary consul, and the Argentine authorities assigned him a bodyguard and a bulletproof car. On one occasion, he attended a meeting with Vekselberg and Vladimir Putin.

The job made De Caro wealthy enough to buy a twenty-five-acre ranch outside Buenos Aires. He soon paid a visit to Montecassino, a sixth-century abbey southeast of Rome, with Viktoria Pavlovsky, his young assistant, and an old friend, Stephane Delsalle. De Caro, Pavlovsky, and Delsalle introduced themselves to a priest and asked to inspect the property.

Galileo Galilei - definition of Galileo Galilei by The Free Dictionary

De Caro slipped the books into his bag. He had created the fake with photopolymer plates, establishing a model for other, more sophisticated schemes. One library especially captivated De Caro: the Girolamini, in Naples. Founded in , it was now disorganized and lacquered with soot, though its original beauty could be glimpsed in its frescoed ceilings, clerestory windows, and imposing columns. In the spring of , De Caro conferred with the priest in charge at the Girolamini—which also encompassed a cathedral and a convent—about renovating the library.

On his second day, he ordered the staff to disable the alarm system at night. A priest led Montanari and the student inside. In the main salon, they found De Caro, wearing a gray tracksuit, his feet propped on a desk. The Girolamini was undergoing renovations, he said, and he had been up late working. As De Caro talked, Montanari looked around. The library resembled a junk yard. Four-hundred-year-old books were strewn on tables and piled on the floor; empty soda cans littered the bookshelves. A German shepherd was wandering around. After a short conversation, Montanari and his student requested to browse the archives.

They ran into a staff librarian, and asked him if all was well. The director is a criminal. Montanari wrote an article describing the situation at the Girolamini. The day the article came out, De Caro called Montanari. De Caro threatened legal action, indicating that he and Silvio Berlusconi were represented by the same law firm. He warned Montanari that his career was in danger. De Caro admits placing the call but denies making threats. A prosecutor in Naples, Giovanni Melillo, opened an investigation. Other stolen volumes were being fenced through major Italian dealers.

Most spectacularly, De Caro planned to launder more than four hundred and fifty books through an auction, on May 9th, in Munich.

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Before the books went to Germany, library markings were stripped out. De Caro expected to receive a million euros after the bidding. De Caro told me that he had meant to steal only the books that went to Munich; the rest had been removed from the Girolamini temporarily, for cleaning. The auction house claims that De Caro had presented the books as being a consignment from a private owner in Italy. He was taken to Naples and locked in a small jail cell with seven other inmates. On August 2, , De Caro began confessing his crimes to Melillo.

Galileo Galilei

He laid out how he had robbed the Girolamini, and said that he had stolen books from another library in Naples, two in Florence, one in Padua, one in Montecassino, and one in Rome. Anytime he noticed a new idiosyncrasy—such as its use of half-sheets of paper, rather than full sheets, which were used in all the other known copies from —he ran up against the prevailing theory that the book was a proof copy. It was supposed to be one-of-a-kind. The book did not sell.

Wilding examined the title page, pictured in the catalogue. Pepiodis is not a Latin word. Wilding told him to look for a particular detail. Such marks lacked the depth of letterpress type. But, if someone used a high-resolution image of the original page to create photopolymer plates, the polymer would make the black marks appear equal in depth to the text.

Eleven days later, on June 11, , Wilding announced his discoveries on ExLibris, an online discussion forum used by antiquarian dealers, collectors, and librarians. Continuatione del Nuntio sidereo di Galileo Galilei linceo. Lettera al. Tarquinio Galluzzi, di Mario Guiducci. Lettere del sig. Galileo Galilei al padre Christoforo Grienberger,. Istoria e dimostrationi intorno alle macchie solari e loro accidenti. Risposta alle oppositioni del sig. Lodovico delle Columbe e del sig. Vincenzo di Gratia, contro al trattato del.

