The water of life was supplied from Semitic tradition filtering through a foreign medium. The Fountain of Youth also derived from the Orient, but apparently it originated not among the Semites but among the Hindus. Perhaps the strangest fact in connection with the legend of the Fountain of Youth is the persistence with which the idea has been cherished in India, the land where in later days the joys of life have been most undervalued and a renewal of earthly existence most dreaded; where, to Brahman and to Buddhist alike, the aim of man has not been rejuvenation but cessation from physical activity.
But, on the other hand, it may be because of this very teaching that the tale was so well liked 1 If the pools of healing be excepted and most of them are quite mod- em there are no pools in India which can rival the Sarasvati pool in antiquity and reputation, though there are now other pools of rejuvena- tion in Bengal, etc. Crooke, op. It must be remem- bered, however, that in the latter passage Bohde is speaking of the ambrosia given in the world of the dead, not of a spring to be sought by the living.
Finally, it is scarcely possible to study the state of mind lead- ing to this persistence without asking oneself, Is it a sign of strength or weakness? As long as a man sympathizes with strength and seeks it, he is 4 whole. Only there is a strength physical and again a strength intellectual, or spiritual, as the Hindu calls it. But this is in heaven, like the White Horn, the Soma, the divine honey of the Finns, the TTrdsquelle of the Teutons, From all these, as from the Kinderbrunnen of the Germans, the earthly near-by Fount of Youth is to he differentiated.
It is only this form which I derive from India, whence also comes the modern 4 flask of Youth sold to-day, it is said, in Java as in Sicily. See now W tinsche, Die Hagen vom Dehens - haum n, Debenswasser, which comes to hand as this goes to press. Apropos of the age at which man becomes c old 5 above, p. Fights , x. El Khidr became seventeen. Thwaites, ii. To pp. As to the derivation of the Sindbad story itself from India,.
Torrey calls my attention to the Kitdh el-Mxdammartn, treating of the age of Moslem saints ed. To the extraordinary tales of prolonged life might have been added the case of the Chinaman Pung, who, as nar- rated in the Astley Collection of Voyages and Travels , iv. The indiscretion of his last wife cost him his life.
She could not keep the secret. The collection of tales published by J. Buel in , entitled Legends of the Ozarhs , is a forgery. The Ozark Indians of Arkansas have healing springs, and like the possessors of such springs elsewhere attribute more or less magical power to the waters. But they have no legend corre- sponding to that of the Fountain of Youth, and the hints to the contrary in the Legends of the Ozarhs are due merely to imita- tion on the part of the American author of the Ponce de Leon legend.
See a communication on this point by the present writer published in the F, Y, Fation , April 13, , p. W, Hopkins , [ Book Three, cap. II sic! Hopkins [ Yftstupasya: Of the various forms given in the text, that which was selected for former translation, vastupasya, is preferable to the meaningless vaptupasya, But the frequent interchange of the palatal and dental sibilant cf. It is unfortunate' that vastupasya, as a name of a Brahmana, has thus found its way into the pw.
Reading the genitive, we at once gain a further light on the connection. Por Yustupa is the lord of the leavings of the sacrifice, and hence the lord of one who is left or deserted. A parallel may be 1 found in 6at. The two titles of Rudra-Siva are found together in MS. As to the first part of the compound vast tupa, there is, of course, no doubt that the Hindu liturgical writers connected it with vfistu 4 place, 5 as they did vilstavya.
The MS. In the SBr. In the JBr. Practically the old man is exposed to die. At the end of this paragraph, my transcription of the Grantham gives adiksus. It is at least doubtful. The feminine 6 ary at a of the text I have not ventured to introduce in place of the usual form. The final words of this section are very uncertain. The ji is separated by cancelled syllables yam nistham from tlie va, which together make the basis of the old implied reading, jxvam: 44 He said: 4 O ser- pent, circumvent her deserting [her] living friend.
Perhaps apaviveca for avabibhede which Professor Whitney did not translate would he a conjecture justified in part by the frequent interchange of p with v, and a with e.
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But this is only one of the com- mon cases of confusion in the making of compound letters. The form tacchatam tamtachsatam can hardly be for taksa- tam, as the ligatures are not confused by the scribe. I suppose Vol. The passage in SB. I may say in con- clusion that the scribe usually uses the upadhmanlya sign, but now and then he writes the visarga for it he always, I believe, uses the sibilant for the visarga before a sibilant.
To the writer, or to the scribe, na seems to bear the same relation to ena as does sa to esa , since the latter twice writes -i nam. The reader will have noticed, besides the forms discussed by Professor Whitney in the notes to his translation, the irregularities uvucatuh and caJcarsatioh , known to us from the epic poets. They appear to have stood together, as repi'esentatives of one family, against the gods. He performed austerities and had a vision of these chants called the Yfiidanvata chants, by means of which he removed his woe.
