Simon Fraser served in Portugal from and again during from to His service in Portugal doubtless explains his excellent command of the language. In the present letter Fraser offers to serve D. Joo, the Prince Regent later D. Joo VI in any possible way. Fraser explains that he is writing to him because General Forbes, of whom he had been accustomed to ask such favors, had died. Fraser had served with the Highlanders in the Seven Years War, seeing action at Louisbourg and Quebec in and witnessing the surrender of the French at Montreal in From to he joined his protector, Simon Fraser , master of Lovat , in the Portuguese service.
During the American War of Independence he was senior captain in the 71st Highlanders, losing an eye at Danbury and fighting at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and Charleston. After the war he went on half pay until the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars, when he was promoted to majorgeneral and in , sent to serve in Portugal under Sir Charles Stuart, commanding an auxiliary force of French exiles until From on his posts were in England and Scotland.
Chichester, rev. Alastair W. Circa Folio 32 x Written in ink, in tidy chancery hands of the seventeenth century, with a different hand also early for the title. The first leaf of the first section of manuscript is on papel sellado with a maravedi stamp bearing the date The second manuscript is written throughout on papel sellado with a maravedi stamp, also bearing the date Laid into the second work, after the fourth leaf, is an engraving A few stains on the upper wrapper; minor darkening at edges.
Contemporary signatures of witnesses, etc. Octavo-size leaf laid in with table of contents, dated 9 September The title on the upper wrapper reads, Ihs. M Joseph [Jesus Maria Joseph].
Ramer, R. - Manuscripts 1556-1950s SL174 20130411
The engraving laid into the second work is a dark, clear impression of a plate probably executed in the eighteenth century. It includes the arms of Navarre, a double-headed eagle, two lions rampant, a crown, the motto Nomen sempiter-. Signed at Valladolid, Madrid, San Lorenzo, etc. Written in ink, in a variety of small, even, very legible hands. In very good condition. The documents represent a remarkable, unpublished source for the history of the High Court of Guatemala during the first quarter of the seventeenth century, covering such subjects as the conquest and pacification of Indians in Honduras, granting of encomiendas, diversion of royal monies, establishment of missions and convents, and disciplining of politically active priests.
Through them we find out what the local customs of patronage and of usurpation of royal prerogative were. Through the reiteration of previously issued decrees we discover which decrees the court was ignoring, using the famous doctrine of obedezco pero no cumplo. Through these decrees we glimpse royal patronage and royal displeasure. The broad categories are requests for information, demands for action, and orders ending existing practices. An example of the Crowns requests for information is a decree of 4 December The king sometimes received complaints that were best handled extrajudicially, often involving political activities of clerics, over whom the civil and criminal courts did not have jurisdiction and with whom, the authorities felt, the ecclesiastical courts would deal ineffectively.
In one case, the governor of Honduras complained to the king that the dean of the church in Comayagua was disrupting attempts to recruit men for the defense of the port of Trujillo. The king expected that the audiencias information would be unbiased because of its physical and emotional distance from the local politics and squabbling in Honduras. An example of the Crowns demands for action is an ominous inquiry handed down on 28 June The king had discovered that foreigners were living in the New World.
Since they were there illegally, he demanded a list of them and inventories of their possessions and land holdings. This was the beginning of the oppression of Portuguese settlers who had moved to the New World during the Babylonian Captivity of Portugal by Spain. Usually, however, the royal demands for action were grants of royal patronage or largesse, such as the order dated 10 July , requiring the audiencia to administer the terms.
On 4 July , he ordered the court to give a chalice and bell to the mission church in Trindad de Sonsanate. The Crown was fully aware that the distance between it and its New World provinces would result in the development of local customs and practices. To a large extent, it tolerated these deviations.
For example, on 31 May , Philip accepted the audiencias appointment of the majordomo of the Royal Hospital. At other times, however, the Crown ordered the end of local practices: on 12 December , the king ordered the audiencia to stop subdividing encomiendas and parceling the subsections out as parts of government pensions.
According to Clarence Haring dean of American scholars of colonial Latin America in the ss , the audiencia high court was the most important and interesting institution in the government of the Spanish Indies. It was, he notes, the center, the core, of the administrative system, the principal curb upon oppression and illegality of the viceroys and other governors. The first audiencia was established in in Santo Domingo. Others sprang up as the Spaniards explored and settled the Americas.
The Audiencia of Guatemala, which came into existence on 20 November , through the New Laws, had a troubled and peripatetic beginning.
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The present collection documents various unstudied aspects of the presidencies of Dr. Alonso Criado de Castilla , D. Diego de Acua More detailed description and calendar are available upon request. Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, pp. MacLeod, Spanish Central America, pp. Joo 5 escreveo Eighteenth-century manuscript ca. Written in ink, in a clear, legible hand. Internally fine. Armorial bookplate of the Condes do Bomfim.
Twenty-seven of the 28 works in this manuscript were subsequently printed in different order in the Coleco de varios escritos ineditos politicos e litterarios, Porto, The letters and opinions cover a wide range geographicallyPortugal, Europe, India, Angola, Braziland an equally wide range of diplomatic, ecclesiastical and business affairs. A lengthy analysis written in to the Governor of Colonia do Sacramento concerns the Treaty of Madrid, which had set new boundaries for the Spanish and Portuguese possessions in America and which Gusmo had helped to negotiate.
Joo 5 pp. It varies in word. In the Clculo, Gusmo explains to the king the financial problems of Portugal simply, in mercantilist terms, and with frequent references to the Portuguese possessions in Asia, Africa, and America. Based on the steady decrease in the amount of gold produced in Brazil and Portugals unfavorable balance of trade, he gives specific estimates of what he anticipates as a sharp decrease in the money supply in Portugal. On the final page of the surviving text, he recommends measures D. Joo can take to alleviate the problem, including that he not allow an increase in the number of gente inutil under the pretense of religion; that he increase the nobility mal entendida; and that he institute laws against luxury.
The missing text added three more suggestions and the authors closing statement. Gusmo became councilor and private secretary to D. Joo V in and a member of the Conselho Ultramarinho in , a position he held even after D. Joos death in Given the concern over diminishing gold in Brazil, this essay probably dates to the s.
