It is a result of the collision and incompatibility between declarations of universal values such as human rights and democracy and institutionalized actions which exclude and discriminate against Europeans of immigrant background and against ethnic Often, their normal role expectations require that they perform feminized and hypermasculine roles simultaneously. This book focuses on how African American males experience masculinity Patricia A.
Banks traverses the New York and Atlanta art worlds to uncover how black identities are cultivated through black art patronage. Drawing on over in-depth interviews, observations at arts events, and photographs of art displayed in homes, Banks elaborates a racial identity theory of consumption that highlights how upper-middle class Banks traverses the New York and Atlanta art worlds to uncover how black identities are Blackness and Transatlantic Irish Identity analyzes the long history of imagined and real relationships between the Irish and African-Americans since the mid-nineteenth century in popular culture and literature.
Irish writers and political activists have often claimed - and thereby created - a "black" identity to explain their experience with Blackness and Transatlantic Irish Identity analyzes the long history of imagined and real Race and music seem fatally entwined in a way that involves both creative ethnic hybridity and ongoing problems of racism. For the next five decades, blacks were subjected to legalized discrimination, forced to live, work, and go to school in separate—but unequal —facilities. De facto segregation, however, cannot be abolished by any court mandate.
Segregation is still alive and well in the United States, with different racial or ethnic groups often segregated by neighborhood, borough, or parish. Sociologists use segregation indices to measure racial segregation of different races in different areas. The indices employ a scale from zero to , where zero is the most integrated and is the least. In the New York metropolitan area, for instance, the black-white segregation index was seventy-nine for the years — This means that 79 percent of either blacks or whites would have to move in order for each neighborhood to have the same racial balance as the whole metro region Population Studies Center True pluralism is characterized by mutual respect on the part of all cultures, both dominant and subordinate, creating a multicultural environment of acceptance.
In reality, true pluralism is a difficult goal to reach. Assimilation describes the process by which a minority individual or group gives up its own identity by taking on the characteristics of the dominant culture. In the United States, which has a history of welcoming and absorbing immigrants from different lands, assimilation has been a function of immigration. Most people in the United States have immigrant ancestors. In relatively recent history, between and , the United States became home to around 24 million immigrants.
In the decades since then, further waves of immigrants have come to these shores and have eventually been absorbed into U. Some groups may keep only symbolic gestures of their original ethnicity. However, for the rest of the year, other aspects of their originating culture may be forgotten. Sociologists measure the degree to which immigrants have assimilated to a new culture with four benchmarks: socioeconomic status, spatial concentration, language assimilation, and intermarriage. When faced with racial and ethnic discrimination, it can be difficult for new immigrants to fully assimilate.
Language assimilation, in particular, can be a formidable barrier, limiting employment and educational options and therefore constraining growth in socioeconomic status. Amalgamation is the process by which a minority group and a majority group combine to form a new group. Amalgamation, also known as miscegenation, is achieved through intermarriage between races.
Virginia that the last antimiscegenation law was struck from the books, making these laws unconstitutional. And let us not forget the forced immigration of African slaves. Most of these groups underwent a period of disenfranchisement in which they were relegated to the bottom of the social hierarchy before they managed for those who could to achieve social mobility. Today, our society is multicultural, although the extent to which this multiculturality is embraced varies, and the many manifestations of multiculturalism carry significant political repercussions. The sections below will describe how several groups became part of U.
The only nonimmigrant ethnic group in the United States, Native Americans once numbered in the millions but by made up only 0. Census Currently, about 2. The sports world abounds with team names like the Indians, the Warriors, the Braves, and even the Savages and Redskins. These names arise from historically prejudiced views of Native Americans as fierce, brave, and strong savages: attributes that would be beneficial to a sports team, but are not necessarily beneficial to people in the United States who should be seen as more than just fierce savages.
The campaign has met with only limited success. While some teams have changed their names, hundreds of professional, college, and K—12 school teams still have names derived from this stereotype. Another group, American Indian Cultural Support AICS , is especially concerned with the use of such names at K—12 schools, influencing children when they should be gaining a fuller and more realistic understanding of Native Americans than such stereotypes supply. What do you think about such names? Should they be allowed or banned?
