I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook. My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not! Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. Book Descriptions: Anna impara ad andare in bicicletta. Register for FREE 1st month. He determined, therefore, to interpose his fleet between the Italian coast and the enemy, and if possible to get between him and Taranto, accepting battle and relying on his superiority of speed to enable him to break off the action if the superior weight of gunfire of the British capital ships should prove too much for him.
He then had in company the two battleships, six 8-inch cruisers, eight 6-inch cruisers and 24 destroyers. Apparently the enemy was completing his concentration behind this cover of smoke. These reports were amplified by further details at and from the Orion. On first sighting the enemy the damaged Gloucester was ordered to join the Eagle, which— screened by the Voyager and Vampire — was taking station ten miles to the eastward of the Warspite, while the air striking force was re-arming and re-fuelling in readiness to renew its attack.
Only a few of their ships were visible simultaneously to the British ships and then only for short periods see Fig. The difficulty of gauging their formation and what ships were present can be seen by a comparison with Fig. Taking the enemy columns in order, as they appeared to the British: the port wing column marked A in Fig.
Actually, this was an overestimate of the number of cruisers present in this opening stage, according to the Italian records. At the 8-inch cruisers were going ahead to take station in the van, a movement facilitated by a turn to port by the battleships. The four cruisers of the 7th Division which it will be remembered had been on their way home were some distance off, coming up from the south-westward. Three other destroyers and two light cruisers the Cadorna and Diaz had been detached with engine trouble or defects in the course of the day. Vice-Admiral Tovey was getting a long way ahead of the Warspite, and at , in order to avoid becoming heavily engaged before she was in a position to support, he altered course together to ooo0.
From to the enemy shore-based aircraft carried out heavy but ineffective attacks on both fleets with complete impartiality. The Neptune and Liverpool immediately opened fire, range 22, yards, followed by the Sydney at engaging the fourth cruiser from the right. The speed of the Squadron was increased to 28 knots and the Orion, at , fired at a destroyer Z for three minutes, range 23, yards. When this destroyer altered course away, the Orion shifted target to the right-hand cruiser, then bearing , range 23, yards.
By this time the Warspite was intervening. Blast from the first salvo damaged the Warspite's aircraft, which was subsequently jettisoned. Ten salvoes were fired, and it was thought a hit was scored by the last. During this opening stage of the action no hits had been observed on the enemy ships, whose fire had been equally ineffective. I am dropping back on battlefleet. Air striking force will not be ready till Sir Andrew Cunningham was finding the slow speed of his battle fleet a sore trial. The 7th Cruiser Squadron, whose orders were not to get too far ahead of the Commander-in-Chief, made a complete turn to conform with this movement.
While under helm the Warspite fired four salvoes between and at each of two 6-inch cruisers, forcing them to turn away. Just at this moment the second phase or battleship action began, when the enemy battleships opened fire on the Warspiteat extreme range. One closely bunched salvo fell about yards off the Warspite sport bow. The destroyers, then passing to the eastward of her, under orders to join Admiral Tovey, were narrowly missed by salvoes of heavy shells falling one to two miles over the Fleet flagship. The effect was immediate; the enemy ships altered course away and began to make smoke.
The shell had exploded on the upper deck casing, starting several fires and killing or wounding 98 men. Four boilers were put out of action and her speed dropped to 18 knots, causing the ship to drop back on the Cavour. All he hoped was that they might delay the enemy from closing during the critical stage of disengaging. The two ships altered right round to port and after steering to the southward for a few minutes passed astern of their battleships on a north-westerly course and took no further part in the action.
The other two ships of the division, the Cadorna and Diaz, had been detached a couple of hours earlier to Messina, suffering from engine trouble. Three more salvoes, fired by her at , had an equally disappointing result. The Royal Sovereign,unable to close the Warspite nearer than three miles, took no part in the action. At the enemy battleships became obscured by smoke, and the Warspite ceased fire, having got off 17 salvoes.
When two-thirds of the way towards the enemy they came under A. The enemy fleet, partially obscured by smoke, seemed to be in some confusion with inch shell straddling their ships. Observing two large ships1 at the head of a line of cruisers, the squadron leader, Lieutenant-Commander A. Debenham, decided to attack the leading ship, which at the moment was turning in a circle. After the attack by sub-flights had commenced this ship became more distinct; though it then seemed probable she was a Bolzano class cruiser and not a battleship, he decided not to call off the attack.
