And, since this relationship is against standards of morality, the situation when they are having sex has to be interrupted by a call of high importance. The other weird issue, dramaturgically speaking, is the situation of the encounter of Robin and her former senior Al Parker David Wenham for a hearing. The overall story gives the impression that some years lay between the end of season one — Robin shooting Al — and beginning of season two.
Robin had three miscarriages, and as we can see, Al has a new family and two children. The boy must be about five or at least four years old, to estimate from the appearance and dialogue. What made them wait so long to set up the hearing about the events happening at end of season one? What took the authorities four to five years to arrange that? That situation — of meeting again for the hearing — enables the authors and the director to display a violent attack against Robin.
Mary manages to free herself from her relationship with Puss and goes back to her adoptive mother; who herself has returned to her marriage and gets rewarded for doing so by getting Mary back. Just the Thai-women are still in the hands of Puss, and all those couples that were about to buy themselves the service of substitutes were penalised as well. Thus, the dramaturgical analysis disappointingly reveals a white-male supremacy worldview dominating the layout and construct, the motivation and design of the narration and characters; as well the aesthetic representation.
Both seasons of Top of the Lake were perceived as exceptional productions making a difference in presenting female characters within TV productions. Nevertheless, it is pleasant to watch excellent actresses in exciting, challenging and rewarding roles; the implicit message is still questioning women in their rights and their economic, social as well as mental independence.
Assmann, Aleida. Memory in a global age: discourses, practices and trajectories. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Assmann, Jan. Campion, Jane, and A. Top of the Lake — China Girl. In Top of the Lake. Fiedler, Leslie A. Gabler, Neal. An empire of their own: How the Jews invented Hollywood.
New York: Doubleday. Gelfert, Hans-Dieter. Typisch amerikanisch: Wie die Amerikaner wurden, was sie sind. Hawthorne, Nathaniel, and Ross C. The scarlet letter: complete, authoritative text with biographical, historical, and cultural contexts, critical history, and essays from contemporary critical perspectives. Boston u. Maras, Steven Ed. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Eine Schallplatte wird produziert Dir. September Allgemein Kommentare 0. Arya Stark Maisie Williams is in the very first sequence of VII-1 crystallizing herself out of Walder Frey David Bradley —a wonderful theatrical trick to bring us back into the style and tempo of the series.
At the same time, this gives a short summary of one of the main events of the Stark-narration which were happening before. Arya is still shown as an independent and brave character. She joins soldiers after being invited, she eats and drinks like men, and she is not panicking when surrounded by a horde of wolves. Dressed like the little but strong sister of Jon Snow she works on her revenge.
In contrast to Cersei Lena Headey , Arya is acting neither blindly nor driven by bitterness. As in the seasons before, she is shown as a character who is careful but not afraid, able to plan her steps and being precise and prepared for what she is about to confront herself with. Arya seems to be the less traumatized, less play-acting figure within the ensemble of main characters.
And—in contrast to Sansa—she refuses to be protected. The character is still designed as independent and trusting to be able to protecting herself best. And trusts that she is able to protect herself. Sansa Stark Sophie Turner —back in Winterfell and safely protected. Brienne of Tarth Gwendoline Christie is always close by having a watchful eye on her.
She, Brienne, still a strong, confident character, true to her oath and principles but caring as well. Thus, she still has feminine features. Dramaturgically seen she can be understood as an older variation of Arya, a dramaturgical pendent to her. Sansa is shown as still torn between her desires for power thus including revenge and being the good-good girl . Arguments between them again give us information, backstories and potential developments, on the threats they are facing—every one of them emphasising a different threat.
Sansa is shown through these two new episodes as a young woman with a strong will, stronger than her wounds. Interesting is her admiring Cersei, telling us she has learned a great deal from her. What does this mean for Sansa and her future steps? Will she develop towards a Stark-version of Cersei? No matter her desire to rule her character is designed in a way that she was taken by surprise when Jon announced her to be his substitute whilst he will be away, meeting Daenerys Emilia Clark. The cliff hangers for episode three are pointing us to the question of how the meetings will act out between Arya coming back and being confronted with her sister who betrayed her in the beginning, and Jon meeting his half-sister Daenerys, which both are not aware of.
Cersei Lannister-Baratheon is still shown as mainly hungry for power. Thus, she appears a thus crazy as she was developed to during last season. She wants to start a dynasty lasting years, anyhow there are no Lannister children who could take over who are still alive—as far as we know at present. Following the implicit principles of the series, it is no wonder the attack happens exactly when Asha and Ellaria Sand Indira Varna are about to start kissing and touching each other. Thus, the daughters of Ellaria are killed during the battle—by Euron himself, the man who just proposed a heterosexual marriage.
The fate Asha Greyjoy and Ellaria Sand ate facing will be reviled in one of the next episodes. They seem to be the precious gift he promised Cersei he would come back with. Daenerys Targaryen arrives at Dragonstone , the place she was born, on a stormy night. Accompanied, surrounded and counselled by her entourage. When Lady Olenna Tyrell , who was also arranged to be at Dragonstone to become an ally against Cersei, advises her to ignore men this would open the door to Daenerys the Mad Queen one could estimate after the dramaturgical development of the character during the last seasons. She is the populist using the feelings of the people—represented here by Lord Varys Conleth Hill to ensure her personal power.
Thus, her anti-establishment actions are on the surface giving freedom to the common people, but by replacing the former governing elite by herself. Lady Olenna Tyrell is portrayed within the Dragonstone-sequence as not being so convinced by this potential new queen.
In her eyes the perfect queen and thus a role model would have been her granddaughter Margaery Natalie Dormer. Margaery truly went to meet the common people, the poorest of the poor to do a good deed to them. This is how Margaery should be remembered. And this is a character clearly opposite to the one Daenerys is representing. Overall the female part of the main ensemble is arranged in a wide diverse group of characters. One can be curious about how long Lady Olena Tyrell will withstand the intrigue set up by Cersei against her—dramaturgically seen she could be one of the characters who have to leave the game soon; the same is true for Asha Greyjoy and Elliana Sand.