What argument would a symbolic interactionist make on this topic? The earliest immigrants to America arrived millennia before European immigrants. Dates of the migration are debated with estimates ranging from between 45, and 12, BCE. It is thought that early Indians migrated to this new land in search of big game to hunt, which they found in huge herds of grazing herbivores in the Americas. Over the centuries and then the millennia, Native American culture blossomed into an intricate web of hundreds of interconnected tribes, each with its own customs, traditions, languages, and religions.
Native American culture prior to European settlement is referred to as Pre-Columbian: that is, prior to the coming of Christopher Columbus in The history of intergroup relations between European colonists and Native Americans is a brutal one. As discussed in the section on genocide, the effect of European settlement of the Americans was to nearly destroy the indigenous population. From the first Spanish colonists to the French, English, and Dutch who followed, European settlers took what land they wanted and expanded across the continent at will.
If indigenous people tried to retain their stewardship of the land, Europeans fought them off with superior weapons. A key element of this issue is the indigenous view of land and land ownership. After the establishment of the United States government, discrimination against Native Americans was codified and formalized in a series of laws intended to subjugate them and keep them from gaining any power.
Some of the most impactful laws are as follows:. Native American culture was further eroded by the establishment of Indian boarding schools in the late nineteenth century. The boarding schools were located off-reservation to ensure that children were separated from their families and culture. Schools forced children to cut their hair, speak English, and practice Christianity.
Physical and sexual abuses were rampant for decades; only in did the Bureau of Indian Affairs issue a policy on sexual abuse in boarding schools. Some scholars argue that many of the problems that Native Americans face today result from almost a century of mistreatment at these boarding schools. The eradication of Native American culture continued until the s, when Native Americans were able to participate in and benefit from the civil rights movement. New laws like the Indian Self-Determination Act of and the Education Assistance Act of the same year recognized tribal governments and gave them more power.
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Indian boarding schools have dwindled to only a few, and Native American cultural groups are striving to preserve and maintain old traditions to keep them from being lost forever. Long-term poverty, inadequate education, cultural dislocation, and high rates of unemployment contribute to Native American populations falling to the bottom of the economic spectrum. Native Americans also suffer disproportionately with lower life expectancies than most groups in the United States.
As discussed in the section on race, the term African American can be a misnomer for many individuals. Many people with dark skin may have their more recent roots in Europe or the Caribbean, seeing themselves as Dominican American or Dutch American. Further, actual immigrants from Africa may feel that they have more of a claim to the term African American than those who are many generations removed from ancestors who originally came to this country.
This section will focus on the experience of the slaves who were transported from Africa to the United States, and their progeny. Currently, the U. Census Bureau estimates that If Native Americans are the only minority group whose subordinate status occurred by conquest, African Americans are the exemplar minority group in the United States whose ancestors did not come here by choice.
A Dutch sea captain brought the first Africans to the Virginia colony of Jamestown in and sold them as indentured servants. This was not an uncommon practice for either blacks or whites, and indentured servants were in high demand. For the next century, black and white indentured servants worked side by side. But the growing agricultural economy demanded greater and cheaper labor, and by , Virginia passed the slave codes declaring that any foreign-born non-Christian could be a slave, and that slaves were considered property.
The next years saw the rise of U. Once in the Americas, the black population grew until U. But colonial and later, U. By , the slave trade was internal in the United States, with slaves being bought and sold across state lines like livestock. There is no starker illustration of the dominant-subordinate group relationship than that of slavery.
In order to justify their severely discriminatory behavior, slaveholders and their supporters had to view blacks as innately inferior. Slaves were denied even the most basic rights of citizenship, a crucial factor for slaveholders and their supporters. Whippings, executions, rapes, denial of schooling and health care were all permissible and widely practiced. Slavery eventually became an issue over which the nation divided into geographically and ideologically distinct factions, leading to the Civil War.
And while the abolition of slavery on moral grounds was certainly a catalyst to war, it was not the only driving force. Students of U. A century later, the civil rights movement was characterized by boycotts, marches, sit-ins, and freedom rides: demonstrations by a subordinate group that would no longer willingly submit to domination. This Act, which is still followed today, banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Some sociologists, however, would argue that institutionalized racism persists. Although government-sponsored, formalized discrimination against African Americans has been outlawed, true equality does not yet exist. The Index, which has been published since , notes a growing trend of increased inequality with whites, especially in the areas of unemployment, insurance coverage, and incarceration. Blacks also trail whites considerably in the areas of economics, health, and education. To what degree do racism and prejudice contribute to this continued inequality?