One who praises with these chants removes woe. Finally, partly as in the epic see above, p. The -whole tale is told as follows: g Atha tnni vaidanvatfuii. Saryato vai Manavah pra- cyaxii sthalyam ayajata. Sa Indro vltakrodhah saha devfiih pradravat. J 2 somasthaihpltas, 3 vayam prayachetiti. Pasavo ha khalu vfii vidanvanta? Verily Saryata, the son of Mann, was sacrificing on the eastern site. The seers, in truth, conducted the sacrifice. Both gods and men then drank Soma together; but that was the last time gods and men drank Soma together.
That cup Indra seized, saying, 4 What unrec- ognized cup is appearing here? The gods were angry; the seers were angry. The Maruts, not hiding 10? They used to be seen drinking together of old, but now invisible they drink together. Compare BY. He, piercing the sky with his head, as it were, attacked? Then Agni said to Indra, c Let thy anger pass away; they are better stronger than we.
If anger shall impel them, there will be nothing left in this world. The sacrifice of these seers thus became Indra-less and godless. They uttered a wish, c May our sacrifice be accompanied with Indra and the gods. These chants are, in truth, accompanied with Indra and the gods. If anyone knows this, his sacrifice is accompanied with Indra and the gods, Indra comes to his sacrifice, nor does Indra depart thereafter from his sacrifice. He who knows this is born by means of pairing. The epithet vidanvat per- haps once used of Cyavana himself is of doubtful meaning. They, thinking 4 we will drink him 5 , 1 said, 4 Let us fetch hither Brandy personified , tlie sap of Vanina 8 ; for no one was ever injured, 3 to hurt, in Brandy.
There into Brandy do thou go away, 0 Mada. But perhaps originally not pasyama but apasyama was read with abruvann ; the iti makes no great difficulty. Compare Crooke, Folk-lore of Northern India, ii. Lauchert, Geschichte des Physiol p. Lawrence Ii. Mills, D. I now represent the terminal sign formerly reproduced as -o or -5 by a simple mark as the letter once indicated by it is no longer organic. Read bayen for ben throughout, etc. For later improvements, see my translit, in ZDMG. C and Ner. I after valashan ; not so A DJ.
I aft. I bef. NB may also be so read veh ; D K? Should we read aharav'gunih? B D, ins. B meant -gao- Av. One might suspect hu-vastra as the original of hvastra ; see the source of the name at Y. Mills , [ C the parsi-pers. C seems to omit. B D ins. II C the parsi-pers. Elsewhere forms of xvan- are correctly rendered. The cansative form is superfluous. But notice the dat. See SBE. Mills, [ As to avar-, did the termination -maidhe of yazamaidhe suggest a 4 madam 5 ; hence 4 avar-? There is nothing in the original to correspond to it ; see SBE.
NB have pavan mineshn' ; so Ner. I aharuv' aharaylh rat'. II Mills , [ So C the parsi-pers. It is of course a blunder, see SBE. This blunder is corrected in SBE. II A DJ. NB and A DJ. G the parsi-pers. I 23 mfimgiin' va 2 ' 1 vxslgfux' va 25 zandigan va 2fi matayigan' 27 zaratushtrdtuman', 38 va 20 73 harvisp' zag x 1 B D. C ins. The Apocryphal Gospel of the Infancy 3. For that reason I wish here to call attention to it and to add some words of comment, especially from the Iranian side.
And above them there is a square building, carefully kept. Jackson , [ One of these was called Jaspar, the second Melchior, and the third Balthasar. He found a village there which goes by the name of Gala Ataperistan, which is as much as to say u The Castle of the Fire-Worshippers. The question of the location and iden- tity of the place had a special attraction for me when I met with the legend, because I made the journey from Yezd to Tehran, two years ago, over the same route which Marco Polo had trav- ersed in part on his way toward Yezd.
Abbott did not personally visit Avail, but he was told that there was a mound there on which a Gabar castle formerly stood. At Savah he could find no trace of the legend itself. Owing to the comparative frequency of the designation, it is difficult, but perhaps not impossible, to determine which particular Castle may have been intended by Marco Polo. It took me nearly five days, pressing hard, to cover the distance. Colonel Yule implies as much in his comments upon the passage.
In any case it is worth while to mention the town of. More worthy of attention, however, is the suggestion I am about to make regarding Kashan. Four days were allotted to the reverse journey, from Kashan to Savah, by Josafa Barbaro, who went as an envoy over this route in the latter part of the fifteenth century see the English translation of his travels, HaJduyt Society , vol. The Italian friar Odoric of Pordenone, who journeyed the same way about 1 On the difficulties, especially as to the statement regarding the num- ber of the days, etc.
Jackson, [ Bee Cordier, Odorie de.. Pordenonc , p. The passage reads as follows : 1 De la eit6 de Cassan. Si viiiH par maintes jouraees d une cite des trois roys qui firent offrande h Jliesu Crist nouvel ne. Et appelle on ceste cite de Cassan, cite royal de grant honneur mais Tartre V ont moult destruite. Kashan existed in the time of the last Zoroastrian monarch, Yazdagarcl III, for it is mentioned with Klim as having furnished a quota of 20, soldiers to the army of that unfortunate king Curzon, Persia , ii. There are, more- over, some Zoroastrians in Kashan to-day.