Another dramatic highlight in episode VII-3 will be the meeting between Jon Snow-Stark-Tagaryen—who was not made aware of Daenerys Tagaryen expecting him to bow his knee to her—and Daenerys. Gelfert, H. Typisch amerikanisch: Wie die Amerikaner wurden, was sie sind 3. Stutterheim, K. Die Frage, die sich mir wie Studierenden und Filminteressierten stellt, ist die danach, warum ausgerechnet diese Serie weltweit so erfolgreich ist. Und damit verbunden ist die Frage danach, wie sie gemacht wurde. Sie widersprechen diesen nicht, wie oft vermutet wird. Ich schreibe hier aus dem Wissen um die ersten sechs Staffeln.
Doch dramaturgisches Wissen hilft, dem nahe zu kommen. Eine filmische Produktion, auch eine Adaption, folgt spezifischen dramaturgischen Regeln und Produktionsbedingungen, die den Besonderheiten der medialen Gegebenheiten entsprechen. Indem postmoderne Kinokonventionen genutzt werden, kann das Team von Game of Thrones radikal mit einer Wirklichkeitsillusion brechen, die traditionell Fernsehproduktionen eigen ist. Dennoch ist die Serie durchaus ambivalent zu diskutieren. Diese Sequenz stimmt das Publikum ein und vermittelt wichtige Informationen. Drei Reiter unterschiedlichen Alters und Aussehens werden hinter einem Gitter wartend im ersten Bild so in Szene gesetzt, dass erst ein schweres Eisentor hochgezogen werden muss, durch das sie hindurch reiten werden.
Am Ende des Tunnels wird erneut ein Tor hochgezogen. Nun wird — in der weiten Totalen — die extrem hohe und sich in den Horizont erstreckende Eiswand gezeigt. Dies ist eine Szenerie, die sich von unserer wirklichen Welt und unserem Wissen um diese unterscheidet. Tarkovskij, UdSSR Dies geht einher mit der Darstellung fester Ordnungen und Hierarchien, die in einer bis ins Detail ausgearbeiteten, aber klar umrissenen und von unserer Wirklichkeitserfahrung verschiedenen Welt angesiedelt ist. Implizit ist diese Handlung, wie es im Genre Fantasy Konvention ist,  in Bezug zu Mythologie und insbesondere der christlichen Religion motiviert.
Die jeweiligen Motive der Figuren und Handlungsschritte sollen so indirekt legitimiert werden und gleichzeitig eine metaphorische Spiegelung der erlebten Gegenwart zulassen. Diese ovale Lichtung wirkt wie ein ritueller Ort. Und nun stehen diese quasi vor den Toren der als zivilisiert zu verstehenden Menschheit.
Weniger vertraut sind der Begriff und die Kunst der Dramaturgie. Dramaturgie, das muss hier unbedingt betont werden, bezieht sich stets auf das gesamte Werk, also die Filme oder die Serie, die wir sehen — nicht alleine auf das Drehbuch oder die Dialoggestaltung. Andererseits kann man mithilfe dramaturgischer Grundkenntnisse in der Analyse auch verstehen, warum bestimmte Filme uns begeistern oder langweilen, faszinieren oder weniger ansprechen. Eine Grundkenntnis oder noch besser Erfahrungen aus der Praxis von Filmproduktionen hilft in der dramaturgischen Analyse ebenso wie in der Beratung.
Juni Allgemein Kommentare 1. Stories are all around us — in the books we read, games we play and films we watch. The best stories are those that draw us in, captivate us and make us empathise with the characters and their situations. But can you create a story that will thrill and engage your audience? As part of her inaugural lecture, Professor Stutterheim will share insights from her research and professional practice as a documentary filmmaker.
She will explain how to tell a story that will interest, inform and excite your audience, illustrated with a wide range of examples from documentary film, and the games industry. Professor Kerstin Stutterheim joined Bournemouth University in , where she teaches a range of subjects, including film studies, directing of documentary and fiction films.
She is currently involved in a research project exploring the cultural legacy of the Paralympics, as well as undertaking research into the storytelling of HBO hit TV show — Game of Thrones. For further information on the inaugural lecture series, please visit www. Every frisson is a response to surprise, to an unexpected comparison or the revelation of a hitherto unnoticed reality. Here, it is the meeting of kitsch and death. All this is kitsch, the hidden, tender, and sweet vice—and who can live without vices?
It is the juxtaposition of the kitsch aesthetic and of the themes of death that creates the surprise, that special frisson so characteristic not only for the new discourse but also, it appears, of Nazism itself. Is it necessary to see in this the will to reconstitute an atmosphere or a fascination? Both, no doubt. There is a kitsch of death. There is even a kitsch of the apocalypse: the livid sky slashed by immense purple reflections, flames surging from cities, flocks and men fleeing toward the glowing horizon, and far, very far away, four horsemen.
And yet this kitsch of death, of destruction, of apocalypse is a special kitsch, a representation of reality that does not integrate into the vision of ordinary kitsch. As I have just mentioned, whatever the kitsch images are surrounding one, death creates an authentic feeling of loneliness and dread. Basically, at the level of individual experience, kitsch and death remain incompatible.
The juxtaposition of these two contradictory elements represents the foundation of a certain religious aesthetic, and, in my opinion, the bedrock of Nazi aesthetics as well as the new evocation of Nazism. Now, this fusion is only the expression of a kind of malaise in civilisation, linked to the acceptance of civilization, but also to its fundamental rejection. Modern society and the bourgeois order are perceived both as an accomplishment and as an unbearable yoke.
Hence this constant coming and going between the need for submission and the reveries of total destruction, between love of harmony and the phantasms of apocalypse, between the enchantment of Good Friday and the twilight of the gods. Submission nourishes fury, fury clears its conscience in the submission. To these opposing needs, Nazism—in the constant duality of its representations—offers an outlet; in fact, Nazism found itself to be the expression of these opposing needs. Today these aspirations are still there, and their reflections in the imaginary as well.
New York, Psychology of Kitsch. The Art of Happiness. Paris: Denoel, , pp. Folglich kann diese Art Kitsch die tieferen Schichten der Glaubensbereitschaft nicht ansprechen. Diese Mixtur von Eros und Thanatos war geeignet, in der extremsten politischen Mobilisierung der Neuzeit Massen in den Wahn zu treiben. Grendacher und G. Selb; S. Dementsprechend ist das visuelle Element, die visuelle Poesie, das besondere Merkmal des Genres seit Beginn an.