The answer is complex. Despite being popularly identified as black, we should note that President Obama is of a mixed background that is equally white, and although all presidents have been publicly mocked at times Gerald Ford was depicted as a klutz, Bill Clinton as someone who could not control his libido , a startling percentage of the critiques of Obama have been based on his race.
Although blacks have come a long way from slavery, the echoes of centuries of disempowerment are still evident. Like many groups this section discusses, Asian Americans represent a great diversity of cultures and backgrounds. The experience of a Japanese American whose family has been in the United States for three generations will be drastically different from a Laotian American who has only been in the United States for a few years.
This section primarily discusses Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese immigrants and shows the differences between their experiences. The most recent estimate from the U. Census Bureau suggest about 5. The national and ethnic diversity of Asian American immigration history is reflected in the variety of their experiences in joining U.
Asian immigrants have come to the United States in waves, at different times, and for different reasons. The first Asian immigrants to come to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century were Chinese. These immigrants were primarily men whose intention was to work for several years in order to earn incomes to support their families in China. Their main destination was the American West, where the Gold Rush was drawing people with its lure of abundant money. The construction of the Transcontinental Railroad was underway at this time, and the Central Pacific section hired thousands of migrant Chinese men to complete the laying of rails across the rugged Sierra Nevada mountain range.
Chinese men also engaged in other manual labor like mining and agricultural work. The work was grueling and underpaid, but like many immigrants, they persevered. Japanese immigration began in the s, on the heels of the Chinese Exclusion Act of Many Japanese immigrants came to Hawaii to participate in the sugar industry; others came to the mainland, especially to California.
Unlike the Chinese, however, the Japanese had a strong government that negotiated with the U. Japanese men were able to bring their wives and families to the United States, and were thus able to produce second- and third-generation Japanese Americans more quickly than their Chinese counterparts. The most recent large-scale Asian immigration came from Korea and Vietnam and largely took place during the second half of the twentieth century.
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While Korean immigration has been fairly gradual, Vietnamese immigration occurred primarily post, after the fall of Saigon and the establishment of restrictive communist policies in Vietnam. Whereas many Asian immigrants came to the United States to seek better economic opportunities, Vietnamese immigrants came as political refugees, seeking asylum from harsh conditions in their homeland.
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The Refugee Act of helped them to find a place to settle in the United States. Photo courtesy of U. Chinese immigration came to an abrupt end with the Chinese Exclusion Act of This act was a result of anti-Chinese sentiment burgeoned by a depressed economy and loss of jobs. White workers blamed Chinese migrants for taking jobs, and the passage of the Act meant the number of Chinese workers decreased.
Chinese men did not have the funds to return to China or to bring their families to the United States, so they remained physically and culturally segregated in the Chinatowns of large cities. Later legislation, the Immigration Act of , further curtailed Chinese immigration. It was not until after the Immigration and Nationality Act of that Chinese immigration again increased, and many Chinese families were reunited.
Although Japanese Americans have deep, long-reaching roots in the United States, their history here has not always been smooth. The California Alien Land Law of was aimed at them and other Asian immigrants, and it prohibited aliens from owning land. An even uglier action was the Japanese internment camps of World War II, discussed earlier as an illustration of expulsion. Asian Americans certainly have been subject to their share of racial prejudice, despite the seemingly positive stereotype as the model minority. The model minority stereotype is applied to a minority group that is seen as reaching significant educational, professional, and socioeconomic levels without challenging the existing establishment.
This stereotype is typically applied to Asian groups in the United States, and it can result in unrealistic expectations, by putting a stigma on members of this group that do not meet the expectations. Stereotyping all Asians as smart and capable can also lead to a lack of much-needed government assistance and to educational and professional discrimination.
Theories of Race and Ethnicity
Hispanic Americans have a wide range of backgrounds and nationalities. The segment of the U. Census Bureau According to the U. Census, about 75 percent of the respondents who identify as Hispanic report being of Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban origin. Of the total Hispanic group, 60 percent reported as Mexican, 44 percent reported as Cuban, and 9 percent reported as Puerto Rican.