The statistics which I gathered in Persia show that about forty-five of these Gabars are doing business in this city. In any case I believe that the tradition of Kashalx or its vicinity as the possible location of the third city from which the Magi came should receive more consideration than it has had from those interested in both Friar Odorie and Marco Polo. Cordier, in his note, p. Regarding the source of the legend itself, other scholars have shown, and among them Lord Curzon, Persia , ii.
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It may owe its existence to an association of Saba with the passage in the Psalms, lxxii. More per- tinent still is Isaiah lx. G, where Ephah Ava and Saba Sheba stand side by side and are mentioned in connection with gold and frankincense, and hence possibly associated with Avah and Savah. As for the claims of Saba itself to be the burial place of the Three Kings, as Marco Polo describes, I niay only say that it has a rival at Hrumiah, where I saw the tomb of at least two of the Magi in the old hTestorian church of Mart Miriam ; to say nothing of the cathedral of Cologne on the Rhine, where their bodies are said to be interred!
Problems still unsolved in Inda-Aryan Cosmology. Warren, DJ. To a greater extent than lias been generally acknowledged Babylonian cosmology is the key to an understanding of the In do- Aryan. In proof of this statement the student is invited to spread out before him the diagram of the Babylonian cosmos printed in the twenty-third volume of the Journal of the Amer- ican Oriental Society opposite p.
In both cosmological systems this Weltberg is at the same time par excellence the possession of the gods, a Gotterberg. In both this Gotterberg is not only divinely vast and beautiful, but also, in shape, quadrangular. In both the axis of the heavens and of the earth is per- pendicular in position, and consequently the top of the quad- rangular Gotterberg is the true summit of the earth.
In both this crowning summit of the earth has an anti- podal counterpart in a corresponding inverted Weltberg under- neath the earth. The name of this in the Indo-Aryan system is Ku-meru. J Warren, Unsolved Problems, etc. In the Babylonian cosmos the upper hemi-gcea has seven stages; in the Indo-Aryan it has seven varsas. In the Babylonian system the lower or inverted hemi-gma has seven stages; in the Indo-Aryan it has seven pfitiilas.
East of Babylonia is found the Indo-Aryan conception of the Gahgfi-stream which, descending from heaven to the top of Sumeru, there divides itself, according to the Vishnu Purana, into four woidd-rivers, and descending the several sides of the mountain from varsa to varsa waters the whole earth. It is hardly possible to doubt that in both cases the conception was borrowed from the world-view of the people residing midway between the Hebrews on the one side and the Indo-Aryans on the other, or was at least common to the three.
In the Indo-Aryan, as in the Babylonian world-view, the seven divisions of the lower or invei'ted hemi-gcea can be described as they are in the Mahfi-Bharata as subterranean, and yet, at the same time, as capable of receiving light from the sun and moon. Our diagram clearly shows both the possibility and the entire naturalness of this. In the Babylonian. According to the Babylonians, the under or southern planetary hemi-urcmoi were also seven in number, and these, numbering from their center, were located at ever wider dis- tances asunder; so is it also with the dvlpas in the Indo-Aryan cosmos.
In Babylonian thought each of the celestial spheres was assigned to the guardianship and government of a particular divine being; so was also each dvlpa in Indo-Aryan thought.
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Hommel, Aufsatze tend Abhandlungen, p. Warren , [ Wilson, ibid. All the requirements of the system imply that the same was true in the Indo- Aryan. This feature also helps us to understand why the texts, and thus far their Occidental interpreters, present no clear and sharp dis- tinction between the two groups as to nature or location.
Ixiv, vol. In the In do- Aryan as in the Babylonian system the lowest hells are antipodal, to the highest heavens; hence the statement in the Vishnu Purana Wilson, p. Even in Plutarch the same ancient idea survives.. The fact that in the downward direction the distances of the Narakas from each other increase in an arithmetical ratio just as do the distances of the heavens in the opposite direction. The fact that the normal term of life in these successive infernal abodes grows longer and longer according to distance from the cosmic center precisely as is the case in the successive celestial abodes.
I have never found any text that gave such a representation of the Patalas. Dawn of Civilization , Eng. In both systems a cross-section of the cosmos in the plane of the equator would show seven solid horizontal world-rings, one within another, and all of them inclosing their common center. Here, possibly, was the oifigin of the 4 4 world-rings of rock separated by seven intervening seas in the common description of the Buddhist world-view. It should be remem- bered, however, that in the Buddhist cosmography the tops of these world-rings are by no means in a common plane.