Galileo, Galelei, dell cose che stanno su? Il Saggiatore. Discorsi, e dimostrationi matematiche. Editore: Padua, Paolo Frambotti, Descrizione: Padua, Paolo Frambotti, , A superlative copy of the scarce third edition of Le Operazioni del Compasso Geometrico, containing an enlarged illustration of Galileo's sector for measuring and swiftly computing distances and mathematical problems. The original edition, published in and Galileo's first printed book of significance, did not contain an illustration of his 'proportional compass', probably because of the likelihood that it would be pirated.

About Galileo invented a remarkably useful instrument, the geometrical and military compass. The device, a sort of primitive analogue computer, bears nine sets of lines or scales for calculating cube roots, square roots, interest rates, circle squaring, etc. Its object was to greatly reduce computations in the measurement of distance, as well as to extract roots and perform other mathematical functions 'on the fly'.

It required three fundamental operations: setting the separation of the arms; taking the distance from the pivot to a point along one of its scales; and taking the crosswise distance between a point and the corresponding point on the other arm. Galileo envisaged his instrument as of use in both civil surveying and military fortification, and it was deliberately published in the Tuscan vernacular for the benefit of both audiences.

The sector was particularly useful in 'measurement by sight' applications described on pp , allowing the user to compute heights and distances on the same instrument he used to sight them with. The instrument proved to be much in demand, and the inventor established a workshop in his own house at Padova for its manufacture.

As is well documented, the 'compass' was copied and plagiarized by others, notably one Baldassare Capra, and in Galileo published Le Operazioni del Compasso to vindicate his claim to the invention by describing its construction and use. This was his first significant work to appear in print and is very rare. Only 60 copies of this first edition were printed and probably only a dozen or so have survived. It should be noted that Galileo's 'compass', now called the sector, has been manufactured from Galileo's day right up to the present time. No previously known device had accomplished anything quite like it, although mechanical aids to calculation had appeared earlier in various forms.

Something of the importance to society of such an invention as Galileo's, noted Stillman Drake, can be grasped from the modern introduction of the pocket electronic computer. It completely revolutionized the way people, from princes to land surveyors, calculated complex mathematical problems without pencil and paper and, in so doing, democratized practical mathematics. Riccardi's editions of and would appear to be ghosts; I cannot find any other record of them. Cinti states that the plate mark in the second edition, the first appearance of the illustration, measured x cm to the plate mark, but I can find no evidence of this.

The plate mark in the edition measures ca 25 x Also Cinti mentions a 'n. Editore: Thomas Dicas for D. Pauli, London Descrizione: Thomas Dicas for D. Pauli, London, Signatures: [A]8, B-3A 8. Contemporary calf, spine with 5 raised bands, compartments lettered and decorated in gilt rebacked preserving original spine, covers stained, corners scuffed, original endpapers. Light browning of text, occasional minor spotting, a few short clean tears to blank margins, some rust spots, two with small hole affecting a few letters leaves I6 and S6. Provenance: Library stamp partially removed from verso of title.

Still very good copy. Wing notes two printings of this year, but was probably confused by varying reports of engraved and printed titles. Wing G gives the engraved title as above, omitting the imprint; G gives the printed title as above, with matching form of imprint.

2 Euro Galileo Galilei Italian Commemorative Coin

The text includes, after the end of the Dialogus, an excerpt from Kepler, and Foscarini's reconciliation of the Copernican system with Scripture. This edition is very rare in the trade and at auction with only 4 copies recorded at auction in the past 50 years. The Dialogo is the summation of Galileo's astronomical work, and his celebrated advancement of the Copernican system in the form of an irrefutable hypothesis. The inconclusive debate on the subject between three participants which Pope Urban VIII had expected was hardly evident in the sure reasoning of Salviati, the pointed questioning of Sagredo, and the feeble responses of Simplicio a figure sometimes equated with the Pope himself.

While the hypothetical nature of the argument should not be forgotten, Galileo's book 'revels in the simplicity of Copernican thought and, above all, it teaches that the movement of the earth makes sense in philosophy, that is, in physics. The Dialogo, more than any other work, made the heliocentric system a commonplace' PMM. The Italian first edition Florence: was banned by the Pope and withdrawn from circulation shortly after publication, leading to the author's trial and imprisonment a year later; it was followed by the first Latin edition, published in Strasbourg in , which was translated by the history professor and mathematics enthusiast Matthias Bernegger at Galileo's request.