Gusmo , a native of Santos, So Paulo, was called by Amzalak one of the five best mercantilist authors quoted in Hanson, Economy and Society in Baroque Portugal , p. Provenance: Armorial bookplate Condes do Bomfim appears beneath the arms ; see Avelar Duarte, Ex-libris portugueses herldicos p. The first Conde, Jos Lucio Travassos Valdez , served in the Peninsular Wars and was in charge of putting down both the rebellion under the Conde de Amarante in and the Miguelist insurrection in Trs-os-Montes a few years later. When the Maria da Fonte movement broke out he was named commander of the government forces in the south, but having been captured in late by the Duque de Saldanha, was deported along with his two eldest sons to Angola for the duration of the war.
Late eighteenthcentury manuscript on paper in Portuguese, probably from early in the reign of D. Maria I, ca. Written in ink, in a neat, legible hand of the late eighteenth century. Very good condition overall. Fine internally. It is a history of Portugal with emphasis on the broad outlines of its legal history, from the Romans and Visigoths through the time of D.
Jos, allotting considerable space to D. Manuel and Duarte Nunes de Leo. The anonymous author is fairly critical, mentioning flaws he has found in Barbosa Machados lives of eminent jurists. This part of the manuscript ends with a comment that D. Jos I, de saudoza memoria d. Maria I will continue the work. By , Portugal was effectively ruled by D.
Marias son, the future D. Joo VI, so this section of the manuscript probably dates to ca. We surmise that this first section was written by a different author than the main part of the text; it is certainly in a different hand. Not located in Porbase. Not located in Copac. Systema do Direito de Portugal. Written in an elegant, calligraphic hand of the late eighteenth century, after The purpose of this work seems to be to present an overview of current Portuguese law.
For instance, the author describes the duties of various magistrates as they have evolved over the years, with frequent references to statutes. The text was perhaps composed when the chief minister of D. Jos I ruled , the Marqus de Pombal, was contemplating a massive reform of Portuguese law, as mentioned in the Historia juridica. A law of is mentioned on the final leaf. Further study of the legislation cited so copiously throughout the manuscript might narrow the date even further, but the period seems likely. The works first main division Livro 1 is entitled Do Direito Publico.
Since there is no Livro 2 , we assume that part of the manuscript was lostor perhaps it was never composed. Included in the volume as it stands are the following chapters of Livro 1. Do Direito Legislativo 2. Artigos are on magistrates, judges, and arbiters. Do Direito de impr penas, in 26 sections 4. Manuscript on paper in Portuguese, late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. Written in ink, in a small, tidy, legible hand.
A few quires lightly browned. Includes one leaf of papel sellado 10 reis, stamped in black, undated; p. Early manuscript pagination. It was probably a work such as Justus Henning Bhmers Doctrina de actionibus ad praxin hodiernam et novissimam ordinationem The work of German jurists during the eighteenth century liberated law from the influence of Roman law and was influential throughout Europe.
We suspect this manuscript was done by a law student for his personal use. Casa dos Vinte e Quatro. Anno de M. Manuscript on excellent quality, thick paper, in Portuguese. Probably at Lisbon, Folio 36 x 25 cm. Title page triple ruled with calligraphic ornaments at corners. All leaves except the final one with red vertical rules creating margins about 3. Written in ink, in the same large, very legible hand throughout.
Fine to very fine internally. Early or contemporary foliation. After the title page, only the following leaves have text: ; ; ; Joo I. Consisting of 24 officials representing the twelve mechanical offices, it was a deliberative body, requiring a majority vote before putting into practice any measures. Members of the house, who had to be 40 years old, were elected by a vote of two-thirds of the masters of their respective guilds. Later this institution spread to other municipalities in Portugal, and even to some overseas cities in the Portuguese Empire.
In smaller municipalities within Portugal, similar councils consisted of 12 officials, and were known as Casas dos Doze. With the implementation of the liberal regime in Portugal, the Casas dos Vinte e Quatro became extinct by virtue of a decree of 7 May The present manuscript provides a snapshot of the Lisbon Casa dos Vinte e Quatro just prior to new regulations instituted under the Marqus de Pombal in Perhaps it was even prepared to assist in drafting the new regulations. He was a passionate book collector, frequenting auctions and bookshops from the s until shortly prior to his death.
See also C. Boxer, Portuguese Society in the Tropics. Epicedio saudosa memoria do nosso amavel Soberano, o Senhor D. Black border on all pages. Overall fine. Stitched together with manuscript letters see below. Printed text plus 2 letters. Joo VI 13 May March The author, born in Porto ca. The date of his death is unknown. Presumably he was still alive when Uma poeta nonagenario despedindo-se da sua musa e cantando a sua vida was published in Porto, Joo VI, elegia Porto, Typ.
Porbase locates a single copy, at the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal. Fair copies [? Both letters written in ink, in the same small, very legible hand. In the first letter, dated 8 April , Jos Agostinho de Macedo writes to Mesquita e Mello to acknowledge receipt of an Elegia, another poem written by Mesquita e Mello following the death of D. Joo VI. Macedo hails Mesquita e Mellos Elegia as excellente, e mui judicioza e sublime and compares its author to the great blind poets such as Homer and La Moth.
Macedo had been asked to speak a funeral oration for D. Joo, and promised to send a copy of the oration to Mesquita e Mello. In the second letter, dated 14 April , Mesquita e Mello calls Macedo o maior sabio de huma Nao and o esmalto de Literatura Portuguesa. Jos Agostinho de Macedo was a prolific writer of prose and verse, best known for his pamphleteering: Ponderous and angry like a lesser Samuel Johnson, he bullies and crushes his opponents in the raciest vernacular his idiomatic and vigorous prose will always be read with pleasure Bell, Portuguese Literature p.
Macedo was also well known for his arrogance in literary matters: he condemned as worthless Homers poems, which he had never read in the original, and believed his own epic Gama, reworked and published as O Oriente, , could have taught Cames how Os Lusiadas should have been written. Toward the end of his life Macedo became Court preacher and chronicler, and a friend of D.
Francisco Manuel de. Il gran picciolo. Vita e morte del serafino humano Francesco dAssisi. Manuscript on paper, in Italian. Full-page pen-and-ink coat of arms of the Princess dAveiro on recto of the first. An apparently unpublished and unrecorded contemporary Italian translation of Manuel de Mellos El mayor pequeo, first published Lisbon , in Spanish, and subsequently printed at Lisbon , Zaragoza , and Alcal and , and in the authors Obras morales, Rome Given the numerous changes in wording in the text, this may very well be the translators working copy.