In both systems the order of the seven planets is not that of the matured Greek teaching of Ptolemy, but is conformed to the older Babylonian view, according to which both sun and moon are nearer to the earth than the nearest of the remaining five. Finally, as in the Babylonian, so in the Indo-Aryan cosmos, there is present and visible to every eye that most won- derful of all monuments of prehistoric astronomic science, the starry world-girdle of the twelve-signed Zodiac, attesting in both peoples a clear recognition of the great circles and the poles of the eeliptieally defined celestial sphere.
In view of the twenty correspondences above enumerated it may safely be affirmed that this question is now answered. Warren, [ But if the dvipa that in all enumerations is the first of all and the most central of all was a globe, it is a natural a priori expectation that the remaining six members of the class will be found to be, or once to have been, globes also. Again, if in the beginning the series consisted of seven con- centric crystalline spheres, like the Babylonian, the second of them, Plaksa, would correspond to the Babylonian lunar sphere, the globe of the moon-god Sin.
Like that it would be conceived of as perfectly transparent, and hence like the others invisible. BOO A. At most, however, the cosmography of these works, as of the Mahabharata, can be utilized for historical purposes only with the understanding that the data belong in all probability to a time subse- quent to the Christian era.
Thus in section eight above , the concep- tion of a four-fold division of Ganga is a Puranic modification of the earlier three-fold divided Ganga. In Babylonian thought the only natural passages into or out of this earth-. Of course the only lunar orb that the celestial waters in making this direct descent at the pole could possibly encounter and wash would be one overarching the whole northern hemisphere of the earth, precisely as did the globe of the moon-god Sin.
That the remaining the extra-lunar dvipas were originally globes, and not annular discs, seems almost implied in the fact that according to the Puranas each, with the exception of the outermost, had divisions of its surface corresponding in number 1 Of the value of the text thus rendered by Upham or of the correct- ness of the rendering, the present writer has no means of forming an opinion, but it may at least be said that Dr. Upham had no discoverable inducement to attempt to represent Yugandhara as a globe. This could not be the case were the dvTpas merely annular discs.
Furthermore, in the description of them given to Dr. Bahu Shome does not give his text- ual authority, but, though a Christian convert, he was in con- stant touch with the chief Brahmin teachers of Calcutta in his time. Surely the authorship and the warrant of so incompar- ably elaborate and beautiful a world-concept as this calls for an early and exhaustive investigation.
On the other hand, once conceive of the dvlpas as originally concentric globes, and allow for an exaggeration merely in the number, and the representations perfectly fit the requirements of the world-view. A further problem remains, the investigation of which cannot fail to throw light upon the one just mentioned. It relates to the cosmology of the Jains. It asks: Wherein at the begin- ning did the Jain cosmology agree with, and wherein differ from, that presented in the Epic and Puranic texts?
When and why did it take on the modifications which now differentiate it from the traditional teaching of the modern 'Brahmins on the one hand and from the Buddhist cosmology on the other? These questions have not yet received the attention they deserve. Problems, etc. Other peculiarities of the Jain cosmology well deserve inves- tigation hotli by themselves and according to comparative methods.
Such, for example, is the enumeration of the Canda- dlva and the Sura-diva in due order after Jambuddiva, and yet the making of Bhfiyaisanda, beyond the La van a sea, the second in the normal series of the dvipas. Another is the bringing down of Puskara from the seventh place in the original series to the third, and the new definition of the Manussa-Khetta connected therewith. Leumann, Indische Btudien, xvi. Possibly we may never obtain the data required for the solu- tion of the several problems mentioned in the foregoing paper. It is encouraging, however, to remember that in every field of knowledge the clear formulation of the questions next needing to he attacked often proves to he a most helpful preliminary to new discoveries.
CalddadM, and 72 of each to Pushkara Dvipa. Buchanan, in Asiatic Researches , vol. To section 13, above, p. Brief citations may be seen in Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, , i. The terrestrial Gehenna perfectly corresponds to the Indian Patatas as above interpreted, the celestial to the Narakas.
The Pierpont Morgan Babylonian Axe-head. Dyneley Pbinoe, of Columbia University, and tlie Rev.
Robebt Latj. In the Tiffany collection of gems belonging to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City is a remarkably perfect and very ancient Babylonian axe-head of pure agate. It was then acquired by Count Michel Tyskiewicz, who kept it until his death, when it was purchased by Mr. George Kunz of Tiffany Co. Pierpont Morgan. Other articles on this subject will appear in the American Museum Journal , The axe-head is interesting, not only because of its beauty as an artistic production, which undoubtedly entitles it to its very prominent position in this unique collection of gems and rare coins, but also because of the inscription in archaic Babylonian characters, with which its obverse side is embellished.
Thanks to the courtesy of Mr. Pierpont Morgan and of Dr. Bumpus and Dr. Gratacap of the American Museum of Natural History, we are enabled to present this discussion as to the probable age of the object, the determining of which depends both on the nature of the inscription and on the character of the agate of which the axe-head is made. The dimensions of the Morgan axe-head are as follows: Length, There can be no doubt that the axe-head was a votive presen- tation to some temple in Babylonia.