Remember that the U. Census allows people to report as being more than one ethnicity. Not only are there wide differences among the different origins that make up the Hispanic American population, but there are also different names for the group itself. The U. This section will compare the experiences of Mexican Americans and Cuban Americans. Mexican Americans form the largest Hispanic subgroup and also the oldest. Mexican migration to the United States started in the early s in response to the need for cheap agricultural labor. Mexican migration was often circular; workers would stay for a few years and then go back to Mexico with more money than they could have made in their country of origin.
Cuban Americans are the second-largest Hispanic subgroup, and their history is quite different from that of Mexican Americans. The main wave of Cuban immigration to the United States started after Fidel Castro came to power in and reached its crest with the Mariel boatlift in To avoid having their assets seized by the government, many wealthy and educated Cubans migrated north, generally to the Miami area. For several decades, Mexican workers crossed the long border into the United States, both legally and illegally, to work in the fields that provided produce for the developing United States.
Western growers needed a steady supply of labor, and the s and s saw the official federal Bracero Program bracero is Spanish for strong-arm that offered protection to Mexican guest workers. From these examples, we can see the U. Sociologist Douglas Massey suggests that although the average standard of living in Mexico may be lower in the United States, it is not so low as to make permanent migration the goal of most Mexicans. Massey argues that the rise of illegal one-way immigration of Mexicans is a direct outcome of the law that was intended to reduce it.
Cuban Americans, perhaps because of their relative wealth and education level at the time of immigration, have fared better than many immigrants. Further, because they were fleeing a Communist country, they were given refugee status and offered protection and social services. The Cuban Migration Agreement of has curtailed legal immigration from Cuba, leading many Cubans to try to immigrate illegally by boat. According to a report from the Congressional Research Service, the U. Mexican Americans, especially those who are here illegally, are at the center of a national debate about immigration.
Myers observes that no other minority group except the Chinese has immigrated to the United States in such an environment of illegality. He notes that in some years, three times as many Mexican immigrants may have entered the United States illegally as those who arrived legally. It should be noted that this is due to enormous disparity of economic opportunity on two sides of an open border, not because of any inherent inclination to break laws. By contrast, Cuban Americans are often seen as a model minority group within the larger Hispanic group. Many Cubans had higher socioeconomic status when they arrived in this country, and their anti-Communist agenda has made them welcome refugees to this country.
In south Florida, especially, Cuban Americans are active in local politics and professional life. As with Asian Americans, however, being a model minority can mask the issue of powerlessness that these minority groups face in U. As both legal and illegal immigrants, and with high population numbers, Mexican Americans are often the target of stereotyping, racism, and discrimination.
A harsh example of this is in Arizona, where a stringent immigration law—known as SB for Senate Bill —has caused a nationwide controversy. The law requires that during a lawful stop, detention, or arrest, Arizona police officers must establish the immigration status of anyone they suspect may be here illegally. The law makes it a crime for individuals to fail to have documents confirming their legal status, and it gives police officers the right to detain people they suspect may be in the country illegally. To many, the most troublesome aspect of this law is the latitude it affords police officers in terms of whose citizenship they may question.
SB has been the subject of many lawsuits, from parties as diverse as Arizona police officers, the American Civil Liberties Union, and even the federal government, which is suing on the basis of Arizona contradicting federal immigration laws ACLU The future of SB is uncertain, but many other states have tried or are trying to pass similar measures. Do you think such measures are appropriate? After all, Hispanic Americans or Asian Americans are so designated because of their counties of origin. But for Arab Americans, their country of origin—Arabia—has not existed for centuries.
In addition, Arab Americans represent all religious practices, despite the stereotype that all Arabic people practice Islam. As Myers asserts, not all Arabs are Muslim, and not all Muslims are Arab, complicating the stereotype of what it means to be an Arab American. Geographically, the Arab region comprises the Middle East and parts of northern Africa. People whose ancestry lies in that area or who speak primarily Arabic may consider themselves Arabs. Census has struggled with the issue of Arab identity.
However, when the Census data is tallied, they will be marked as white. This is problematic, however, denying Arab Americans opportunities for federal assistance. According to the best estimates of the U. Census Bureau, the Arabic population in the United States grew from , in to 1. The first Arab immigrants came to this country in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They were predominantly Syrian, Lebanese, and Jordanian Christians, and they came to escape persecution and to make a better life.