In his dedication, dated 10 November ? The signature at the end of the dedication is difficult to decipher J. The translator refers to himself several times as a Capuchin. He states that during his stay in Lisbon he acted as confessor to the dedicatee and that he carried the gift of a painting from her to Pope Innocent Xs grandchild the Principessa Ludovisia. The dedicatee is D. Maria Principessa dAvero, who must be D.
Maria Guadalupe de Lencastre , a noted painter perhaps the painting sent to Italy was her own work? She became sixth Duquesa de Aveiro in , after her brother the fourth Duque de Aveiro transferred his allegiance to Spain and another brother, the fifth Duque, died. Agostinho de Santa Marias Santuariano mariano. El mayor pequeo is a life of St. Francis of Assisi, for whom D. Francisco Manuel de Mello was named. It was written in , while he was imprisoned in Portugal.
He comments on it in his Apologos dialogaes: Lipsio. Ouvi que neste livro vos arguio de confuso para historiador e de affectado para moral; que para livro de devoo comprehendia sobeja cultura, e para de relao reprehensivel brevidade. Confesso que nem Chronica nem Soliloquios; mas para conduzir a gente a qualquer leytura honesta quanto mais piedoza , he necessario dourar lhe a pirola, como ao enfermo quoted in Prestage, p. Francisco Manuel de Mello led a romantic and adventurous life and established himself as a major figure in Portuguese and Spanish literature, ranking with Quevedo among seventeenth-century Iberian writers.
Born into the highest Portuguese nobility, he began both his military and literary careers at the age of Shipwrecked near St.
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Jean de Luz in while sailing with a Hispano-Portuguese armada protecting an American treasure fleet he was forced to supervise the burial of more than 2, men who perished , he was sent with the Conde de Linhares to quell the vora insurrection in , fought in the battle of the Downs in , and the following year took part in the campaign against the Catalan rebels.
Suspected of favoring an independent Portugal, he was jailed in Spain in Only a few years later , when he returned to Portugal, he was imprisoned in turn by D. Joo IV, some said on a charge of murder, others said because he was D. Joos rival for a ladys affections. The year saw him deported to Bahia, but in he was pardoned, recalled from exile, and sent on the first of several. Written in ink by a single hand, minute but legible, with copious corrections and three pasted-on corrections. Lightly browned. The last 20 leaves are lightly dampstained; the last two leaves heavily so.
A few edges lightly frayed, occasionally touching a letter. The ink has oxidized in places, eating 2 small holes through the first leaf. Overall good. Originally he wrote in Spanish; it was only when he had passed his fortieth year that he published his first work in Portuguese: Carta de guia de casados , one of the great classics of Portuguese prose. Francisco Manuel de Mello, esboo biographico pp.
Libro de la destreza berdadera de las armas. Manuscript on paper, in Spanish. Written in ink, in a seventeenthcentury hand, large and fairly legible, with copious corrections and annotations. Occasional light dampstaining and soiling. The manuscript consists of two books: a lengthy Adbirtencias praticas y primeros principios para el conosimiento de lo que se ubiere de dezir o ensear en este Libro in numbered sections; and a shorter Primeros principios y fundamentos para comensar [? Following this section are two apparently earlier working drafts and a fragment of a third of the first book, plus several incomplete drafts of the second book.
The sequence of composition is unclear, for each draft includes substantial alterations and additions not present in the others. The substantial corrections and annotations suggest that it is in the hand of the author, and was perhaps being prepared for publication: the opening leaves include a dedication to the Conde de Peaflor and sonnets addressed to the author among them several by other fencing masters and another by a physician.
The pagination is erratic, and some leaves of the preliminary drafts appear to have been lost as noted above or perhaps even discarded intentionally after revision, but the total of leaves approximately corresponds to that given by Palau and Leguina. The title, author, and date of the work are engraved on ruled lines within a cartouche on one of the opening leaves. On the following leaf is a naively engraved portrait of the author, with his coat of arms above, the words Ludovicus Mendes de Carmona nobilissimae totius civitatis Escegae natus etatis sue 66 annorum around the oval frame, and at the top of the engraving the motto, Por las armas y las letras se goviernan el mundo.
On the next leaf, the dedication, an engraved coat of armspresumably those of the dedicateehas been tipped. Little is known of Mendes de Carmona other than that he was born no later than and was a native of cija between Crdoba and Seville. The dedication to the manuscript implies that he was a fencing master in Seville. Provenance: The manuscript described by Palau is noted as having appeared in the Edouard de Beaumont sale Paris, 6 June , en aquel Catlogo fu descrito por primera vez.
It later sold for frs. We have not been able to examine a copy of the de Beaumont sale catalogue. Our manuscript, however, evidently passed through the French book trade: several pencilled notes in French appear on the recto of the front flyleaf, and the words Vente de Beaumont are pencilled on the front pastedown. Leguina apparently describing the same manuscript, with ll. Thimm p. Jos de. Joz de Menezes com seu cazamento na jornada a Viena, joyas, e concerto da caza, e os dias da sua chegada.
Signed at Lisbon, 23 January Folio 36 x Written in ink, in a large, legible hand. First blank leaf detached; internally fine. Records the expenses incurred by D. Jos de Menezes during his trip to Vienna in to marry D. Luiza Gonzaga, Countess of Rappach. Travel expenses are listed as well as expenditures for a portrait of himself and among other items for diamonds, furniture, cloth, tailors, silverware, plates and chocolate. The entries vary in quality; some include names of sellers.
The sellers are more likely agents and middlemen than the actual purveyors of the products; on p. The document is signed at the end by D. Diogo de Menezes y Tavora and Francisco de Mello. The Menezes family had close ties with Austria. Joss father, D. Maria Anna and her Estribeiro mor married an Austrian lady-in-waiting of D. Joo Vs queen, D. Maria Anna of Austria. Jos was the second child and eldest son, born in When he returned to Portugal after his wedding, his wife became a lady-in-waiting to the queen.
Joo IV by His Emissary. Autograph letter, signed Manuel Montr, addressed to D. Signed at Angra do Herosmo, 8 April Written in ink, in a dense but legible hand. Fold lines. Short tears at head and foot, without loss. Two 3-cm. Remains of old adhesive or tissue repair? A few small holes at gutter, again without loss of text. Minor soiling. Early filing notes at top of first leaf: Relao original que mandaro a ElRey D. Joo o 4 os Pdes. Soon after D. Joos behalf with D. Alvaro de Vieiros, the Spanish commander. Monteiro arrived in January In this report to D.