It is unfortunate that the place where it was excavated is not known, as in that case much might be learned regarding the date of the object, which now depends entirely on deduction. A fragment of a similar axe in imitation of lapis lazuli 0. This Nippur axe has an inscription of seven lines which may be transliterated and translated as follows: 1.
The king Nazim aruttash ca. This omission is paralleled, op, cit. There is no exact parallel to the pame Khattish, which is probably not that of a king, but that of a high official at some early Babylonian city-court, as the axe-head seems to antedate the unification of Babylonia under the hegemony of the city of Babylon under Hammurabi B. History , p. The characters of this inscription are very antique, approach- ing in form more closely those of the Gudea period ca. On the other hand, the dated documents from the time of Gudea show a slightly more linear and less wedge-shaped character than do the signs on the Mor- gan axe, where the wedge is beginning to appear, which leads 96 J.
Prince , [ The objection may perhaps be raised that we have here a piece of much later work, with the inscription deliber- ately written in archaic characters after the style of some of the documents of Nebuchadnezzar II. This does not seem probable to us, owing to the gen- eral character of the signs in question, which are too naturally cut to admit of this supposition.
Deliberate archaization would, we think, have produced a somewhat more clearly cut inscription and also one in which the linear tendency would not be so well marked as we have it here. The stone is distinctly agate in layers, not agate with circular or ring-like marking, which would militate against a very ancient date for the object. The appearance of the layers, however, does not preclude the date which we suppose for the Morgan axe-head, i.
Kunz in the Bulletin of the Amer. Price; and in AJSL. It seems to us more reasonable to follow the lines of least resistance in such work as this. Professor Price agrees essentially with us as to the probable date of the object. Where is it? Its Probable Contents. Ik volume x. Ball published the text of a Neo- Babylonian cylinder of three columns, of 64, 78 and 59 lines. The same has been edited by Mr. Ball in PSBA. The same has been edited by the writer of this article in his first volume of Bwildiuy In script Ions of the Neo- Babylonian Umpire.
This cylinder belongs to what I call c 4 redacted contempora- neous documents. This evolution under. Nebuchadnez- zar consisted in taking the old form short cylinder, which had four short sections, and developing it into a long redaction. Thus for example I choose here for illustration those inscrip- tions which until the appearance of the book above mentioned are most accessible , the short two-columned cylinder of Nabo- polassar, published page 6 of KB.
I , tlie hymn of introduction, forms the first section ; Col. I is the second; and Col. I 14 is the third. This inscription lacks the prayer at the end which in all documents of the Neo-Babylonian empire up to the evolution of a new type of composition constitutes the fourth section. This kind of document is contemporaneous with the work described by the i-nu-mi-hc section. But early in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, after many works had been completed and many short contemporaneous docu- ments written, there arose a desire among the scribes to produce Vol.
Thus, when a work was finished, the scribes took occasion to recite all the previous works of the king before giving account of the work which had just been finished. This list of works was generally made up on the basis of all the previous short documents. That is, this long section is a great redaction which took different arrangements with different redactors.
When the redaction was finished, the scribe came to his contemporaneous account, which he began after the old style with i-nu-mi-hc. The first document of this kind which was produced in the Neo-Babylo- nian school is the so-called Grotefend Inscription I R. Among the most noteworthy documents of this class are V R.
Of these AH. This latter document is the last known document of this class which we have from this school, for the scribes soon after its composition commenced a new form of doc- ument, the first exemplar of which is the Wady Brissa inscription, and the last the East India House inscription, which is the very last of all the Nebuchadnezzar inscriptions.
It is therefore unnecessary to go further into the discussion of the literary movement of this period; suffice it only to say that the documents of the Redacted Contemporaneous class belong to the years to approximately. In a document of this class, naturally the section of most interest begins with i-nu-mi-su , and was so arranged as to com- mence near the top of the third column. If we now turn to AH. This cylin- der is edited inPSBA. On page he gives variants of a cylinder which he says is one of the same class, which was afterwards , sold to America before he Lang don , [ As this cylinder is of great impor- tance for the study of the literary development of this period as well as for historical purposes, I propose to discuss the variants and new extracts given us hv Mr.
Ball, with the hope of finding some one who knows where the cylinder is, so that we may have a. In order to make the structure of this inscription clear, I give here the structure of AIL 82, , , in order to have a ground of comparison for the scattered remnants which Mr. Bali has given us. The contents of: this inscription are as follows : a I , Hymn of introduction, b I , Works in Esagila, viz. E-mah, E-nin-had-kalam-sum-ma, E-gis-sir-gal, E-har-sag- ella. E-nam-he, E-cli-kud-kalama and E-kiku-garza.
In redacting previous documents the scribes of this school had one invariable rule ; the works done on foreign cities had to come last before the principal section beginning with i-nu- mi-su , separated from it only by a secondary hymn ; these are generally the finest literary passages in the inscriptions.