Dies gilt bis heute. Dies erinnert an die Unterscheidung, die Rudolf Arnheim bereits in seinem erschienenen Buch Film als Kunst getroffen hat:. Bunte Ansichtspostkarten zum Beispiel sind nicht Kunst und wollen auch keine sein. Und Kientopp ist nicht Film. Das Alte geht, das Neue kommt. Arnheim, R. Film als Kunst 1 ed. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Inglehart, R. Norris Ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Wolf, F. Nach Beendigung meiner Dissertation zum fotografischen Werk wollte ich mich nun auch dem Filmemacher Ehrhardt zuwenden.
Die Aufnahmen lagern noch heute bei Manfred. Das Projekt nahm unerwartete Dimensionen an. Im Zentrum steht die Frage, was ein Abbild vermag, wie es funktioniert und wie es rezipiert wird. Aber meine Euphorie hing eindeutig auch mit der kongenialen Verbindung zwischen Sujet und Autor zusammen. Niels ist wie Alfred Ehrhardt Fotograf und er geht wie dieser vom fotografischen Standbild aus.
Vielleicht hatte Niels mehr bei Alfred gelernt als ihm das selber deutlich war. Schrecklich aufregend war es, vor der Kamera zu stehen. Irgendwann, nach Monaten, hatte ich dann auch gelernt, gelassener zu agieren. Aber er hatte ja Recht. Nur: warum sagte er mir das erst nach so vielen Drehtagen? Ich hab kein Problem damit Dinge zu schleppen. Danach war Ruhe in der Kiste und ging auch das Mitdenken besser. Etwas filmisches Material lag schon vor, unter anderem ein Interview mit dem mittlerweile verstorbenen Direktor des Ernst Haeckel Hauses, Prof.
Dieser Film der Regisseurin Corinna Belz wurde ein durchschlagender Erfolg, auch weil er einfach aufgebaut ist und auf die Bilder vertraut. Touch is the most personal of the senses. Hearing and touch meet where the lower frequencies of audible sound pass over to tactile vibrations at about 20 hertz. Hearing is a way of touching at a distance and the intimacy of the first sense is fused with sociability whenever people gather together to hear something special.
These two features seem to co-exist. The sense of hearing cannot be closed off at will. There are no earlids. When we go to sleep, our perception of sound is the last door to close and it is also the first to open when we awaken. The eye points outward; the ear draws inward. It soaks up information. Listening to beautiful sounds, for instance the sounds of music, is like the tongue of a lover in your ear.
Of its own nature then, the ear demands that insouciant and distracting sounds would be stopped in order that it may concentrate on those which truly matter. Murray Schafer: The Soundscape. Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. New York, Knopf, Why I think that talking about the audience as a measurement or an aim is a mistake when it comes to writing and directing film or time-based media?
As a filmmaker as well as an academic myself, I often come across the demand to think about the audience before and while making a film or writing or conceptualizing art work. This always irritates me. Having been educated in the Faculty of Philosophy at Humboldt University Berlin and in one of the oldest and most established, but at the same time most modern, theaters, my immediate answer is that this is against all tradition.
This may look like a very academic answer. From my academic and artistic education, my infinite reading, my excitement about great art — theatre, painting, performance, writing — I am deeply convinced that all great artists are in dialog with their audience in dealing with tradition and everyday life at the same time. No one starts a work outside of life and reality. Starting to write or direct or perform takes place in communication with existing work.
That means to get to know, to test and to challenge what the basic elements are that one has to respect. To respect means to think about what is basic and what can be changed and how, to be modified, to be tested or to be ignored, played with. This fulfils thinking about audience, but more in an abstract or academic way. Will the audience understand and like this?
Will they pay for it? Will they keep watching it? The last question includes money and a calculated economic success as well. There is no such thing as THE audience. There is not one audience, everyone feeling the same or demanding the same story, aesthetic, style, whatever. Would you, my reader, choose the same book or the same story or the same style every day?
Would you dress every day in the same colours? Or can you predict that next Friday you will for sure be up for wearing a red Jacket, eating potatoes for lunch, listening to the Beatles for driving to work, and watching a Tarantino film in the evening? What about midsummer in two years? Will you be up that day for a romantic comedy or for a thriller, and should the main cast be Julia Roberts, Tom Hiddleston or Kit Herrington? Thus, I have to rely on tradition, on basic knowledge and on artistic wisdom. What I am here calling artistic wisdom is very well reflected and not mystic or metaphysic knowledge.
Philosophy is one discipline reflecting on aesthetics since ancient times, the other is a sub-discipline of philosophy called dramaturgy. When I think about experiences with actual audiences, there are two different fields I can refer to, which I will do here in just a short overview. My first experiences go back to my time as dramaturgy assistant at the Deutsches Theater Berlin. There were some great directors, e. But two were dominating the discourse, discussions and debates, fascinating the audience and splitting the colleagues into two groups.
Friedo Solter was, in a nutshell, directing in a traditional way, modern, but moderate, up-to-date but not too provoking. On the other side was Alexander Lang. He was the postmodern director of the ensemble. Provoking, excellent, fascinating. There was a lot of brainwork done before they started to rehearse and during the process. And the audience liked it too. All performances of both directors were always sold out.
And ran for a long time. Shows I watched again and again as a member of the audience—more than ten times—were e. The audience was different every day. There were some evenings when most of the audience came because they were curious to see the new interpretation of something they knew or knew about, others came to see the actors in a new performance, others to see the new work of the directors and some just because they had a season ticket or someone had asked them out, it was a social event organised through work or an educational trip from school.
And thus, the performance was a little bit different every day or perhaps just the atmosphere differed. I have similar experiences from showing our own films. When a film is new, a premiere or a first screening at an important festival, the audience expects something special, they are mostly open minded, interested, excited, too. Do they get the joke or the irony in this dialog, do they see the emotional picture, do they hold their breath at this moment or not? And along that every discussion has a few similar questions, the standards, but more often completely different reactions, responds and queries.
Some US-media primed colleagues view European Documentaries as boring and old fashioned; others world wide are still working in poetic cinema , documentaries and fiction. Some filmmaker are still able to make poetic documentaries, being more visual, more artistic, and less outspoken or fast or hybrid; others invite these films to competitions in A-Festivals and sometimes these films receive an award too.