These early immigrants and their descendants, who were more likely to think of themselves as Syrian or Lebanese than Arab, represent almost half of the Arab American population today Myers Restrictive immigration policies from the s until curtailed all immigration, but Arab immigration since has been steady. Immigrants from this time period have been more likely to be Muslim and more highly educated, escaping political unrest and looking for better opportunities.
Relations between Arab Americans and the dominant majority have been marked by mistrust, misinformation, and deeply entrenched beliefs. Helen Samhan of the Arab American Institute suggests that Arab-Israeli conflicts in the s contributed significantly to cultural and political anti-Arab sentiment in the United States The United States has historically supported the State of Israel, while some Middle Eastern countries deny the existence of the Israeli state.
As is often the case with stereotyping and prejudice, the actions of extremists come to define the entire group, regardless of the fact that most U. Would it be fair to judge all Catholics by the events of the Inquisition? Of course, the United States was deeply affected by the events of September 11, This event has left a deep scar on the American psyche, and it has fortified anti-Arab sentiment for a large percentage of Americans. Although the rate of hate crimes against Arab Americans has slowed, Arab Americans are still victims of racism and prejudice.
Particularly when engaged in air travel, being young and Arab-looking is enough to warrant a special search or detainment. This Islamophobia irrational fear of or hatred against Muslims does not show signs of abating.
11.1. Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
Scholars noted that white domestic terrorists like Timothy McVeigh, who detonated a bomb at an Oklahoma courthouse in , have not inspired similar racial profiling or hate crimes against whites. As we have seen, there is no minority group that fits easily in a category or that can be described simply. Making generalizations can lead to stereotypes and prejudice. The same is true for white ethnic Americans, who come from diverse backgrounds and have had a great variety of experiences.
Census Bureau , White ethnic Europeans formed the second and third great waves of immigration, from the early nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. They joined a newly minted United States that was primarily made up of white Protestants from England. While most immigrants came searching for a better life, their experiences were not all the same.
The first major influx of European immigrants came from Germany and Ireland, starting in the s. Germans came both for economic opportunity and to escape political unrest and military conscription, especially after the Revolutions of Many German immigrants of this period were political refugees: liberals who wanted to escape from an oppressive government. They were well-off enough to make their way inland, and they formed heavily German enclaves in the Midwest that exist to this day.
The Irish immigrants of the same time period were not always as well off financially, especially after the Irish Potato Famine of Irish immigrants settled mainly in the cities of the East Coast, where they were employed as laborers and where they faced significant discrimination. German and Irish immigration continued into the late 19th century and earlier 20th century, at which point the numbers for Southern and Eastern European immigrants started growing as well.
Italians, mainly from the Southern part of the country, began arriving in large numbers in the s. Eastern European immigrants—people from Russia, Poland, Bulgaria, and Austria-Hungary—started arriving around the same time. Many of these Eastern Europeans were peasants forced into a hardscrabble existence in their native lands; political unrest, land shortages, and crop failures drove them to seek better opportunities in the United States.
The Eastern European immigration wave also included Jewish people escaping pogroms anti-Jewish uprisings of Eastern Europe and the Pale of Settlement in what was then Poland and Russia. In a broad sense, German immigrants were not victimized to the same degree as many of the other subordinate groups this section discusses. While they may not have been welcomed with open arms, they were able to settle in enclaves and establish roots.
Irish immigrants, many of whom were very poor, were more of an underclass than the Germans. In Ireland, the English had oppressed the Irish for centuries, eradicating their language and culture and discriminating against their religion Catholicism. Although the Irish had a larger population than the English, they were a subordinate group.
This dynamic reached into the new world, where Anglo Americans saw Irish immigrants as a race apart: dirty, lacking ambition, and suitable for only the most menial jobs. In fact, Irish immigrants were subject to criticism identical to that with which the dominant group characterized African Americans. By necessity, Irish immigrants formed tight communities segregated from their Anglo neighbors. A broad definition includes not only race, ethnicity, and gender — the groups that most often come to mind when the term "diversity" is used — but also age, national origin, religion, disability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, language, and physical appearance.
It also involves different ideas, perspectives, and values. A social construct that divides people into smaller social groups based on characteristics such as shared sense of group membership, values, behavioral patterns, language, political and economic interests, history and ancestral geographical base. Also known as unconscious or hidden bias, implicit biases are negative associations that people unknowingly hold. They are expressed automatically, without conscious awareness.