As to the arrangement of the other parts, each scribe had his own plan, as may be seen from the analyses of all the inscriptions of this period in chapter two of Building Inscriptions of the Neo- Babylonian Umpire. Now if we examine the arrangement of the American cylinder through the collation which 'Mr, Ball has given us, we may reconstruct a large part of it as follows Vol, xxvi. I The plan of this scribe was then to invert sections e and f of his model and then to place d in the last position before the list of works on foreign cities.
But the section on foreign cities has several insertions. When the redactor arrives at II 58 of his model, he continues his account of the work at Kutha by giving an account of a temple to the spouse of Nergal, Nin-ki-gal, who is otherwise called Laz. This temple Es-uru-gal to Nin-ki-gal of Kutha is. The latest inscrijjtions of this king, 85, , l 1 and East India House inscription, do not give any works of Nebu- chadnezzar outside of Babylon and Borsa, The sole evidence, then, that we can deduce for the date is that it is after the Wady Brissa inscription, and consequently after B.
The next important insertion is at Col. Of course we are prepared to expect this inser- tion as soon as we learn that the cylinder is later than AH. Lang cTon, [ Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, who gladdens the heart of Marduk my lord, regardful of the sacred places of Nebo favorite of my reign, am I. Esagila and Ezida, habita- tions of their lordship, abode of their love, with gold and silver and jewels of great value, huge cedar beams I clothed. Bali ends in the midst of the sec- ondary hymn and just before the most important part of the inscription. According to my count of lines, the last line of Mr.
It is very rare to find the principal section so low down in the third column. The highest number which I know for any line beginning with i-nn-mi-lfH in tliis class of docu- ments is the twenty-seventh line of the third column of the Grotefend inscription. However, the principal section must begin very soon after this section jmblished by Mr. That a section of this kind must follow is evident from the position of the secondary hymn after the list of temples in foreign cities which always precedes the i-nu-mi-m clause. What can be tbe probable contents of the third column of this cylinder which is probably stowed away in some museum in America?
That it will give us the account of some 'building not hitherto described at length is certain. We are also certain that it is a contemporaneous document and describes an event between the works included in the Wady Brissa inscription and 85, , or EIII. The work which falls in this period which we wish above all to know about is the building of the palace north of the Great Eastern Wall which is mentioned only by tbe brief section of 85, , 1 Col.
Ill , and which is strangely absent in the last inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, i. I have demonstrated at length elsewhere that the redactor of EIII. But it is not likely that the redactor, of the American cylinder had any such tendencies, as the secondary hymn does not betray any trace of tbe later Marduk development. It is barely possible that this cylinder will give us this account of tbe palace now buried in the ruins of the mound Babil where most of the best authorities locate the site of the famous Hanging Gardens.
If such be tbe case, the document is of extraordinary interest. Ill 39 and EIH. Ill There is one more possibility, and that is the new palace within the walls described by EIH. VIII IX 37 ; but this is unlikely, for both this inscription and 85, , 1 give this account at length. It is likely then that this unpublished cylinder which has fol- lowed AH. Let us hope for the former. It is remarkable for the fact that it is the last of all the documents of the great redactions which retained the i-nu-ma and i-nu-mi-ht formula.
I had supposed that this form of document gave way completely in the latter days of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar to the pure historic forms of redactions of which Wady Brissa and EIH. But the existence of this cylinder proves that the form still existed in the schools of the scribes of Babylon in the last years of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, to be revived again under the succeeding rulers. For the difficulties attending the interpretation of the passage 1 Kings f. I make no attempt to determine the historical question as to where Solomon actually got his horses from, but am merely concerned with the interpre- tation of what the author of our passage had to say — whether from knowledge or from ignorance — upon that subject.
And so with all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Aram : by means of them the merchants they the kings exported. Arnold, Professor in Andover Theological Seminary. I am indebted to my friend and former colleague, Mr. George II. Story, Acting-Director of the Metropolitan Museum, for placing at my disposal the photographs of these monuments.
Bust of a woman of middle age, with frontlet, turban, and izar. The inscription consists of severf lines above the left shoulder and an additional three lines above the right. Tadmor , the wife of Moqimu son of Niirbel, the artisan. Though the stone is chipped off almost immediately to the left of the numeral IIII. It is perhaps worth while pointing out that the character for 5 in both lines 7 and 10 is turned back 90 degrees, so that its main stroke is horizontal. The names and are familiar. In a note IK R. Arnold , [ But Arabic would hardly be written TJDin , as is this same feminine proper-name on the next monument to be discussed, where it is borne by a granddaughter of the woman here repre- sented.
See, further, the Repertoire d'epigraphie semitique , i, No. Full, reclining figure of a man, holding a vase in the left hand and a bunch of dates in the right. In the rear, three children, two girls and a boy. The boy, standing between the two girls, wears a necklace with large pendant, and carries what seems to be a fowl with the left hand and a bunch of fruit with the right. The main inscription is on the left side of the reclining figure, beginning at a point a little below the level of the shoulder; it doubtless extended to the base of the monu- ment, so that at least three entire lines have been broken off, besides part of the last line preserved.