Teaching courses in Bangladesh, the UAE or Brazil, I found that the students were socialized and hence primed differently, but all of them were attracted by similar aspects of telling and directing a story. All of them discovered their specific style and narration to make their own projects, but all of them were in the given circumstances successful after they started to trust in artistic wisdom, the traditions, and the balance of constants and variants in storytelling.
The movie was not well received in the US, and Western Europe, thus it was marked as a flop. Or Barry Lyndon—over decades described as difficult and not very successful—this film was just re-released and shown in cinemas. There is no such thing as THE audience which you can calculate upfront. But, and this is the good news, we can trust that our audience in its variety, its broad interests and moods, will enjoy a good or excellently told story, when the auteur is aware of traditions and artistic wisdom, is creative and open minded, simply an artist, not a formatted industry worker.
One has again to trust the writers, directors, the creative team and the artists, if we still want to get good and great stories told. Looking for a formula to calculate the mood and interests of the people is like reinventing alchemy. Praxis des Drehbuchschreibens, Berlin, Alexander-Verl. Hamburgische Dramaturgie, Stuttgart, Reclam. Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui, Frankfurt a. It tramples the cinema, makes it stand still, which is the opposite of what we live. The same thing applies to literature, if we simply apply to poetic rules, for example we can write about our lives but never write a single poem.
September Allgemein , Filmmaker , teaching Film Kommentare 0. By thematizing rehearsal processes in performative works unfolding over time, it is possible to demonstrate and depict working on art itself and the conditions for producing it. This essay will question which artistic procedures are possible, in analogy, in a static work. How can these critical ideas of rehearsal be reflected on as a topos in a painting? He thus achieves a self-reflected, critical reflection on the arrangement of narration and visual representation at the dramaturgically implicit level of dramatic image plot as well.
Annemarie M. August Allgemein Kommentare 0. Sie wurde erstmals ausgestrahlt und besteht derzeit aus zwei Staffeln. Eine weitere befindet sich in Produktion und soll erscheinen Stand Juli Alle anderen Themen entstanden danach und leiten sich teilweise aus dem Titelthema ab. Des Weiteren kommen Pads zum Einsatz, die er mit den Orchesteraufnahmen mischt. Eine weitere Ausnahme ist das elektronisch bearbeitete Sample des Waschmaschinensounds.
Zudem wird mit Klaviereffekten durch Bogen oder Hammer auf den Saiten gearbeitet. Durch die solistische Besetzung strahlt es Einsamkeit aus. Die Gegend, die man in der Serie sieht, ist ein Charakter, und so ist es wichtig, sie wie einen Charakter zu behandeln. Ich beziehe mich nie direkt auf den Score, aber dennoch auf dessen Klangfarbe. Somit bin ich also in Burwells musikalischer Landschaft geblieben. Aber weiter geht meine Referenz zu diesem Score nicht. Im wahren Leben ereignen sich auch Dinge und dann passiert mal wieder nichts.
Um das zu zeigen, haben wir das Thema unserer Filmwelt eingespielt — welches die Titelmusik der Serie ist. Das hilft an dieser Stelle wirklich sehr. Die Gestaltung der beiden Themen greift geschickt die Verbundenheit der Figuren auf. In einem Interview sagt Russo:. Als Lester wegen der infizierten Verletzung an seiner Hand im Krankenhaus zu sich kommt und bemerkt, dass er in Schwierigkeiten steckt, schmiedet er den Plan, eine falsche Spur zu legen und die Tat seinem Bruder in die Schuhe zu schieben.
Doch es kann genauso als Vorausdeutung auf das Kommende gesehen werden. Wenn Gus nun auf Malvo trifft, baut sich unweigerlich Spannung Suspense auf, da die Zuschauenden bereits wissen, in welcher Gefahr sich der Polizist befindet. Diese dunklen Akzente reichen bereits aus, um das Spannungslevel zu potenzieren und nehmen die von Malvo ausgehende Bedrohung musikalisch auf. Dieses Thema kann als eine Variation der Titelmusik gesehen werden, da sich das melodische und rhythmische Material unmittelbar daraus ableitet.
Die Melodie entspringt der selben melodischen Phrase jeweils T 1 , wird aber anders harmonisiert. Das ist auch musikalisch erkennbar, denn ihr Thema wird zwar im Laufe der ersten Staffel auch variiert, entwickelt sich aber in keine bestimmte Richtung weiter. Somit hat sie auch von Anfang an dasselbe Thema. Die Themen folgen den dargestellten Figuren sehr langsam und subtil in ihrer Entwicklung.
Manchmal kommentiert sie das Dargestellte dezent. Betreuerin: Christine Lang, Zweitgutachter: Prof. Ulrich Reuter. Bullerjahn, Claudia: Grundlagen der Wirkung von Filmmusik. The Art and Business of Writing. A Guide to Contemporary Film Scoring. In: Moormann, Peter Hg. Ein Handbuch. Zugriff Stutterheim, Kerstin, , S. Lang, Christine, Mail vom Lang, Christine; Dreher, Christoph, , S. Davis, Richard, , S. Juli Allgemein Kommentare 0. A closer look at women in film, as directors or as characters, provides a basic understanding of the situation of a society. Within this topic one is able to develop a much greater comprehension of if and how gender equality is represented and understood, through simple application of common sense.
Gender role models are constructions, made common and perpetuated by media productions. Movies are reflecting cultural and social relationships in a society, and subsequently have an influence on society as well. Audience, the often-stressed unknown being, also includes women. In cinemas within some particular age groups, women are even the majority. We, the women, are an integral part of society; without us there would be neither society nor civilization. This is truism, but astonishingly enough it nevertheless has to be mention from time to time again.
Contemporary movies and TV productions are mostly dominated by male producers, directors, commissioning editors and heads of program, yet tell not only stories from that of a male perspective. Even character design is coined by a male view of the world; among the women represented, female characters are frequently designed in a way that gives an overall impression that women would be unable to act as independent human beings.