Editore: Florence, Bartolomeo Sermartelli and brothers, Descrizione: Florence, Bartolomeo Sermartelli and brothers, , Condizione: Fine. First edition of this account of a Medici court masque in which Galileo s discoveries of the satellites of Jupiter are heralded and the satellites appear as characters on stage. Villifranchi reports on the Medici festivities organized for the Carnival of On p 32 Galileo Galilei is celebrated for his marvellous telescope and discovery of the satellites of Jupiter; these were staged for the first time in the allegorical representation of the planet: E piu a basso tra le nuvole apparivano le Quattro Stelle erranti intorno a Giovee, ritrovate dal Signor Galilei Galilei Fiorentino, Mathematica di Sua Altezza ingegno rarissimo, e singolare a tempi nostril per opera del maraviglioso Occhiale This work includes verse by G.

Although Galileo was not successful in his first attempts to tie the court writers to his wagon, the Medicean stars eventually became an integral part of the discourse of the court, the most important one being the court spectacle of the carnival of [i. It began at two o clock Florentine time in the theater of the Pitti Palace in front of a selected courtly audience.

After a virtuoso display of spectacular theatrical machines and effects designed by the court engineer Giulo Parigi, the spectacle deployed its mythological plot. Cupid set his own realm over Tuscany, inaugurating a Golden Age, but peace was soon threatened. Cupid and his knights six court pages were faced by a monstrous dragon spitting flames and smoke and twelve Furies led by Nemesis. Although the dragon, Nemesis, and the Furies were eventually made to disappear into a trap conveniently connected to hell, Cupid and Tuscany were not safe yet. Sdegno Amoroso Disdain of Love and his five ferocious and barbarous looking Egyptian knights jumped on stage from the hellmouth.

A new tilt began, but peace and Tuscany s Golden Age were quickly re-established by divine Cosimo I s? Thunder was heard, and Jupiter arrived on a shimmering cloud. Peace soon followed. Probably as a result of the Bellarmino s admonition to Galileo in and of Cosimo II s declining health, Galileo s discoveries did not continue the career in the Medici mythology they had begun so brilliantly. Their visibility declined even further after when - following Cosimo II s death - the Grand Duchess Cristina and her counsellors took over the government of Tuscany and the management of court culture.

Carnival festivals were played down, and sacred comedies became the dominant genre. The work includes musical pieces the notes as usual were printed separately on loose sheets by O. Rinuccini, A. Adimari, G. Cicognini, A. Salvadori, and Villifranchi himself. Villifranchi, a poet and a priest from Volterra, was secretary to Virgilio Orsini, Duke of Bracciano. Solerti, Musica, ballo e drammatica alla corte medicea dal al , New York London, , pp Harvard: Verse and descriptive text; includes verse by G.

Cicognini for the Comparsa de Cavalieri delle Stelle Medicee p. Editore: Padua, Giulio Crivellari, Descrizione: Padua, Giulio Crivellari, , First edition of this treatise on astronomy, covering optics, comets, the galaxies, and the interpretation of astronomical observations. The work is written in the form of a dialogue between Liceti and Libert Froidmont , author of two anti-Copernican texts.

This work, comprising sections, was written in response to, and quotes extensively from, Galileo's 'Letter to Leopold'. These attacks became the subject of several letters to Galileo early in On 11 March, Prince Leopold wrote from Pisa that although to him Liceti's arguments seemed too frivolous to deserve reply, nevertheless he would like to have Galileo's opinion. Galileo then composed a lengthy treatise in the form of a letter to Prince Leopold, copies of which circulated for several months before Liceti asked to have one in order that he might formally reply.

Galileo's Letter to Prince Leopold was several times revised and expanded, the final version occupying about fifty printed pages. Liceti acknowledged receipt of a copy on 5 Feburary, and in due course he published his reply to it, in sections [the present work]' Drake, Galileo at work, pp Liceti discusses Galileo's Sidereus nuncius, his observations of sunspots, and other findings, along with the theories of Brahe, Kepler, Snell, and others. The nature of galaxies and the possible plurality of worlds are also examined.

