Micronutrients: Types, Functions, Benefits and More
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Small-scale community vegetable and fruit gardens can play a significant role in increasing production of micronutrient-rich foods. To improve micronutrient status, gardening projects must lead to increased consumption of the micronutrient-rich foods produced.
Micronutrients in Health and Disease
Success requires a good understanding of local conditions. Community participation and the involvement of women are usually key to building support and achieving nutritionally beneficial change. Land and water limitations are common constraints which may require local government intervention or assistance. Production of small animals e.
Efforts to promote small livestock and fishery projects should address cost constraints and the need for education and support to producers. Efficient, large-scale commercial vegetable and fruit production can supply micronutrient-rich foods at reasonable prices. Effective and competitive markets lower prices for the consumer without reducing the producer price.
Commercial oil seed production is a major means of providing low-cost dietary fat, which is necessary for absorption of vitamin A, especially beta-carotene. In some countries red palm oil cultivation may present opportunities for improving vitamin A status. Fruit and milk beverages may also be accessible sources of micronutrients. Post-harvest loss of micronutrient-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, can be high because these foods tend to be perishable.
Micronutrients in Health and Disease, Second Edition - CRC Press Book
At the commercial level, storage losses can be reduced by improving marketing, grading, packaging, transport and cold storage facilities. At the household level, practical food preservation and processing methods, such as solar drying, can be adopted to increase the availability of seasonal micronutrient-rich foods. Improving the micronutrient content of soils and plants can result in improved yields as well as increased micronutrient content in plant foods.
Further research in gene modification of plant foods to increase the uptake of nutrients holds promising possibilities. Long-term food-based solutions to micronutrient deficiencies will require improved agricultural practices and improvements in the nutritional quality of grains through genetic modification.
In developing countries, food fortification is increasingly recognized as an effective medium- to long-term approach to improving micronutrient status in large populations. Fortification does not require changes in the dietary habits of the population, can often be implemented relatively quickly and can be sustainable over long periods of time. Some studies have shown fortification to be one of the most cost-effective methods of reducing micronutrient deficiencies. Fortification programmes require careful planning to ensure that appropriate food vehicles and fortificants are selected.
It may be difficult in practice to ensure that groups which consume lower levels of the fortified foods receive adequate quantities of the added micronutrient. Food fortification may not be an appropriate intervention because of the absence of a suitable food vehicle to reach the vulnerable population, difficulty in enforcement of fortification regulations or high cost. Although fortification may be effective without consumer education, it is generally considered wise to include a consumer education component.
Because fortification usually increases the price of a food, planners must consider whether to subsidize fortified foods or pass the price increases on to consumers. Effective quality assurance is essential to ensuring the sustained effectiveness of a fortification programme. The safety and appropriateness of fortification levels should be monitored at both the production and household level. The introduction of a fortified food may necessitate consideration of marketing issues such as packaging, pricing and promotion strategies.
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Communication techniques have been used for more than two decades to help bring about changes in eating practices. Successful strategies from many countries demonstrate the importance of carefully planning communication interventions and of basing strategies on information obtained directly from those who are the targets of the strategy, for example, mothers and others who influence food production, food purchasing and child feeding behaviour. In most countries, important improvements in the micronutrient status of the population can be obtained by changing practices at the household level and by protecting nutritionally beneficial traditional practices that are eroding because of factors such as urbanization and modernization.
When incomes rise, people often reduce breastfeeding, stop gathering wild foods and eat fewer green leafy vegetables.
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The mass media can be a powerful force in helping to preserve positive traditional practices by enhancing their status. At the same time, communication strategies can be used to improve dietary practices. Although micronutrient-rich foods may be both available and consumed, often they are not consumed in sufficient quantities to prevent deficiencies and they may not be consumed by all vulnerable groups. Communication strategies can be used to promote dietary and behaviour changes that increase consumption of micronutrient-rich foods.
The least disruptive dietary change offers the best chance of success. Conducting an assessment of the problem, analysis of the causes and review of available resources collectively referred to as a situation analysis serves as a basis for many national planning efforts to identify and implement micronutrient deficiency prevention strategies.
Although poor dietary intake of micronutrients is often the major cause of micronutrient malnutrition, non-diet-related factors can also play an important role. Analysis of underlying factors that affect micronutrient intake may help to identify appropriate preventive measures.
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Government policies and regulations in the agricultural, trade and food-processing sectors greatly influence the availability and price of micronutrient-rich foods, as well as the profitability of producing, processing and marketing such foods. Reviewing such policies for their impact on micronutrient status is an important step in planning food-based strategies.
For example, regulations which prohibit gardening in urban areas or restrict the marketing of fresh foods may have an impact on the availability of micronutrient-rich foods. Most countries where micronutrient deficiencies are a public health problem lack policies to improve the availability of micronutrient-rich foods.
For example, horticultural programmes and extension networks can encourage the production of fruits and vegetables. Preservation and processing of surplus food produced during the peak season ensures year-round availability of these foods. Development of local food preservation and processing facilities can be encouraged.