Joo, he describes the behavior and armament of the Spaniards as well as the progress of the negotiations. He also analyzes events to date and cites two possible threats to the situation on the island. Philippe began on 27 March , about a week before this letter was written. It lasted until the Spanish surrender on 4 March , when the Spaniards were permitted to retreat with their personal arms and two bronze artillery pieces.
The surrender of the fort ended Spanish dominion on Terceira. Joos patron saint. Throughout the seventeenth century, the Fortress of So Joo Baptista on Terceira was strategically crucial because the Azores were a haven for ships carrying goods to and from the Americas. However, the Azores were vulnerable to attacks by Dutch, English, and French privateers. Hence after Philip II of Spain was crowned king of Portugal, one of his priorities was to build a fortress at Monte Brasil, where it dominated the city of Angra and protected the harbor of Terceira.
Philippe , the fortress was begun in or , and the main wall may have been completed by For the same strategic reasons, D. Joo made capturing the fort one of his first priorities after his acclamation. In the Porto Liberal Revolution of , the fort was the first place Liberal troops took control of 2 April From to it was the home of Gungunhana, the emperor of Gaza Mozambique who rebelled against the Portuguese in Under Salazar, it was used to detain political prisoners.
He published biographies of St. Francis Xavier, St. Ignatius of Loyola, and P. Jos Anchieta, as well as numerous works on religious subjects. OCLC lists a printed work whose title appears to be the same as the filing note on this copy, allowing for variants in transcription: Relao. Original que mandaro a el-rey d. Joo o 4 os padres da comp[anhi]a do que soccedeo na ilha 3, quando chegou a nota. Publicada por Martinho da Fonseca. The date is given as Angra e de abril de We have located only one copy of this offprint in the United States and three in Portugal.
Author not in Backer-Sommervogel. Ten autograph letters, signed, to the Condessa de Rio Maior on the education of her son at the University of Coimbra. Mostly written at Coimbra, April to July Some foldlines. Fine condition. These 10 letters are reports by a leading Portuguese pedagogue on the academic progress of D.
Antnio was studying law at the University of Coimbra. The letters, dating from April to July , include comments on D. Antonios studies and the results of his exams. In he served briefly as civil governor of Coimbra. His wife, D. Maria II, was a prominent figure in her own right, known for her charitable works. The Rio Maior library of the Casa da Anunciada was one of the best private libraries ever formed in Portugal.
Most of it was dispersed not long after the Portuguese revolution of April Henrique ONeill , descendant of an Irish family that arrived in Portugal during the eighteenth century, was a distinguished and literate man. After receiving his degree in law from Coimbra he taught Portuguese at Gttingen, then returned to Lisbon. In he became perceptor of D. Carlos and D. Afonso, the sons of D.
Luiss consort. For these services he was named Visconde de Santa Monica. Five autograph letters, signed, to Ea de Queiroz. Dated from 23 August to 28 January The focus of the letters is the mutual interest of Oliveira and Ea de Queiroz in various projects, mostly journal articles. Also included are discussions of Eas reaction to a proposed literary project, Eas detailed comments on a recent book by Oliveira, and Portuguese periodicals such as the Revista de Portugal, edited by Ea de Queiroz Oliveira mentions Antnio Nobre and Eugnio de Castro, two well known literary figures.
He founded and occupied the eighth chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. According to Carpeaux, foi o representante mximo das virtudes - e dos defeitos - do estilo parnasiano. Jos Maria de Ea de Queiroz is described by no less an authority than Bell as the greatest Portuguese novelist of the realistic school.
Bell also notes, It was O Crime do Padro Amaro , in which he grafted the naturalistic novel on the quiet little town of Leiria, and the two notable if unpleasant Lisbon stories O Primo Baslio and Os Maias , that marked him out as the most powerful writer of the time in Portugal No one can deny that his works have an originality of their own as well as power and personal charm, and all contain some striking character-sketches or delightful descriptions that are not easily forgotten.
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- Synonyms and antonyms of planturoso in the Portuguese dictionary of synonyms?
Pginas de Memrias ? On Oliveira, see Wilson Martins, Histria da inteligncia brasileira IV, and more than 20 other pages; V, 56 and more than 20 other pages; also Carpeaux, Pequena bibliografia crtica da literatura brasileira, pp. Manuscript in Portuguese, on paper.
Lisbon, 23 September Upper cover has green-bordered paper tag with Guilherme Couvreur dOliveira Apontamentos in manuscript. Pale blue, blind-ruled paper. Sixteen neatly executed pen-and-ink illustrations in the text. The binding, despite the wear to the spine, is in good condition; internally the condition is very fine. At the top of the first page is the title Uma viagem frica Occidental. In the middle of p. This is an apparently unpublished account of a voyage from Lisbon to the West coast of Africa and back, from 22 June to 23 September , aboard the paquete Ambaca.
The pen and ink illustrations are sketches, including a fish native to Cabo Verdean waters, an African sailboat, and other small African craft, but mostly costal views as sighted from shipboard. All appear to be hunters. At the end is a brief section pointing out the dietary and health merits of various types of game in comparison to farm-raised animals, demonstrating the significantly lower cholesterol in dishes comprised of wild animals.
Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller 1. Published by Sociedade Astoria, Lisboa About this Item: Sociedade Astoria, Lisboa, Capa Mole. Condition: Fair. Primeiro Volume e Unico Publicado. Ilustrado com Mapas Gravuras e Retratos Com dedicatoria na folha de rosto p. Lang: Portugues. More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Published by Paris, n. About this Item: Paris, n. Reinforced at gutter of first and final leaves with a strip of paper.
Overall good condition. Front wrapper has old paper ticket with red border, perforated edges, and ink manuscript shelfmark; also old ink manuscript author, title and date. Lieutenant-General Gomes Freire de Andrade was tried and executed as the leader of the conspiracy against Marshal Beresford and the Portuguese government; he was hailed soon afterwards as one of the martyrs of Portuguese liberty.
He wrote several other elegies. Palha For the first edition, see Inventario dos livros, jornaes, manuscriptos, e mappas do Dr. Ernesto do Canto p. Neither edition in Canto, Ensaio bibliographico. Porbase does not cite the edition, locating three copies of the present edition in the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal.