Anti-aircraft fire became general during the final approach, which was made at in three sub-flights from ahead. All the aircraft dropped their torpedoes successfully on the enemy ship s starboard side between her bow and beam bearings. Observers in the Neptune testified to the determined manner in which the attack was made. On the strength of this evidence it was assumed that at least one torpedo got home, but it is now known that this was not the case. The 7th Cruiser. At , the. Neptune and Sydney opened fire respectively at the second and fourth enemy cruisers from the right, and the I.
Mack, the Senior Captain D , on course in the following order:. From and the two leading flotillas 14th and 10th came under1 3rd Division, Trento, Bolzano. A minute later the tracks of three or more torpedoes were seen passing through the 14th Flotilla. The Neptune straddled her target which she claimed to have hit, and the Liverpool straddled with her fifth salvo, after which the enemy ships altered course away, throwing her salvoes out for line.
During this period of the action, a hot fire from the enemy destroyers, which were moving up to gain a position for attack, was a constant source of annoyance to the British cruisers.. The Italian Fleet was withdrawing to the westward, the damaged Cesare and Cavour sorting themselves out behind a smoke screen on a westerly course and the cruisers gradually conforming on north-westerly courses.
At the signal for our destroyers to counter-attack the enemy destroyers was made. The flotillas were then about four miles N. T 2nd D. Apparently at this time a number of enemy destroyers, after working across to starboard of their main fleet, were attempting in a half-hearted manner to make a torpedo attack. After firing their torpedoes at long range, they turned away to the westward making smoke, the second flotilla retiring through the smoke made by the leading flotilla.
No hits on either side were seen by the Warspite's aircraft on observation duty. To return to the 7th Cruiser Squadron, after turning to the north-eastward to clear the flotillas, the enemy quickly disappeared and fire was checked at ; at the same time a submarine was reported, which, however, proved to be the wreckage of an aircraft. The Orion then opened fire again on her former target, and the Neptune managed to get off a couple of salvoes at a cruiser, which showed up momentarily out of the smoke. The Sydney' starget, a smoke-laying destroyer, was engaged till she became obscured; and the Liverpool at fired four salvoes at a cruiser, range 19, yards, before she also disappeared into the smoke screen.
At , with all their targets rapidly disappearing in the smoke, the 7th Cruiser Squadron ceased fire. This marked the end of the cruiser action, apart from a few salvoes fired by a ship invisible to our cruisers at The principal feature of its desultory character was the unanimous determination of the enemy cruisers to avoid close action. This they achieved with conspicuous success. A few minutes later enemy destroyers came in view and between and the Warspite. The fitful engagement continued until , our destroyers seizing every opportunity involuntarily offered by the enemy as he bolted in and out of the smoke cover.
At two torpedoes were seen passing astern of the Nubian, and at she observed one of two enemy destroyers apparently hit and dropping astern. The 2nd Destroyer Flotilla passed through the smoke, while the 14th tried to work round it to the northward. When the destroyers finally cleared the smoke screen at , the enemy was out of sight, having retired to the south- westward in the direction of his bases.
To the east, the striking force was just getting back to the Eagle',all the Swordfish landed on safely at Another striking force was being got ready, but it could not be despatched before the general recall of aircraft was made at During the engagement the Eagle had also maintained aircraft, as available, on reconnaissance, as well as one acting as spotter for the Royal Sovereign. Throughout its course, their. With the British Fleet between them and their main base Taranto , they were hurriedly seeking shelter in other bases to the south and west. The first appearance of enemy aircraft on the scene, as already mentioned, was at —just as the surface action was petering out5—when the Warspite was attacked.
From then till about , the Fleet was subjected to a series of heavy bombing attacks by shore-based aircraft. The Warspite and the Eagle were particularly singled out as targets, each being attacked five times; 2 but the 7th Cruiser Squadron received numerous attacks and many bombs fell near the destroyers. Orion fired on a formation of nine aircraft which attempted to bomb the flotillas. Vice- Admiral Tovey effectively disposed his cruisers in a diamond formation to resist these attacks, which were frequent till Most of the bombing was extremely wild, from heights of between 10, and 15, feet, carried out by formations of aircraft varying in numbers from nine to a single aircraft, but generally in formations of three.