The fourth preliminary leaf is a catalogue of Liceti's works, 44 titles listed. Fortunio Liceti, a friend and adversary of Galileo, was an Aristotelian university man '"of great reputation" as one can read in [Galileo's] Dialogue , the great teratologist, professor of philosophy and medicine at the University of Bologna. Professor Liceti had an incomparable intellectual formation in medicine, literary and archaeological erudition, and astronomy and natural philosophy.

He knew a good twenty-two hypotheses on comets and all the theories of Aristotle's commentators on the nature of light. Signatures: pi 2 A-Ee 4 Ff6 -a4. Contemporary vellum recased, slight staining and soiling, little worming to lower spine and boards , endpapers renewed.

Scattered uneven browning of text some pages stronger , occasional minor spotting, few pages with old ink signatures. Provenance: Franco Sanguineti contemporary signature to second flyleaf. Galileo and Orazio Grassi, a Jesuit mathematician, disagreed about Grassi's work on the comets of , and Il Saggiatore was one of Galileo's printed ripostes. As Galileo had been forbidden since to espouse or defend Copernican theory, he avoided direct discussion of the earth's motion, choosing instead the more subtle method of establishing a general scientific approach to the investigation of celestial phenomena.

He claimed that no theory of comets could be advanced unless it were proved that comets were concrete moving objects and not solar-generated optic effects - a proof he stated was impossible" Norman It is still read today in Italian language classes in Italy as a fine example of the use of rhetoric devices in the Italian language" P. Machamer, The Cambridge Companion to Galileo, , p.

The first edition exists in various states. The points usually taken as identifying the first issue are: thick paper; the engraving on p. In our copy, the engraving on p. In confirmation of this opinion, there is the fact that this additional matter was printed on paper with a different watermark from that found in the rest of the book" Catalogue XI, no. Editore: In Firenze : [Nella stamp. Descrizione: In Firenze : [Nella stamp. Published: In Firenze : [Nella stamp.

Editore: alla Condotta Descrizione: alla Condotta, Florence, Gugliantini, With presentation inscription to verso of half-title of first work signed by Viviani.

Bound in contemporary calf with spine in six compartments. A wonderfully fresh copy, light toning and foxing to one or two leaves, otherwise excellent. First complete edition second; first , see below of this important Galileianum, an assembly of previously unpublished writings by Galileo, together with texts by Torricelli and Viviani himself, inscribed by Viviani to an unknown scored receipient.

Galileo died January 9, Though on his deathbed, it was to be the beginning of still another book continuing the discussion between his three old interlocutors from the Two New Sciences. As a young man, Galileo was profoundly influenced by the Elements, especially Books Five and Six which contained the Eudoxian theory of proportion.

Editore: London : Printed by William Leybourn Descrizione: London : Printed by William Leybourn, Condizione: Used: Acceptable. First Edition. Rare 1st English edition of Galileo's Dialogo. Tome 1 of Galileo's Dialogues bound in 5 volumes. Rarely found complete due to the destruction of most copies in the Great Fire of London. Good bindings and covers. Collated: ; pp. Incomplete and defective: The first volume title page, dedications and pages to p. Loss a third of page Lacks the final part of Castellus' discourses.

Scattered marginal tears professionally restored. Margins trimmed; with the Castellus volume having the most severely shaved margins. Soiling and damp staining, affecting text to First Dialogue and Castellus Discourse. Spotting throughout. One leaf in the 3rd and 4th dialogues has a tear with partial loss to the text.

Please see our pictures and ask questions for additional details. Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is one of the most ground breaking books written in scientific philosophy. It harnessed Copernicus's mathematics with Galileo's own observations made with a telescope, ultimately destroying the earth centric model of Ptolemy and the unmoving earth model of Aristotle. The seemingly circuitous form of the Dialogue reflects its origins, it was written in Florence under restrictions from the Inquisition's censors.

Galileo had been banned by the Church in for teaching the Copernican view. As a result, the work is organized as a discussion between an advocate of the Copernican heliocentric model, an advocate of Ptolemy's earth centered model ever so discretely named Simplicius, in perhaps a bit of cheek and an educated man they wish to convince. Galileo's obvious deception didn't go unnoticed and as a result he was tried for heresy in The book was banned and placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum by the Church and not removed until The importance of Galileo's work is that it contributed to the liberation of science and inquiry from the suppression of Church domination.