Above the left shoulder of the boy: 1 rro s Above the left shoulder of the third child: rhy i nrro a Zabdibdl the son of Moqionu , the son of Nktrbel, the son of Zabda , the son of c Abdi , [the son of The other names are more or less well-known. Bust of a young woman with broad frontlet, turban, massive ear-xnngs, and mlr. The inscription is above the left shoulder.
Bust of young man, with moustache, neatly trimmed side- whiskers, and curly hair. Arnold , [S. Full figure of a boy, with inscription to his left. This identical legend is published by Ronzevalle in the work already mentioned, p. Moreover, the facsimile there ibid. The two monuments were probably made at about the same time and by the same workman. Bust of a bearded man of middle age. The name , which is known see Lidzbarski, Handbueh , p. Arnold , VII. Bust of a beardless young man, bolding in the left hand a bowl decorated with diagonal lines.
The stone is almost entirely broken off over the left shoulder. The inscription is above the right shoulder. Line 2 contained at least two additional letters, the first part of a name which was completed on another line at the extreme left of the stone. Of this last line, only a frag- ment of the first. Handbuch , p. Votive stele, r inches in height.
The inscription covers the entire surface of a plain panel between protruding base and capital decorated with bands of moulding. NDty 1? Made and devotes [this monument ] Jlaggdgu, the son of Yehiba, the son of Yarhai, the ; for his life and the life of his father and his brother. VIII, Yol. It will hardly be a surname —the pure , or indeed have anything to do with the root fO"T to be clean. Might we perhaps connect it with the root of pH, Arabic jfcta?
L0ytved in Beirdt. To be sure, the L0ytved monument is marked as defective below, the last line being either wanting or illegible; while on the contrary the conclusion of the inscription in the Metropolitan Museum can be made out easily and with certainty, the lower part of the last line being indeed broken in two, but not in such a manner as to render the reading doubtful.
This was not the last monument erected by the pious Haggagu. Twenty-nine years later, in April, A. A word may be added here in regard to GottheiPs Nos. Nor is there any room for doubt as to the. It is possi- ble that the letter before tins was y. The whole inscription was correctly read and interpreted by Professor Arnold in , but his manuscript unfortunately remained unjmblmhed. Spoek, Pli. This tessera is square, resembling in form de Yog.
The name is well known. Reverse : ' pa May Pel protect Baaltah. The obverse shows a reclining figure on the funerary couch, dressed in a tunic and mantle. The right arm is bare. William Hayes Ward, of Newark, N. It seems certain that cannot there be the name of a person, and in the present case we have obviously a third specimen of the same inscription.
Should the verb be regarded as transitive in these cases? A letter from Professor Noldeke, received by the writer some time ago, seems to suggest the contrary, remarking that the verb is properly construed with not with a direct object. In that case, the proper names which' follow the fjjtf formula are to be regarded as standing by them- selves. Tlie head is covered with the modius. Opposite the figure, fill- ing out the left half of the field, is a branch with fruits. Fig- ure and branch are enclosed by an arch made of laurel leaves, resting at both ends upon a column. The name KtWfrK , if such it be, occurs in Vog.
The last three letters of the second name are distinctly visible on the original. Reverse : The top is formed by two garlands meeting in a point. From it is suspended a medal with a nude figure, in front of which is an altar. Below the medal is a large urn, on either side of which stands a small amphora with handles.
To the right of each figure stands an altar. There is no inscription. Ill, This tessera is square and shows a reclining figure, like I. The bare right arm is stretched out to receive something which a winged genius, who is in a walking position, is pre- senting. Between these two figures is a medal with a small standing figure. This tessera is round, and shows the bust of a man wearing the modius, facing to the left. To the right of the figure is a large dot, perhaps symbolical of the sun. Beverse : 1 spyny.
Mtilihu and AtheSaqab.
With a squint, she saw the light and began her journey towards it…
Both names are well known. This tessera is small, square, and colored in red. The obverse shows Two figures with- crown-like headdresses, seated on the funerary couch. The figure in front seems to hold some- thing in the right hand, perhaps a pair of scales. Instead of "7 we might possibly read p. The reverse is exactly like the obverse. The tessera is oval. It has on the obverse a reclining figure and a branch with fruits, like II, but the funerary couch is not indicated.
Euting, to whom I submitted a cast, is of the opinion that the character cannot be , it may be a D. In this case the name on the tessera may be completed to JTTUf , cf. Euting, Sinait. InseJiriften , 3 64 b. The reverse is fortunately well preserved and the preseiitation is quite unique. On the left is a bust facing toward the right. Upon the head is a rayed crown, under which the long wavy hair protrudes.
On the right, facing the bust, is a four-winged genius standing upright, with two wings pointed upward and two downward. Ilia right hand is resting upon a wheel with four spokes, or a globe. Over the wheel is written in square Aramaic char- acters the name Zubdibol.