Not located in Copac. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Published by Lisbon, na Typ. Rollandiana, About this Item: Lisbon, na Typ. Typographical headpiece on p. Light soiling on first and final pages, but overall very good to fine. The poem to D. Pedro de Alcantara the future Emperor D. Pedro I of Brazil, and King D. This is one of Castilho's earliest works; the first to appear separately was Epicedio na sentida morte da Augustissima Senhora D. That expansion also expanded the borders of Brazil and the area under the Magisterium administration to close as what they are today.
These expeditions lasted for years and were intended primarily to find precious stones and valuable metals such as gold and silver, as well as to "clean" the newfound areas of Indigenous tribes. Despite the political and economic importance of the Bandeiras to the Brazilian history, these expeditions were largely responsible for the extermination of indigenous peoples in Southern and Midwestern Brazil. The reason for the restoration was the crisis caused by the wars of Spain, against Portugal's former allies, like England and the Netherlands, which led them to attack its most distant domains.
In exchange for the Brazilian help, the Duke swore that his dynasty would respect the Charter of Rights and increased the privileges of the COU. Before the Iberian Union, Portugal and the Netherlands were great allies, the Dutch funded the sugar enterprise in Brazil. The sugar sent to Portugal was sold to the Dutch, who refined it and laid it out for sale in all Europe. But the Netherlands was in a bloody war of independence against Spain, and Portugal was merged into the last.
The Spanish king saw the ban on Portuguese trade with the Netherlands as a way to weak the Dutch.
Translation of «planturoso» into 25 languages
On the other hand, the Dutch realized that they would only have the sugar trade back if they conquered its producing areas. Despite failing in an attempt to occupy Salvador capital of the colony and New Florence, the Dutch defeated the Defense Forces and conquered the coast of Pernambuco, a less protected area and the largest sugar producer, in Thanks to governor John Maurice of Nassau, the Dutch government was well regarded by the Pernambucans. He built a large infrastructure, urbanized and beautified the new capital, Recife, kept the civil rights of Brazilian citizens, besides being great patron of the arts.
Nassau, known inP Europe as " the Brazilian ", became extremelly amazed with Brazil. Because of that, he was well seen by the pernambucans and, extrapolating the WIC's interests to the region, he founded a "little Holland" in Brazil, bringing to the region many of Dutch developments and political estructures. He decided to turn Recife a modern capital like any other on the Netherlands and equal, if not better, to New Florence and Salvador, a project he called Mauritsstad. Nassau founded the Maurician University, parks, bridges, cannals, palaces, theaters, gardens and astronomical observatories.
In , Nassau was sent back to Europe and a new and oppressive government was installed, bringing the remnant of the Dutch supporters to the Portuguese side. The war between Portugal and the Netherlands extended even after Portugal's independence from Spain, in Without strength to regain their colony, Portugal was about to give it up. But in , in the so-called Last Flemish War, the Dutch were expelled from Brazil and Angola by the Defence Forces and Brazilian militias and the belligerents signed peace.
By the Treaty of The Hague, the Netherlands was indemnified in eight million florins, and received the Malabar, Portugal received its colonies back with the promise that the Dutch would give up of them. As for the remaining supporters of the Dutch in Brazil, they were expelled from the colony. It is known that the larger community to migrate from Recife was of a Jewish community who fled to North America, specifically New York, and many of their descendants actively participated in the American history. During the Magisterial Period, freedom and economic prosperity allowed a breakthrough of science and philosophy.
In , the Bahian Alvaro Correia Torres, published one of the masterpieces of world scientific press. The work: Analisis Naturalis Brasiliae had 12 volumes with all the knowledge acquired so far about the Brazilian fauna and flora and their applications. The same year, the New Florentine Manuel de Nobrega discovered a new metal, manganese, and created with it an alloy that made a more resistant, shiny and malleable steel.
The New Florentine steel , forged with a rather innovative technique at the time, became the most expensive steel and a luxurious product. By the end of the century, swords, guns, and cannons of made of New Florentine steel were exported all over the world, generating sizeable profits to Brazilian traders, and boosting the metallurgical industry in Brazil. Although it was the subject of detailed analysis by the Europeans and the Chinese, the secret of its composition was only discovered in the 19th century, one hundred year after manganese was discovered in Europe.
Other Brazilian products were also discovered at that time. The ollancelus Latin: olam, pot, and caelum , sky. Sky-colored pot was a form of pottery invented in Heraclion. It was adorned with relief sculptures, usually in sky blue color hence the name. It became so valued as Chinese porcelain in Europe. It was also valued in China, where the elites spent considerable sums of silver to buy it. Already in this period the press became widely present in colonial life.
The first printing press was brought from Europe by Giuliano di Medici in By , there were at least printer in the colony and more than 75 daily papers and periodicals. Stimulated by the combination of freedom and the presence of foreign immigrants, Brazil had a cultural flowering period marked by the foundation of reading societies, discussion groups, bookstores, periodicals and scientific societies.
Publishing and books, magazines and newspapers obtained supplies an expanded the market, thanks to the increasing of literacy rate. As soon as , the Magisterium had established a widespread compulsory education program, focusing mainly on reading, writing and basic calculations. The Schooling Act of commanded every municipality with more than families to establish a school for everyone paid for by the citizens.
The law also required every town having more than 50 families to hire a teacher, and confirmed the requirement of every town of more than families to establish a school. The Brazilian zeal for learning was reflected in the early and rapid rise of educational institutions; e. The program's reach, however, could not go beyond the towns and neighboring rural areas. In more isolated areas, more isolated from the cities, education was achieved mostly without formal schooling, libraries, or printed book.
Parents were riquired by law to teach their children how to write and read. Informal tuition by religious leaders and peasant teachers were also very common on more isolated areas. The Protestant and Jewish population, giving the need to read their religious texts, were the most literate, with even the most isolated households achieving literacy through the teachings of older generations. The literacy rate was also high among the Indigenous peoples who lived in the Jesuit and other religious missions. These changes paved the way for the entry of Enlightenment in the colony, and its flowering in between the late 17th century and through the 18th century.
Besides the sugar produced in large slave-based plantations, Brazilian agriculture was very diversified. The main agricultural products were cassava, maize and potato. In the South, especially near Laguna and in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina mountains, European and Asian fruits such as strawberry, raspberry, pear, apple, grape, peach, plum, and others were grown. There was in the colony a prosperous extractive activity.