This liberation of thought allowed for the progressive discoveries in the age of reason and ultimately the development of our modern world.

In the form of an opening discussion between friends - intellectually speaking, a radical, a conservative, and an agnostic - it is a masterly polemic for the new science. It displays all the great discoveries in the heavens which the ancients had ignored; it inveighs against the sterility, willfulness, and ignorance of those who defend their systems; it revels in the simplicity of Copernican thought and, above all, it teaches that the movement of the earth makes sense in philosophy, that is, in physics.

Astronomy and the science of motion, rightly understood, says Galileo, are hand in glove. There is no need to fear that the earth's rotation will cause it to fly to pieces. So Galileo picked up one thread that led straight to Newton. The Dialogo, far more than any other work, made the heliocentric system a commonplace. Every fear of Galileo's enemies was justified; only their attempts to stifle thought were vain. Full List of contents: Tome 1, pt. Galileus Galileus, his Systeme of the world -- II. Foscarinus, his epistle to Father Fantonus, reconciling the authority of Scripture, and judgments of divines alledged against this system -- t.

Benedictus Castellus, his Discourse of the mensuration of running waters -- II. His Geometrical demonstrations of the measure of running waters -- III. First translation in any vernacular for years. This is an oversized or heavy book, that requires additional postage for international delivery outside the US. Two volumes in one. In addition to Galileo's texts, this edition includes following conclusion of the Dialogo the introduction to "Astronomia nova" pp.

Period full vellum over boards, titled in manuscript to spine, edges speckled black, plain period end papers. A handsome, unsophisticated copy, rare in this condition. Vellum soiled and stained, scattered minor foxing, some thumbing to final few leaves, but a tight, clean example. Carli and Favaro Dibner 8 and Norman Galileo's discoveries with the telescope described in Sidereus nuncius, in , confirmed his belief that the Sun is the center of the solar system and Earth a planet, as Copernicus had argued. But by , the Inquisition had pronounced Copernican theory heretical, and Galileo was admonished not to "hold or defend" it.

Then in , Maffeo Cardinal Barberini, friend, admirer, and patron of Galileo for a decade, was named Pope Urban VIII, and granted Galileo permission to write a book about theories of the universe but warned him to treat the Copernican theory only hypothetically. In it, Galileo gathered together all the arguments mostly based on his own telescopic discoveries for the Copernican theory and against the traditional geocentric cosmology put forth by Ptolemy and Aristotle. The Dialogo takes the form of a discussion between a spokesman for Copernicus, one for Ptolemy and Aristotle, and an educated layman for whose support the other two vie.

Reaction against the book was swift. The pope convened a special commission, which recommended that the Inquisition bring a case against Galileo. Galileo confessed to having overstated his case and was condemned to life imprisonment, though he never spent a day in a dungeon; the Dialogo remained on the Inquisition's Index of prohibited books until The two new sciences with which the second book deals are mechanics and motion kinematics.

Together, they underlie modern physics, and the Two Sciences is considered the "first modern textbook in physics" Dibner , "not only because it contains the elements of the mathematical treatment of motion, but also because most of the problems that came rather quickly to be seen as problems amenable to physical experiment and mathematical analysis were gathered together with suggestive discussions of their possible solution. With few exceptions always identified , we only stock books in exceptional condition, with dust jackets carefully preserved in archival, removable polypropylene sleeves.

All orders are packaged with care and posted promptly. Satisfaction guaranteed. Codice articolo BB Mutder; many vignetts and illustrations in text. Binding slightly scratched, headband on the top partly torn.

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Number of time stamped and ensured with old owners-comments. Very good condition. Extremely rare. Codice articolo A Editore: Lugduni [Lyon], Sumptibus Ioan. Huguetan, Descrizione: Lugduni [Lyon], Sumptibus Ioan. Small 4to. Complete with additional engraved title, title in red and black with engraved publisher's device, engraved portrait by C.