The obverse is similar to that di II. The inscription is no longer legible. Reverse: In the center is a medallion surrounded by a wreath of leaves which is held together hy a large how. On either side of this center piece is a large bird eagle? The inscription is almost entirely effaced. In the first line to the right we have only preserved. We see to the left of the how two very small letters and part of a third, but not enough to decide what it is. It may be part of a D; in this case the name might he completed to In the second line only the first two letters and part of a numeral have been preserved.
The signs indi- cating the hundreds are no longer visible, only the sign which in connection with them expresses hundred, and this is followed hy the sign for Frank R. Tun Semitic numeral c five 5 liad originally the form qatil, as is shown by the feminine forms, Assyrian hamilti , EthiojDic ; haiaestrt. Haupt, Sumerische Familien-Gesetze, Leipzig, , p. Delitzsch, Assyrische Gram Berlin, , p. In Ethiopic, i regularly becomes e cf. Dillmann-Bezold, Gram. Arabic liamsu 11 is synco- pated from a more original qatil form, viz. Delitzsch, op.
Haupt, Hebraica, i, , n. Hebrew , JAOS. In Syriac hammes the doubling is secondary ; a short vowel in an open pre tonic syllable, which would otherwise become Shewa , is often preserved in this way In Aramaic, cf. Zimmern, Vergl. Sprachen, Berlin, , p. Gesenius-Kautzsch, op. Stade, Lehrbuch d. Blake , [ The form DTH13 itself, moreover, is probably due to corruption of the text. Haupt, Sumerische Familien-Oesetze , loc.
Osthoff u. Bmgmann, Morphologische Untersitchungen , Leipzig, , Th. Meister, Die griechischen Dialehte , Gottingen, , Bd. Korting, Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterb'mch, Paderborn, , p. The statement in Osthoff u. Bmgmann, op. Brugmann, op. The endings of the two numerals being identical in the masculine absolute and feminine construct, viz. Fern, const. Delitzsch, Assyrisehe Gram,, p. Haupt, Sumerische Familien-Gesetze, loc. The Bisayan Dialects.
Fkank R. Blake, Johns Hopkins University. Amonu the large number of idioms which are spoken in the Philippine Islands, that which stands next in rank to Tagalog, the most important and best known language of the Archi- pelago, is undoubtedly Bisayan, which is spoken by more people than any other Philippine idiom, forming the medium of daily intercourse of over three million souls, almost half the civil- ized population of the islands.
Its territory is also more exten- sive than that of any of its sister tongues, embracing the Bisayan Islands, viz. As would naturally be expected in a language spoken in so many separate places with but imperfect means of communica- tion between them, Bisayan appears in a number of different dialects. The Austin friars Buzota and Bravo in their Philippine Ency- clopedia 1 enumerate four dialects, viz, : I that of Panay, spoken in the town of Iloilo, in the islands Romblon, Tablas, Sibuyan, in the northwestern part of the island of Negros, and in Mindanao in the districts of Misamis and Caraga, and in the town of Zamboanga.
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Those who speak this dialect are said to understand without difficulty the dialect of Iloilo. It is said to be a mixture of Tagalog and Bisayan. In c El Archipielago Filipino, 51 an encyclopedic work on the islands prepared by the Jesuits, where the languages spoken in each district are enumerated, the following references are made to Bisayan and its dialects.
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Yisaya sir without specification of dialect, is said to be spoken in the islands of Romblon, Tablas, Sibuyan, Masbate, Panay, Negros, Leyte, in the Calamian and Cuyo groups, and in the districts of Surigao and Davao on the island of Mindanao. Noth- ing is said of the language spoken in Samar. Caraga is said to be the name of a dialect, perhaps Bisayan, which was formerly spoten on the east coast of Mindanao; at the present time, however, only Bisayan is spoken there. Hiliguayna, Hiligueyna or Hili- gvovna 3 is the name given to the dialect spoken on the coast of Panay.
Halaya is a dialect of the interior of the same island. Ilaraya is a dialect of Panay nearly identical with the fore- going. Tratado I, passim. Blumentritt, List of the Native Tribes of the Philippines and of the languages spoken by them , trans. Mason in Smithsonian Inst. Report for year ending June, , Washington, , pp. Blake, [ As the district assigned to Calamian by Buzeta and Bravo cor- responds to the habitat of the Tagbanuas, it is probable that Calamian is only another name for Tagbanua. Besides the lan- guage called Calamian, however, some form of Bisayan is also spoken in tlxe Calamian group.
Secondly, Hiliguayna and Panayano or Panayan appear, from a comparison of the Hiliguayna grammar of Mentrida, and the Panayan grammar of Lozano, to be simply two names for the same dialect. The few minor differences between the two grammars seem to be due simply to the fact that the statements of the latter are abridged and often imperfect, while the former gives in many cases forms which are rare or only used in certain districts. At any rate these differences are so slight that, even if they represent differences in the spoken language, we are justified in classing the dialects of the two grammars together under one head.
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