They could be neither able to act as a director nor as female characters embedded in a story that do more than acting as a secretary, nurse, housewife, shop keeper or sex worker. Those characters often lack a name or intelligent dialogue lines, and can be exploited or tortured and murdered more easily than male characters. Instead, the term is expressing that those kinds of characters are demanding a specific hierarchy and personal freedom. Within the hierarchy of such characters, female characters were almost always narrated out of a male position.
Thus, they have little to no influence on the narrated action. If it is a female character indulged to be the protagonist, her action is shown as personal, fleshly or erotically motivated, not because of a societal or political motivation or longing of the character. Within the action the young, blonde female main character, called Marisa, given by Alina Levshin is shown as driven into the group of Neo-Nazis by her life situation and circumstances—her mother unable to support her, a bad job, a region undeveloped and of no hope for the young generation.
As a result of her one and only human action helping the illegal migrant to hide she became sacrificed at the end. Independent decisions made by a female character ignoring the rules of the group she belongs to were not endured. Although this term as such first of all just means someone is able to decide independently Holland, and still not the active influence of events happening because of a person character acting in a specific way, that term already is been used to discuss characters, especially female ones, in media productions.
To change the ways of representing women in media productions it is necessary to have many more female writers and directors, who should in numbers correspond to the percentage of women in society and the audience. It is time to change the representation of both genders in media productions to give both of them a better perspective in a civilized world as well. Within these productions characters are interacting on eyelevel, especially within the dramaturgical structure. Action, hopes, dreams and decisions of female characters are of the same weight and influence for the action going on as those of the male characters.
Their decisions and actions are not body directed or only emotion based- they are as clear and rational as those of their male counterparts. Of course, cinema productions written and directed by women were and are successful, like f. Based in socio-cultural structures in the cinema business movies directed by women were differently discussed, distributed and reviewed than those directed by their male colleagues.
A closer look and analysis shows that female directors more often tend to open dramaturgical forms and less often tell classical stories of a hero. Thus, a more open minded reception is needed to give them same respect as traditional male narrated movies. To support the discussion and critical thinking of representation of gender in Film and TV productions of today we will add here from time to time short reflections on randomly selected examples we came across.
Identity and agency in cultural worlds, Cambridge, Mass. Premiere auf den Internationalen Hofer Filmtagen Der Spiegel in der Umkleide evoziert eine Leinwand, die der Selbstfiktionalisierung dient. Das Trinkspiel ist eine soziale Aktion, eine Art Initiationsritual. Wer in den Kreis aufgenommen werden will, muss mitspielen. Wer sich widersetzt, wird zu Fall gebracht. Kurzfilm , 23 Min. Neues im Film entsteht vor allem in der Beziehung von Form und Inhalt.
Dabei ist es die Form, die entscheidend ist, weil sie den Inhalt eines Films transportiert. Martin 3. Die Handlung ereignet sich in einer Welt, die sich von unserer erlebten Wirklichkeit unterscheidet. In Fantasy-Filmen kann auch auf die von uns erlebte Wirklichkeit referiert werden. Zentraler Handlungsort ist eine Insel, die wie eine Variante Englands wirkt.
Mit dieser ersten Szene ist die Begebenheit etabliert, zu der alles Handeln in Relation gesetzt wird. Wie in Shakespeares Henry VI. Aus dem — im Sinne der Konventionen der Gesellschaft gesehenen — Fehlverhalten desjenigen, der die Macht und die Verantwortung hat, die tradierten moralischen Werte der Gemeinschaft vorbildhaft zu bewahren, ergibt sich die Katastrophe. Der Untergang des Abendlandes, der zivilisierten Welt, droht. Bach really cannot be seen, understood, and interpreted from an isolated point. Bach has to be explored as part of something complete, unique, of a universe.
Would you discuss this, especially as the Goldberg Variations may relate to the question? In whole, Chopin admired Bach most of all composers, and it was nothing less than the Well-Tempered Clavier itself that was his musical diary. I also have said that Chopin is the crowning and climax of piano-playing. Whether the Goldbergs may relate to this question? Again we return to the theme of my piano concert grand: if the piano cannot bring out this character, you are totally lost. In conclusion: all is in the same breath, and all is part of a big coherence.
Therefore, interpretation also is a question of experience. Other composers, including his sons, already composed in another style, where they found other ideals and brought them to new solutions. A hundred years later, it was Mendelssohn who about discovered Bach anew with the performance of the St. Matthew Passion. Among these were the orchestral transcriptions of Leopold Stokowski, and the organ interpretations of the multitalented Albert Schweitzer, who, one has to confess, had a decisive effect on the rediscovery of Bach.
All performances had gone in the wrong direction: much too romantic, with a false knowledge of historic style, the wrong sound, the wrong rubato, and so on. The necessity of artists like Rosalyn Tureck and Glenn Gould—again years later—has been understandable: The radicalism of Glenn Gould pointed out the real clarity and the internal explosions of the power-filled polyphony in the best way. This extreme style, called by many of his critics refrigerator interpretations, however really had been necessary to demonstrate the right strength to bring out the architecture in the right manner, which had been lost so much before.
But there has been another giant: it was no less than Helmut Walcha who, also beginning in the , started his legendary interpretations for the DG-Archive productions of the complete organ-work cycle on historic organs Silbermann, Arp Schnitger. Also very classical in strength of speed and architectural proportions, he pointed out the polyphonic structures in an enlightened but moreover especially humanistic way, in a much more smooth and elegant way than Glenn Gould on the piano.
Some years later it was Virgil Fox who acquainted the U. The ranges of Bach interpretations had become wide, and there were the defenders of the historical style and those of the much more modern romantic style. Also the performances of the orchestral and cantata Bach had become extreme: on one side, for example, Karl Richter, who used a big and rich-toned orchestra; on the other side Helmut Rilling, whose Bach was much more historically oriented.
I myself represent the style of a Bach who was a human being with all his heights and depths, who knew life very well. I had been fascinated by Gould in his explosive emotionality, which really is part of my own conception, even if today I have the possibility of another interpretation, as explained; but there are two versions that I also admire very much: those of Perahia and Hewitt. But in answering your question: no interpretation has influenced me; moreover is my interpretation influenced by my knowing not only the whole literature, but also by my knowing the organ-Bach and his unlimited colors.