There, they were processed and exported to Europe. Also in the South, from the 17th century, the Jesuits expanded their missions. At the same time, the infusion of yerba mate, a plant native of the region, became appreciated by the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, the Arab kingdoms and Scandinavian countries such as Sweden and Denmark.
These activities enabled the Society of Jesus to accumulate some wealth, and beautify their missions. A miracle of engineering, some canals cutting through sierras. This also enabled the development of an important waterway transport network in the major canals along the colonial period, connecting the region's economy. The Water Web finished its last canal in , but by then many lands had already been covered by the canal. The Web alloed the development of the Sertanian Agripole, now one of the most productive Brazilian agricultural regions.
The Web's canals started narrow, but they were quite expanded throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. The Web was also the inspiration for the network of irrigation canals built in Patagonia by the Free Cities in the 17th and 18th century and expanded by the Brazilian government in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the beginning of the colonization, one of the main rights guaranteed by the Holy Charter of Rights was the right of property. In the period beteewn and , most of the European immigrants in Brazil colonized the fields.
Based on small and medium-sized properties, these would have ownership of occupied land according to the Productive Occupation Act of The Act was created by the Magisterium in order to ensure the occupation of the colony and thus the recognition of Portuguese sovereignty by other nations, and to facilitate the obtaining of land and discourage the rampant expansion of the cities. It established that the occupants of the land would have its legal possession after a certain period of productive occupation.
The settlers, who worked the land with their families and produced a wide variety of products, should provide the colony's market the surplus of thier production. The Agriculture School was created to teach the arriving settlers to cultivate and use native products such as cassava, maize, potato, etc. Roads were built to link the countryside to the cities and allow the exchange of goods between them, and the passage of colonial troops. During the Magisterial Period, the exchanges between farms and cities, or just between farms were frequent. The large contact between country and city allowed new techniques to be employed in productive land.
Beyond the dynamic economy that prevailed in the colony, there was a "different economy" that was intended to satisfy the Portuguese interests, the cultivation of sugarcane and cocoa. Simultaneously with the settlement of immigrants on the fields, Portuguese imigrated to Brazil under the seal of the Crown. While immigrants had small and medium farms, the Portuguese honored by the king, the conquerors and explorers, gained sesmarias from the Crown, large portions of land plantations to large-scale production of commercially valuable products.
The sugar mill manufacture of the sugar production cycle called engenho in Brazil was the main part of the Portuguese mercantilism, organized into large plantations. These were characterized by extensive land, abundant slave labor, complex techniques and low productivity.
In the midth century, the sugar produced in the Netherlands Antilles started to compete strongly in Europe with the Brazilian sugar. The Dutch had perfected the technique with the experience gained in Brazil after the Dutch invasions, and counted with a developed scheme of transport and distribution of sugar in Europe. Portugal was forced to turn to England and sign several treaties that would affect the economy of the colony.
In , England pledged to defend Portugal and its colonies in exchange for two million crusados and the possessions of Tangier and Mumbai. In , Portugal has undertaken to import wool cloths of English manufacturing, and England, in return, to buy Portuguese wines.
At the time, it met the interests of the dominant groups, but later resulted in the stoppage of industrialization in Portugal, channeling to England Great Britain since the gold that had just been discovered in Brazil. The gradual decline of the sugar plantations in the 18th century further sapped the drain of the power maintained by the plantation owners.
Other crops such as cocoa, tobacco and especially cotton, now represented an increasing share of production. Cotton fed the colonial textile manufactures and was also exported to England. These changes have been consolidated in the midth century. The issue of slavery in Brazil was very particular. Millions of slaves were transported to the New World between and , but in Brazil interracial relations had a much higher level than any other European colony.
Interracial relationships are common and many Brazilians are mixed. The slaves in Brazil had an easier time achieving freedom than in North America, which also facilitated a greater volume of importation of slaves. And different from North America, in Brazil there was true legislation to protect the captives. However, slavery in Brazil was still extremely brutal and inhuman. Of the European colonies in the New World, Brazil was one which imported the largest amount of slaves. In , the Magisterium created a series of laws on slave labor, the Slaving Regulation Acts.
Since, according to a magistrate of the time, slaves were " at the same time goods and men ", they had " duties as goods, but rights as men. Many of these laws, called " sponge cake for gorillas " by the plantation owners, were imposed by the commercial and manufacturing elites that dominated the Magisterium between and Their interest in consumers for their products cheap, but yet paid, laborers who could consume , led them to facilitate the process of liberation from slavery, turning the slave into a consumer and paid worker.
This constant flow of freed slaves also benefited the Portuguese slaves traders, who supplied the high demand of new captives, and on turn supported the Magisterium's policy. As for the plantation owners called sertanos by people of the cities and owners of small and medium properties , the situation forced them to allocate large funds to buy new slaves constantly, disrupting any economic supremacy that rural elites wished to have over the urban ones.
Slaves dancing. Much of Brazilian culture came from the slaved Africans. As the melting pot it is, it is said that Brazil " has its body in America, its head in Europe, and its soul in Africa. On the issue of slavery in Brazil, this would still be much discussed. Frederico Domenico was one of the biggest abolitionist philosophers.
Author of the famous Children of Men , which defended the slaves, analised the social and economic effects of slavery and discussed the ethics of the institution; his work was widely accepted in the cities and among medium and small owners. On the other hand, an important slaver of the time would be Antonio Monteiro de Melo , author of Pyramid of Races , where he defended the theory of a racial pyramid, in which some races were superior to the others and the ones below should be dominated and support the upper one.
African culture had also influenced Brazilian culture in a great extent. As miscegenation was neither encouraged nor discouraged, as occurred in North America, mixed families were common among the lower and middle classes and concubinage among the plantation owners. The color prejudice, although very present and visible, was not as intense as elsewhere and there was no "one drop rule". Some members of the Magisterium had black or mixed wives, and others were black or mixed themselves. The Brazilian title of " Melting pot Nation ", was not given for nothing.
Statue of Zumbi, in Palmares, AL. It is written: Zumbi of Palmares. The Black leader of all races. However, the slavery was still a brutal institution in Brazil and many slaves tried to revolt or run to quilombos , isolated communities that tried to emulate the nations of the slaves' old land, Africa. Refuges to runaway slaves, the quilombos were important centers of African cultural reaffirmation in Brazil.