The Implicit Association Test IAT is often used to measure implicit biases with regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, and other topics. Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them, by conquest, settlement or other means and reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial condition; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form part, under a state structure which incorporates mainly national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant.
Individual racism refers to the beliefs, attitudes, and actions of individuals that support or perpetuate racism. Individual racism can be deliberate, or the individual may act to perpetuate or support racism without knowing that is what he or she is doing. Institutional racism refers specifically to the ways in which institutional policies and practices create different outcomes for different racial groups. The institutional policies may never mention any racial group, but their effect is to create advantages for whites and oppression and disadvantage for people from groups classified as people of color.
Internalized racism is the situation that occurs in a racist system when a racial group oppressed by racism supports the supremacy and dominance of the dominating group by maintaining or participating in the set of attitudes, behaviors, social structures and ideologies that undergird the dominating group's power.
It involves four essential and interconnected elements:. Decision-making - Due to racism, people of color do not have the ultimate decision-making power over the decisions that control our lives and resources. As a result, on a personal level, we may think white people know more about what needs to be done for us than we do.
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On an interpersonal level, we may not support each other's authority and power - especially if it is in opposition to the dominating racial group. Structurally, there is a system in place that rewards people of color who support white supremacy and power and coerces or punishes those who do not.
Resources - Resources, broadly defined e. Internalized racism is the system in place that makes it difficult for people of color to get access to resources for our own communities and to control the resources of our community. We learn to believe that serving and using resources for ourselves and our particular community is not serving "everybody. Standards - With internalized racism, the standards for what is appropriate or "normal" that people of color accept are white people's or Eurocentric standards. We have difficulty naming, communicating and living up to our deepest standards and values, and holding ourselves and each other accountable to them.
Naming the problem - There is a system in place that misnames the problem of racism as a problem of or caused by people of color and blames the disease - emotional, economic, political, etc. With internalized racism, people of color might, for example, believe we are more violent than white people and not consider state-sanctioned political violence or the hidden or privatized violence of white people and the systems they put in place and support. Interpersonal racism occurs between individuals.
Once we bring our private beliefs into our interaction with others, racism is now in the interpersonal realm. Movement building is the effort of social change agents to engage power holders and the broader society in addressing a systemic problem or injustice while promoting an alternative vision or solution. Movement building requires a range of intersecting approaches through a set of distinct stages over a long-term period of time.
Through movement building, organizers can. Akonadi Foundation, Definition from the Movement Strategy Center. A process of learning about and becoming allies with people from other cultures, thereby broadening our own understanding and ability to participate in a multicultural process. The key element to becoming more culturally competent is respect for the ways that others live in and organize the world and an openness to learn from them. Multicultural Competence , Paul Kivel, Systemic devaluing, undermining, marginalizing, and disadvantaging of certain social identities in contrast to the privileged norm; when some people are denied something of value, while others have ready access.
Power is unequally distributed globally and in U. Wealth, whiteness, citizenship, patriarchy, heterosexism, and education are a few key social mechanisms through which power operates. A pre-judgment or unjustifiable, and usually negative, attitude of one type of individual or groups toward another group and its members. Such negative attitudes are typically based on unsupported generalizations or stereotypes that deny the right of individual members of certain groups to be recognized and treated as individuals with individual characteristics.
Unearned social power accorded by the formal and informal institutions of society to ALL members of a dominant group e. A political construction created to concentrate power with white people and legitimize dominance over non-white people. An individual's awareness and experience of being a member of a racial and ethnic group; the racial and ethnic categories that an individual chooses to describe him or herself based on such factors as biological heritage, physical appearance, cultural affiliation, early socialization, and personal experience.
Racial Equity Resource Guide , W. Kellogg Foundation, Michael R. Wenger, Racial Identity Development Theory discusses how people in various racial groups and with multiracial identities form their particular self-concept. It also describes some typical phases in remaking that identity based on learning and awareness of systems of privilege and structural racism, cultural and historical meanings attached to racial categories, and factors operating in the larger socio-historical level e. Wijeyesinghe and Bailey W.
Jackson, editors. NYU Press, Reconciliation involves three ideas.