No ships were hit during any of the attacks, but there were numerous near misses and a few minor casualties from splinters. The Malaya claimed to have damaged two aircraft by A. During this period of the action the coast of Italy was in sight, the high land of Calabria showing up prominently as the sun got lower in the West. Admiral Somerville, deeming that the risk of damage to the Ark Royal outweighed the importance of a secondary operation, cancelled the proposed attack and returned to Gibraltar. No records of times or numbers of attacks on other ships are available. The sudden retirement behind the smoke screens had naturally thrown the fleet into considerable disorder and the manoeuvre had not been helped by the F.
The battleships steered a westerly course till about and then steadied on , the other squadrons steering to the north-westward and gradually conforming. Nothing could be seen of the enemy, owing to the smoke screens, and he had received no report of his movements since ; but he knew that their battleships were by that time concentrated and there would be danger of his being forced on to the Calabrian coast by their gunfire. He therefore decided to steer for the Sicilian ports. Shortage of fuel in his available destroyers prevented him from sending them to locate the enemy and subsequently attempt a night attack.
From this time onwards the various units of the fleet were repeatedly bombed by their own shore-based aircraft. Ships frequently replied with gunfire to the dropping of the bombs. At the destroyers which had been fuelling rejoined his flag, and the various units of the fleet arrived at Augusta, Messina and Palermo in the course of the evening— the majority, by order of the Ministry of Marine, sailing for Naples early on 10th July. At the destroyers were ordered to resume their screening formations on the battleships and at the Gloucester was ordered to rejoin Vice-Admiral Tovey.
A couple of alterations of course were made to open the land. The Ark Royal, our only large modern carrier in the Mediterranean, was of unique importance. Already a major attack on Italian battleships subsequently carried out at Taranto in November was under consideration.
Under these circumstances, Admiral bomeralle declined to accept the risk to her for the sake of a subsidiary operation. In war, risks must often be accepted, but the object should always be adequate. After a pause of about an hour, the attacks recommenced and between ano a further 11 attacks— the last in the Messina Strait— were carried out.
An enemy destroyer was believed to have been severely damaged, but on account of shortage of fuel in his own destroyers, Sir Andrew Cunningham reluctantly decided not to detach a force to deal with her. At , 9th, Admiral Cunnigham altered course to for a position south of Malta. During the night, which passed without incident, eight destroyers Stuart, Dainty, Defender, Hyperion, Hostile, Hasty, Ilex, Juno were detached to arrive at Malta at , 10th, to complete with fuel. Rhoades, R. At , 10th July, the fleet was in 24' N. An air raid took place on Malta at , but no destroyer was hit.
Three or four enemy aircraft were shot down. Shortly after noon, the Gloucester and later the Stuart. Unfortunately, the enemy force had left before it arrived, and the only ships found were a destroyer of the Navigatori class and an oil tanker of 6, tons in a small bay to the northward. The destroyer— the Leone Pancaldo — was hit by two torpedoes and sank after breaking in two; the tanker also was hit. All the aircraft returned safely, landing at Malta. At , 10th, the 7th Cruiser Squadron was ordered to search to the eastward in the wake of Convoy M.
As they neared the island, an air raid on the neighbourhood of Calafrana was seen to be in progress. The ships entered harbour at midnight and left at , 1 ith to rejoin the Commander-in-Chief. In view of the bombing attacks experienced on the 8th and 9th July, the Air Officer, C. The slow convoy, M. Vice-Admiral Tovey, who after being detached had kept to the southward of the track of convoy M S. As expected, it was not long before air attacks commenced. Between and , 11th, 66 bombs were aimed at the Warspite and her destroyers in five attacks. It was remarked that the attacks at lowest levels were made on destroyers, and that the seaplanes came in lower than other types of aircraft.
Convoy M. None of the ships was damaged, and there was only one casualty— Mr. Endicott, Commissioned Gunner of the Vampire, who died after transference to the Mohawk. Between and , they were attacked by 15 aircraft in waves of three. No damage was done to either side, though one stick of bombs fell close to the Neptune.
These aircraft, flying very high, were not engaged before they dropped their bombs. Another attack occurred at , the bombs again falling wide. The members of the Board of Directors appoint their substitutes. The deliberations of the Board of Directors are expressed by the simple majority and are valid with. It expresses its deliberation unanimously.
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It has even been suggested that the overseas garrisoning of such troops for the past forty-four years has been too long. History, however, shows that this is a relatively short period of time when compared with our Roman experience. Indeed, the Romans were with us for at least years. In fact, many of them discovered that they quite liked the place and, therefore, settled there.