Generally they had governments that mirrored the traditional African societies. Not just Black people, but all types of "undesirables" migrated to the quilombos. The biggest quilombo in Brazilian history was Palmares, a true state established in the Brazilian Northeast. Surviving from hunting, fishing, gathering, trade and crafts, Palmares remained standing during part of the 18th century and even after raids of the Defense Force. The so-called War against Palmares was the biggest conflict between the quilombo and the Magisterium, between and , and ended the movement, with the death of its leader Zumbi.
Although relatively short lived as a state, as a long revolt movement, Palmares and the Quilombola Movement led the Magisterium to strengthen legislation and supervision relating to slavery. The movement, the violence of Slave Revolt of New Manchester in , and its repression even more violent by the plantation owners, made several Brazilians start to discuss the validity of the slavery and its ethical value. One of the main aspects of the slavery in Brazil, differing from the other American nations, was the presence of a strong social opposition to it.
In Brazil, anti-slavery and anti-racist sentiments started to grow, surprisingly, after the arrival of the first Protestants in Brazil. Protestantism came to Brazil early, in the s and s, brought by Lutherans from Germany and Scandinavia. That was an important factor of the Charter and was inserted to guarantee the rights of the Orthodox Christians of Santa Sofia and the Jews throughout the colony, who had great economic power.
With the Reformation in Europe in and the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, that specific article of the Charter became a concerning issue. As said by the magistrate Marcelo Dumont de Melo, in That way, the Magisterium passed the Dumont de Melo Act, that recognized the Protestant denominations as Christians under the Holy Charter and prohibited all conflicts between different Christian denominations, contributing to the sense of religious plurality and secularity of the state that became so intrinsicaly Brazilian.
Brazil became a refuge to Protestants from Europe. Huguenots, Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyterians, all of them came to Brazil in great amount. During the early 17th century, Protestant denominations grew in Brazil, and some were even born in the colony, such as the Church of Brazil Lutheran , the Angelist Church and the Church of the New World.
Within the Lutheran Church in the New World, founded in , the leaders Marcus Mauro and Josias Coelho successfully persuaded their fellow members to free their slaves, divest from the slave trade, and create unified policies against slavery. By the end of the 18th century, the church was one of the largest in Brazil, and its leaders' anti-slavery and anti-racist speeches in all the Ecumenical Congresses influenced much of the Brazilian population.
Their influence made possible laws like Slaving Rugulation Acts. By the midth century, slavery was prohibited in the cities and any non-plantation land, and institutional racism was prohibited in all levels of government. In , free Blacks were allowed to vote and had all the same political rights as Whites. Of course, racism wasn't erradicated. However, the view of the immorality of slavery became widespread in Brazil, mainly in the cities and the small- and medium-sized rural properties.
Even slavery was still maintained in the plantations, as these were responsible by providing the metropolis with its main export products, such as sugar. Overseas Japanese have existed since the 15th century. Many documents mention the large slave trade along with protests against the enslavement of Japanese. Japanese slaves are believed to be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese purchased large amounts of Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal for sexual purposes, as noted by the church in King Sebastian feared that it was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytization since the slave trade in Japan was growing to massive proportions, so he commanded that it be banned in In a law was passed by Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese and Japanese slaves.
This policy would not be lifted for over two hundred years. Before that, Christianity spread throughout Japan, creating social tension and riots like the Shimabara Rebellion. Because of that, Portugal secretly gave asylum to thousands of Japanese Christians in Brazil between and The Magisterial government maintained detailed records of Japanese immigration and it's known that about , Japanese emmigrated to Brazil during that period.
People of all classes, from nobles to peasants, they brought with them their customs, architecture, techniques and even clothing. The Japanese settlers integrated with the already multicultural Brazilian society. The Japanese built churches using their native techniques and architecture, they integrated into the politics in the colony, but maintained their Japanese names with pride, though a large number of people with Japanese surnames descendants from Japanese immigrants are unrecognizable after centuries of miscigenation. The population of Minas Gerais quickly became the largest in Brazil.
Of the two million Portuguese living in Portugal at the time, about , migrated to Brazil, and more than , Europeans of other nationalities among English, Scottish, French, Italian, German, Danish and Swedish. The Brazilian population jumped to more than 7. The white population was formed largely by people from the north of Portugal and Azores and Madeira, Europeans of other nationalities, and Brazilians from other parts of Brazil. They were very important in colonial trade, especially in the villages around Vila Rica present-day Ouro Preto and Mariana. In mining regions it was formed a complex urban network connected by a large number of roads.
In Minas Gerais, there was a predominant artistic and architectural style that became known as "Mineiro Baroque", of which the greatest exponent was the artist Aleijadinho. Ouro Preto, MG. The living conditions of slaves in the mining region were particularly difficult. They worked all day standing, with curved back and legs under water, or in tunnels dug in the hills, where it was common to occur landslides and deaths.
The gold cycle promoted the internalization phenomenon of the population in the South and Central regions of Brazil that until then had never been as populated as in the Northeast. The cycle also changed of colonial economic core from Northeast to Southeast. Even with all this wealth, with the luxury of the upper classes and the large and ostentatious public works, Portugal remained with a poor economy.
This was due to its trade policy and agreements like the Treaty of Methuen, signed with Britain in According to this treaty, Portugal would buy the English fabrics and sell to England wine. Although advantageous to the wine producing elites, the treaty was very disadvantageous to Portugal and, along with its wasteful royalty, which had no worries about the future, it led to destruction of the Portuguese manufacturing.
The great Brazilian gold flow that after extracted, just passed through Portugal, poured into the British coffers. He won the confidence of king Joseph I by rebuilding Lisbon after the earthquake of , bbecoming his Prime Minister. He has undertaken many reforms in order to modernize the stagnant Portuguese economy.
An ambitious program of reforms sought to increase domestic production in relation to foreign competition, develop the colonial trade and encourage the development of manufacturing. Under this policy he did not hesitate to impose monopolies crushing internal competition. Thus, in it was founded the Company of Commerce of Portuguese Asia of short duration and, in , the Company for Agriculture of the Upper Douro Vineyards, to which the Minister has granted tax exemption on trade and exports, thus establishing the first wine production demarcated region in the world, placing the famous pombaline landmarks in the region's boundaries.