And this richness is, so I hope, what I give to my listener. We still have to mention giants like Wanda Landowska and Marie Claire Alain, who were a great influence on the Bach interpretations, but not to me. Probably I have to be sorry for it, but this is my deepest artistic conviction for the rightness of an interpretation—interpretation as a summary of something unique and whole, not of a combining of details. Intuition is a level that includes all levels of emotion, intelligence, structure, and architecture. It was he himself, who, after he had been occupied during his whole life with symbols, with numbers, with the mastering of structural and formal problems and renewals, now he saw himself confronted with a personal view into mirror.
He now shows us a human being in his whole conception of life. The heartbreaking modulations from bar until the end demonstrate the horror of death.
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By this we also are confronted in the 25th variation of the Goldbergs. Look at my time: more than nine minutes. I need this time to demonstrate this mood in its endless richness in the form of a geographic panorama. It has something of the aspect of standing still. But also another variation, the 21st, is a herald of this tonal speaking, and the 15th variation ends in visionary burning.
Many want to try to see in the 25th variation the nearness of Schoenberg, and by doing this they interpret this wonderful piece in a way that is academic, dry, rigid, motionless, and colorless. I fear this is the wrong insight and approach to the real and inner content of this piece, because by this it will totally lose its three-dimensionality. The result is a universe that in its significance resembles the alpha and omega of music in general, music that evolves out of nothing and disappears back into nothing as if in a state in which time stands still.
The interpretation reflects my deepest respect for the major composition of the musical literature. And in the surround-version you find the lucky result of a combination of all parameters: truth and verity of the excellent acoustic possibilities of the studio-hall, my Steinway, my technician Georges Ammann, and, in special manner, Teldex-Berlin. For his is an intellectualism with a personal twist—as became clear from the three CDs under review, coupled with a series of conversations by phone and e-mail which, in turn, often incorporated material from his thoughtful program notes.
Why do I call him an intellectual? What does this mean? When we look at the score, we find that in each repetition, Schumann placed the deepest notes of the left hand at a different rhythmical place. When you hear the recordings of Horowitz and me, you will see that the demand of the text is fulfilled in a special manner: we play the left hand not simply in the rhythm as noted.
How many can illuminate Chopin with a comparison to Kierkegaard? Few modern admirers of the Sonata take Hanslick seriously; if anything, his words are trotted out as one more example of how thickheaded critics can be. To conclude from this supposed economy of thematic material that Liszt lacked inspiration would be to fail to recognize the improvisatory nature of his creativity. One of his models here is Michelangeli, someone with whom he wishes he could have studied. I could use this for my own playing, of Chopin, Schumann, and especially Liszt, because Liszt demands a very highly developed technique.
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Here you can risk anything, much rubato, many agogics. His performance of the Liszt stresses the disruptions, too. In a way, then, Schliessmann can be said to be seeking out the subjective, rather than the objective, forms of the music. For, ultimately, personality is crucial to Schliessmann—both the personality of the artist and the personality of the performer. Moreover, the typical playing in competitions has nothing to do with the real art of interpretation, which belongs to the personality of the artist, which is a mirror of the individuality and personality of the player.
In competitions, very objective playing is necessary, playing which depends on the correct playing of all notes. There is no chance to demonstrate a personal style and there is no time for the jury to discuss the sense of a style extraordinaire. Avoiding both the architectural rigor of Pollini and the sheer intensity of Horowitz, Schliessmann offers an unusually inward account of the music, on the slow side of normal certainly he resists the temptation to race through the opening of the fugue , more likely to apply the brakes for interrogation of expressive details than to surge ahead for sheer drama.
Specifically, like Teresa Walters see , Schliessmann sees the sonata in profoundly religious terms. Whereas representations of human passions and conflicts force themselves on our understanding with their powerfully suggestive coloring, this concept only becomes manifest to those souls who are prepared to soar to the same heights. It is not a profession to be a pianist and musician.
It is a philosophy, a conception of life that cannot be based on good intentions or natural talent. First and foremost there must be a spirit of sacrifice. In part, credit is due to engineer Marcus Herzog. Schliessmann insists that the quality of the sound has its source, as well, in the quality of his piano technician, Georges Ammann. But surely the pianist deserves credit, too? Indeed, on his CD coupling Schumann and Liszt, he insisted on a different acoustic for each composer. Significantly, for all his interest in history, Schliessmann is committed to modern pianos.
Each has a different sonic character, and he uses them for different kinds of repertoire. The first—a piano much admired by Michelangeli, who would have bought it had Schliessmann not gotten there first—was used for his recordings of the Schumann and Liszt. You can also use it very well for Bach or for Beethoven, not for symphonic music, because the tone is much more fragile. He often travels with his own favored instruments especially if there is a recording or broadcast involved , and he carefully adjusts to any hall in which he plays.
In his care in this regard, he has been influenced by Horowitz. This has had a great effect on me. I feel how each listener in the audience is listening to me, and I feel its warmness, for example, and I give it back to the complete audience.
I feel the intensity of hearing, of listening. This is like electricity, and this I give back to the audience. This helps me to play in a way that electrifies people. That means that I can avoid cuts; I can have a big line, a big arc of my whole interpretation. Even in the Schumann Fantasy, where we have three big movements, there are few patches. So which of these recordings should you start with? Even though the SACD is a hybrid and thus compatible with a normal CD player, on a regular CD player you only will have compressed audio reproduction format.
That means there are no room acoustics and all is reduced to a sound that has nothing to do with my interpretation. Listening in this way, you will get a wrong and false impression of my interpretation. The DVD version has an additional virtue—a bonus video clip on which he plays the Waltz in C sharp Minor, although many will find that the nearly surrealist visuals distract from the music. But whatever your starting place, you are liable to agree that Schliessmann is not a run-of-the-mill performer.
In Amerika geachtet Ich spreche von Burkard Schliessmann. In Amerika, wo er gefeiert wird, vergleichen ihn Kritiker mit der Spitzenklasse. Mit Earl Wild. Mit Svjatoslav Richter. Er bringt Intellekt, Technik und Emotion in eine Balance. Da muss man sich die Zeit nehmen, seine Chopin-Balladen zu entdecken. Da stimmt das Tempo. Da bestehen unmittelbare Verbindungen zum Da spielt er wie besessen Godowsky- und Liszt-Transkriptionen. Man kann ihm zuschauen und seine manuelle wie intellektuelle Kunst bewundern. Sind es die Gesetze des Marktes? Ist es unausgesprochener Neid der Konkurrenz?