In much the same way over the last forty-four years, a number of foreign officers have also adjusted to living in Central Europe. Like the Romans, some might even be reluctant to be recalled home! I would like to ask them to stay here - and not go back. It is not over yet, because the "threat" continues - albeit in a possibly new form! The problem is that nobody is absolutely clear about the new nature of that threat. The Soviet Union is still in a tremendous state of flux.
Who can say at this time exactly where Perestroika and Glasnost may lead? Fresh situations, as yet unforeseen, may arise over time. Soviet military policy could. What then would be Gorbachcv' s chances of success? Again, no one really knows that they will be. The problem is too complex and involves too many factors that are not clear to us - or to the Russian themselves for that matter. Gorbachev migh t come from? It is probably not from the Soviet Military.
They cert ainly seem satisfied with him. On a recent visit to the Pederal Republic of Germany, it was obvious that Gorbachev was paying particular attention to what Akhromeyev said. Thus, Akhromeyev is probably quite pleased about his new position. H e gave no hint of dissatisfaction either with Gorbachev's performance.
Therefore, we should probably look elsewhere to find potential dangers to Gorbachev. Mikhail Gorbachev is a product of his system. H e is linked to his past and his past is linked to him. As he was dying, Andropov supported Gorbachev as his successor because he was confident that the system would be safe in Gorbachev' s hands! Like all o thers before them, the last two Soviet leaders owe much to the system.
After all, it elevated them to the supreme power. Perestroika would probably have occurred anyway - even without the charismatic Gorbachev! I have read "Perestroika - New thinking for our Country and the World"; not just the Poreword, but all three other parts as well. After reading this book, I do not understand why people maintain that Gorbachev is basically anything other than a Leninist. I le may be prepared to support considerable structural and economic changes in Soviet society. Yet, as a product of the Soviet communist system, he is in no way will ing to consider reducing the crucial, central and dominating role of the Communist Party in Russia.
His central dilemma stems from the fact that fu ndamental and far-reaching reforms to the Soviet system are essential but must reduce the power of the Party in order to be effective. On 7 December , Mr. G orbachev announced the first batch of his latest arms control intentions! He stated his plan to cut back the Soviet Armed Porces by ,, to withdraw six divisions from Eastern Europe and to remove 5, tanks.
Yet, we must by no means accept such unilateral reductions as an alternative to a properly negotiated and verified treaty. The difference was that Gorbachev had declared unilateral reductions which could not be checked - while our proposals were for an initial negotiating position which would be assured by treaty and thereafter veri-. In essence, we suggested asymmetric reductions down to 20, tanks on ear:;h side. We proposed that there should be a total of 40, tanks from the Atlantic to the Urals area.
No single nation should be allowed to possess more than 30 percent or 12, of these 40, tanks, to avoid domination by one. In addition, armoured personnel carriers and artillery were to be reduced in similar proportions. Now, Gorbachev seems to be accepting the logic of our proposals and to be coming in our direction.
I am sure he wants to reach agreement with us and that is the way we should go. Again, progress in arms control requires properly negotiated agreements that are verifiable - not unilateral, unnegotiated gestures. Gorbachev certainly intends to cut his defence budget - if he ever can discover its real cost! Now, it seems that estimates were wrong - they were far too low! Within a period of nine months, Gorbachev has revised his assess- - NATO Sovietologist in Resiment of Soviet defence expenditure dence - stated his belief that Gorupwards by three to four times!
Even bachev desperately needs money to so, has he got it right yet? The previ- be released from the defence budgous German Defence Minister, Dr. To get such Scholz, once asked Soviet Defence resources, he must radically change Minister Y azov how much a Soviet the way Soviet society is organized tank cost. Azov replied that it was economically. I also believe that the very difficult to give an answer since entire Soviet leadership realizes that so many accounting and manage- something fundamental must occur.
Gorits production. The system was so bachev enjoys Politburo support becomplex that no final amount could cause they understand that whoever be computed. If that is the case, how is in power would have to act that can the level of a Soviet defence way. No doubt Andropov himself budget ever be assessed? Thus, defence budget from about 17 to 14 the near bankruptcy of the Soviet percent of the GNP, and I am sure Union is a crucial determinant of he means it!
For example, he must be brave to allow a member of the Brezhnev family to go to trial. It is not Western military power that presents the greatest danger to Gorbachev but, rather, sub-standard living. Failure to appease Soviet expectations in this area will undoubtedly have an impact on his long-term future.