He expelled the Jesuits from the metropolis and colonies, confiscating their property on the grounds that the Society of Jesus acted as an autonomous power within the Portuguese State. He also decreased the power of the Church, subordinating the Inquisition to the State. Education in Portugal until then had been dominated almost exclusively by the Society of Jesus and other congregations. In , with the Pombaline reform the Jesuits were expelled from all Portuguese territory and education has become State duty.
In Brazil, however, this measure had little effect on education, as it was already developed and governed by the Magisterium. Pombal introduced, likewise, important changes in the Portuguese state apparatus. The creation of the first compilations of civil law, which thus replaced the canon law, represented the first step toward the affirmation of Pombal as a statesman and the state as superior entity and autonomous with the rest of society, including to the Catholic Church itself.
In Brazil, major changes occurred in the political and administrative level. In , the headquarters of the colony was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, whose growth signaled the displacement of the colony's economic core from the Northeast to the South-Central region.
The change is due to the fact that Rio de Janeiro was the port through which the gold of Minas Gerais was drained, to better supervise the mining activity and facilitate the control of the Southern border, that grew to the border with Uruguay. Pombal also relinquished the capitaincies from any remainning authority of the donatory capitains and converted them into provinces. Some scholars of history say was with this measure that Brazil diverted from the course to become a bilingual country.
In the Amazon region, some large plantations used Indigenous people as slaves. However, unlike the plantation-owners, the Jesuits obtained the voluntary cooperation of the natives. So while the missions prospered, the villages of settlers faced numerous difficulties. The Treaty of Utretch , was an agreement that ended the War of the Spanish Succession , in which the interests of almost all the major European powers were involved.
This treaty was very important to the history of Brazil, as it recognized Portugal's possession over the lands colonized in the Western side of the Tordesillas line, expanding the territory of Brazil. Also it gave COU some strategic ports in India, the right to freely explore the amber deposits in Mexico and Hispaniola, and sovereignty over the then Spanish citie of Cadiz. One of the centers of the Age of Enlightenment, though not as important as France, Britain and the United States, Brazil gave rise to many thinkers and ideas that influenced the thinking of the time.
Dinis Duval is considered the first Brazilian Enlightenment thinker. From Heraclion, he was the author of major works such as HyBrazilis and Hispaniola which analyzed the processes of colonization in each colonies. He advocated the incorporation of the Iberian colonies as integral parts of their metropolis, and not mere sources of products. Duval contributed to the fields of law, politics, history and rationalism. Castello contributed to the fields of chemistry, mathematics, physics, and medicine. He was also a great jurist and, when appointed as Intendant of Law and Order in , was responsible for the compilation of the period's laws and doctrine.
Another major line of thought emerged in Brazil by Luis de Nantes , in his exaltation of Brazilian natural beauty, he disclosed his ecological science. More an art than a science until the 20th century, Ecology aimed the seize the land and resources and spread the "natural love.
Already in , the ecological ideas were widespread in national politics. The development of the natural sciences occured on a large scale, the arts exalted nature as the romantic hero of that time, and planners aimed to increasingly transfer the beauties of the countryside to the cities. The ecologist view of Nantes influenced the naturalists of the late 19th and 20th century.
In , the philosopher Carlota Medeiros wrote The Women Manifesto where she defends her ideals of gender equality and women's real potential, using several famous examples in history. Although a heresy for the agrarian elites, the book was well accepted by the urban population, shaping the Brazilian mentality towards women. Her influence on the 19th century's French sufragettes and her ideas immortalized Medeiros worldwide as the "Mother of Gender Equality. In , women were given the same political and property rights as men, being allowed to vote and run for public offices.
She would later, in , become the first women to hold the Chancellory. By the end of the 18th century, the dissatisfaction of the society of Minas Gerais in relation to the Metropolis was getting worse, the heavy taxes suffocated the population, and when the gold quota was not reached, the derrama occurred, the seizure of people's property to reach the quota. This angered the population, mainly because gold deposits were depleted and Portugal did not lower the quota.
That situation would make Minas Gerais the first region of Brazil to claim for independence. In late , members of the elite of Minas Gerais gathered to promote a movement against the Crown. The American Revolution and the Enlightenment ideals widespread in Europe and Brazil served as a stimulus to the citizens dissatisfied with the colonial government. Relying on the general dissatisfaction of the Mineiros and with the support of the military, the revolt was scheduled for February The plans, however, were denounced by a traitor.
Today, he is a national hero and martyr in the fight against Portugal. Another revolt in the period was the Bahian Conjuration, which occurred in , also known as Conspiracy of the Tailors, for having several tailors among the organizers. Unlike the Mineiro conspirators, however, most of the Bahian conspirators were from the lower classes. Little they had to do, because the Bahian government arrested more than 20 conspirators who, with the exception of members of the elite who were spared, were hanged, imprisoned and banished.
After the mining cycle, the economy returned to its original state. A minority among the miners had enriched with their activities and, seeing the depletion of deposits, started to invest in financial, trading and manufacturing activities; powerful banks emerged, as well as industrial establishments. The abundant deposits of iron and saltpeter in the region allowed a great development of the weapons and metallurgical industries. Agriculture in small and medium farms expanded and slavery decreased. In the Northeast, even during mining, cotton farming in medium properties florished.
The cotton produced was sold to other regions and thus to Great Britain, that was also entering its Industrial Revolution. But in the early 19th century, the competition of American cotton made Brazilian cotton lose ground in the international market, allowing the entire production to be consumed domestically in the textile industries of the Northeast and Southeast.
The industrialization process in Brazil started early. This process was favored by several factors, including: the dominance of a liberal economic policy, leading to the development of trade and industry; the accumulation of capital by the Brazilian bourgeoisie, which allowed investment in factories and mines and the purchasing of industrial machinery; the abundance of raw materials; the wide Brazilian commercial network, which allowed products from distant regions of the world to be acquired, such as silk; low taxation and an organized infrastructure, with paved roads, bridges and waterways; and the fact that cost of living in Brazil was lower than in Europe, allowing factory owners to hire workers at lower wages.
Other factors were more subtle, such as the open environment conducive to innovation, which allowed the Brazilians to create new techniques and assimilate foreign ones, mainly from Great Britain, taking as an example the English invention of the steam engine that was assimilated to Brazilian factories only ten years after being in Great Britain.