Es steht fest: Man darf ihn nicht verpassen, sonst hat man etwas verpasst. Wie kommt es zu dieser Konzentration auf Brahms, Schumann und Liszt? Besonders die sog. Bislang haben Sie noch keine Kammermusik-CD vorgelegt. Durch diese Verfahren hat er das Mittel gefunden, musikalisch eine Art Vision oder Halluzination hervorzurufen. Am Ende des Jahrhunderts oder zu Beginn des Aber nicht nur die Kammermusik und Liedbegleitung sind "verborgene Seiten" von mir.
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Bach und Max Reger beherrschte. Ich bekenne mich dazu, dass meine Klavier-Interpretationen teilweise stark von diesem inneren "Gebetston" inspiriert" sind, beispielsweise der 3. Gerade hier begegnen wir Passagen, in denen die Musik beginnt, aus sich selbst heraus zu sprechen. Zu Bach und dessen Musik habe ich ohnehin einen besonderen Zugang, mehr dazu aber an anderer Stelle. Ich bin mittlerweile fast auf der ganzen Welt getaucht und habe als Guide bzw.
Tauchlehrer Tauchsafaris begleitet. Aber um die Sache von allem o. Ihre Schumann-Interpretation ist vergleichsweise kraftvoll, zum Teil sogar stark basslastig. Nach diesem Klangideal habe ich jahrelang gesucht und jage diesem Klangideal auch regelrecht besessen hinterher. Dies ist eine eigene und besondere Klangwelt.
Instrumente von heute verfolgen andere Klangideale. Zum anderen ist es die Aufnahmetechnik, die diesen Klang entsprechend transformiert. Kann man das, vielleicht in Live-Konzertprogrammen? Vor allem Bach ist ein Bereich, den man nicht ausgrenzen kann. Bach in der Endrunde. Sowohl als auch. Wie kommen Sie zu dieser Einstellung? Ich vertrete nun mal die Auffassung, dass man - macht man schon eine Einspielung - das Werk einfach "drauf haben" muss. Meine Aufnahmen sollen einen reellen und objektiven Eindruck meines Spiels, meiner Kunst hinterlassen, quasi eine Art "live"-Vortrag.
Viele der deutschen renommierten Pianisten suchen sich eher Nischen, widmen sich Randgebieten der Literatur.
Dies soll auf keinen Fall etwas Unsympathisches vermitteln, aber ich habe auf dieses Niveau eben viele Jahre hin gearbeitet. Ich glaube fest an sie, ebenso, wie Interpretation stets ein Bekenntnis subjektiven Ausdrucks sein sollte. Ist das Ihr einziger Ausflug ins Jahrhundert geblieben? Daher also auch meine heutige Konzentration auf Musik des Meine Grundhaltung habe ich ja schon dargelegt.
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Und in diesem Sinne versuche ich immer, authentisch zu sein. Also auch wieder eine Form von Wahrheit. Sie haben Aufnahmen bei ganz verschiedenen CD-Labels vorgelegt. Wie kommt es zu dieser Firmen-Vielfalt? Absolut, vor allem, wenn kommerzielle Interessen der Firmen dahinterstehen. Dies verbindet bekanntlicherweise.
Bayer und ich verstehen uns auch gut. Es stehen bereits weitere Projekte zur Diskussion. Sie nehmen bei den Aufnahmen intensiv Anteil an den Schnittsitzungen und an der Endfertigung. Welche Kriterien setzen Sie auf ein aufnahmetechnischer Seite an? Oftmals ist es auch so, dass sich die unterschiedlichen Takes nur bis auf ganz geringe Nuancen unterscheiden, und gerade dann bin ich wieder zur letztendlichen Beurteilung gefordert.
Aber auch aufnahmetechnisch habe ich ganz bestimmte Vorstellungen eines zu reproduzierenden Tones. Bekanntlicherweise stellt gerade der Klavierton die Tonmeister immer wieder vor Probleme. Seit vielen Jahren suche ich nach einem "Idealton". Das Ergebnis ist ein sehr runder Klang. Wie sind Sie auf diese Idee gekommen? Ausgehend davon, dass ich immer auf der Suche nach Neuem bin und mit "Gewesenem" eigentlich immer hart zu Gericht gehe ich bin mit mir selbst auch im Grunde nie zufrieden und treibe mich immer neu an Dies war auch der ausschlaggebende Faktor, diesen Aufwand zu versuchen, zu betreiben.
Ich habe auch immer geahnt, dass die Bestuhlung bestimmte Frequenzen im Raum herausfiltert. Auch daher also der Versuch. Dieses Programm, so denke ich, verlangt auch danach. Hoffmann gelesen und in sich aufgenommen zu haben. Leider wird dessen Spiel heute allzu oft missverstanden und im Gegensatz zu dem blutleeren Spiel der Wettbewerbe als technischer Defizit missgedeutet. Wir haben eine gemeinsame Vorliebe literarischer Art. Sind Sie ein Hoffmannianer? Ich denke, nach dem, was ich nun schon so von mir gegeben habe, dass diese Frage sich fast von selbst beantwortet.
Hoffmann selbst war ja auch von selten vielseitiger Begabung, Jurist, Zeichner, genialer Dichter und phantasiereicher Komponist. Lassen wir E. W arum haben Sie noch nicht das Klavierwerk E. Ich werde Ihre Anregung aufgreifen. Ich denke, die Interpretation oder Einspielung div. Ist das Bescheidenheit? Hat Burkard Schliessmann auch einen verborgenen "Werkkatalog"? Sie bringen mich in Verlegenheit, aber ich muss gestehen, "Ja". Ich habe beispielsweise an Kompositionen, d. Der Witz ist, das klingt noch Auch aus diesem Grund vermeide ich eine objektive Biographie.
Brauchen Sie das zum Sammeln? Dieses einzigartige Fluidum der Konzertsituation liefert mir auch jedes Mal neue Inspirationsquellen. Dinge, die mich "aufbauen". Ich selbst setze mich nicht nur mit der Kritik, d. Ich relativiere also. Ich stehe auch dazu. Ich selbst habe meine gesamten internationalen Pressestimmen gesammelt und zusammengestellt.
Bereits in der Schule setzt sehr schnell eine Spezialisierung ein Kollegstufe , die eine eigentliche Ausweitung einer "Allgemeinbildung" verhindert. Dann sehe ich das Problem der int. Wettbewerbe, bei denen es allesamt um den Wettlauf um das "schnellste und lauteste Spiel" anstelle um die "Musik an sich" und deren Hervorbringung geht. Sullivan, Jr. While still in school, he began his very successful forays into recording and performance. Today he is in the midst of recording the complete Brahms piano works for Bayer Records. Schliessmann's approach to the piano, though guided by a piercing intellect, remains essentially intuitive.
His emotionally expressive style can be heard in music from Beethoven to Scriabin to Busoni. Sullivan: Who are your favorite pianists, past and present? These are the ones I consider historic. Of those still playing, Michelangeli for me is the greatest of all. I admire his astonishing intellect, the electricity, concentration and maturity of his singular, serious and highly personal interpretations and, last and not least, his huge technique, which indeed is something for connoisseurs.
His beautiful, sonorous and controlled tone and sound is a mystery. You'd never find "affectation" in Michelangeli's playing. I admire Schnabel and Solomon for the stile parlando of their phenomenal Beethoven interpretations; Cortot for being a typical representative of the dawning 19th Century and Romantic period, showing us how Chopin should be understood; and Serkin, for demonstrating what depth music and interpretation finally can have.
Sullivan: Are there any pianists whom you admire but do not try to emulate for reasons of technique, philosophy, or temperament? Schliessmann: Yes, there are many. Ivo Pogorelich, for example. Our interpretations are completely different from each other. For myself, I also cultivate an extreme style. But the aim and purpose of all this extremely personal pianism is to develop large architectural forms while maintaining the harmony of vehement attack and ardent espressivo at one and the same time.
And this is not seen from above in the classical manner, but rather as a dynamic process that unfolds inexorably before us. This heroic spirituality and the radical illumination of the inner essence of great music in its most concise form are the roots of my musical training in the spirit of Romantic Realism. That's also my "mystery," because as a human being I feel at home in nearly all stylistic epoches of musical literature and art.
I think the historical, philosophical and sociological circumstances from the special epoches are important for the realization of singular interpretations. The Hegel Aesthetic enlightens and informs my deep respect for music and my own interpretations: "For art is not merely a pleasant or even a useful toy, art is the expanding of truth.
When you have finished with all your practicing for an upcoming concert or recording, what sort of music do you play in your "free" time? Schliessmann: I myself don't find practicing "pure drudgery. Then comes an intellectual process that helps to gradually consolidate the structures, until everything comes full circle, returning via meticulously controlled kinetic mechanisms to a kind of improvisation that is now lit by the intellect. One important aspect of this cyclical, post-creative investigation, as it were, is the analysis of individual parameters.
Melody, rhythm, and harmony are examined to locate the areas in each where specific conflicting forces are at play, and are then reformed to produce a new whole. In studying and practicing I'm never tired or even cramped, because for me it is a challenge to create music. This is a reason that I needn't play "other music" in my spare time.
Sullivan: Do you listen to records? I've heard nearly all the great music in the library of other great artists. But I'm not specifically influenced by them. It may be curious, but I have learned a lot from great singers like Caruso, Callas, Domingo, and others.
It's very important for my interpretation of melodic lines. Sullivan: I've heard advance copies tapes from the DAT master of the first three discs of your complete solo Brahms - I have to say, the Friedrich-Ebert-Halle acoustic is wonderful, and your piano, the same one you used for the Scriabin, sounds luscious. What's so special about this combination? For Scriabin, I used a piano with a great, brilliant and clear sound; it shouldn't sound hard.
I like to be able to illumine the polyphonic structures by creating an extreme variability of colors. With Brahms, however, I use a piano that helps me articulate the compact structural composition. Because Brahms uses nearly all 88 keys, the bass and descant should be well balanced, maintaining the highest dynamic range and variability. The intonation and sound should be a romantic one. It is fatuous to believe that a piano technician can satisfy all these expectations.
The Friedrich-Ebert-Halle in Hamburg is well known for its fabulous acoustic. This is the reason many fine artists are doing their recordings here. It's also the merit of my sound engineer, Eberhard Schnellen, for picking up the real sound from the piano in combination with the acoustic of the hall. Synthetic echo effects are not necessary. The piano must be properly located; I've tried it out several times to establish that. Of course, Glenn Gould couldn't get enough of it. How do you feel when the "red light" goes on? Schliessmann: In this case I also "can't get enough.
Often I'm stimulated nearly like in a real concert. My practicing and preparation for a recording are so good that I can follow my artistic aim of producing even for CD something really "alive. I try to avoid "cuts" whenever possible. Sullivan: You've toured quite a bit. What do you look forward to in each new city?
Schliessmann: I try to feel the atmosphere in a new city and to learn something about the character and mentality of the people living there. In the evening, during the concert, I try to react to these impressions in my music to give it back to the audience. But I also have other ideas after arriving. Sullivan: Are there any plans for a Carnegie hall performance? Schliessmann: Yes, my concert agency is in contact with some sponsors. I hope it will work out, because it would be a great challenge for me, which I indeed would like to accept.
Sullivan: I know you had some studies with Cherkassky in Washington, D. What has been your impression of musical America? Schliessmann: Shura Cherkassky is an artist with much tradition. He himself has been a pupil of the legendary Russian pianist Josef Hofmann. You can trace the tradition back to Liszt, Brahms, Czerny, and Beethoven.
Also, with the New York Philharmonic you feel the great artistic experience of special musicians playing there, because besides their engagements with the orchestra, most of them are excellent soloists. I think this is one reason for the individual sound of this orchestra. Sullivan: What are some things you do outside music? Schliessmann: Besides my music, I need something completely different; therefore, I do a lot of sports, like jogging, swimming, and fishing.
For refreshment and concentration of my mind I do yoga. Sullivan: After the Brahms project, what is next on the recording slate? I'm a great fan of harmonic structures in large architectural forms of seldom played music. These two works represent nearly a "prototype" of compositions, where the harmonic possibilities reach their own climax. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out.
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