There lies the biggest threat to Gorbachev' position as a leader. The Sovie t Union now officially admits that it produces 2, tanks annually. Gorbachev has been in power for just over four years; so, according to this figure, a total of 8, new tanks have been produced during that time. Prance, the United Kingdom and the Pederal Repub-. The Alliance evalu ates current Soviet tank production at over 3, per year. As to aircraft production, I have heard that international air shows display M with price tags in dollars! Perphaps then, some of this Soviet excess production is for export?
Soviet products sell! They may not be as sophisticated as some Western equipment but they sell maybe because their buyers do not want extremely soph istica t ed weapons! This may partially explain apparent Soviet over-production in armaments, but it is certainly not the full reason! It was only five or six years ago that the Brezhnev era ended.
This build-up of armaments and force is now admitted openly by the Soviets. Yet, no one in the West can explain with certainty why it occurred. I doubt that the Soviets know either. Because of the Brezhnev expansionist years, even a reduction of , troops - as announced by G orbachev on 7 December will still keep Soviet troop levels as high as they were in Reductions of that kind certainly reflect, in part, a Soviet desire to modernize and streamline forces.
Russian military officers are probably very much in favour of leaner, meaner and more professional armed forces. Such notions normally appeal to any professional officer corps! Thus, this may be another reason why Gorbachev retains the support of his military. Ile might be doing exactly what they want him to do! It is sometimes said that NATO is losing public support. This is probably not quite righ t! What the Alli ance is really doing is losing the public relations battle. We do have the best arms control proposals - and yet, we don't get credit for them.
Our proposals just do not seems very "sexy" to our publics - principally because we make them! On the other hand, when Gorbachev makes such proposals, or proposals that are very close to or even inspired by our own, he receives tremendous coverage and credit from the Western press. After NATO came out with its arms control proposals on 8 December , was it not interesting that the paper that possibly gave them the best welcome was "Pravda"? They were not as well covered or received in the Western media. I am unsure about what we can do to rectify this , but I do feel we should put maximum effort into publicly explaining why we take the positions that we do.
At a recent Summit, our political leaders a:1swered these questions. I Iowever, flexible Response and Porward Defence call for means that are totally different from those required to simply "slog out" a war. If we arc still trying to prevent war, though, I am absolutely convinced that it cannot be done without a well-supported nuclear element. At the moment, the " wheel of history" may indeed be turning again, but we will still need to keep all our capabilities. Thus, I find impossible to predict how we can negotiate on SNF until we have firs t agreed on how the Vienna negotiations will affect the strength and deploymen t of conven tional forces.
Only after we know what the future size, shape and location of conventional forces on both sides will be can we decide exactly how to proceed on SNP matters. Nonetheless, I am quite clear that the Alliance really did need the leadership President l3ush exercised on 2 May, The Bush package of arms control proposals was appealing to all sides. On the one hand, these proposals let nations that benefited from them accept the package without loss of face; on the other, they caused nations who may not have particularly liked them to NA TO strategy for the future agree - because they were difficult to reject.
Por example, the reduction At this point, I want to return to of U. What are our future in-. Do we want to continue signal to Congress. It was also an exour current strategy of war preven- cellent signal to Gorbachev - espetion - not just nuclear but conven- cially since it conceded on the mattional? However it was certainly not a signal to other Alliance members - to suggest that unilateral national arms reductions were acceptable. As Secretary of State Baker said, a time scale of six to twelve months is optimistic, but is not unrealistic. Everyone wants an agreement to happen and it should be achievable.
But, as Mrs. Thatcher herself stressed, "partial" is not "zero". SNF weapons cannot be abandoned. We still need them in the future as part of our strategy. Before it took place, NATO was said to be in "disarray" ; there certainly was "disarray" at its end! Now, of course, come the difficulties of implementation. The Summit proposals must be translated into a detailed negotiating position for Vienna. The way ahead should be as follows. Once this is done, it should not be his task to decide which nations must reduce and by what.
Unfortunately for us, it is not just the Soviet defence budget that is on the decline. Most of our national defence budgets are declining too.
Our capitals ask for cuts in order to save money. Our governments are impatient. They naturally want to know quickly if they can reduce their defence expenditures. In some cases, they may even be tempted into pre-emption. Yet, Western unilateral reductions would be extremely counter-productive in arms control terms.
Such moves would be destructive because they could totally undo our carefully. We would make it very easy for the other side - all they would have to do is just sit and wait! Now is not the time to make such reductions - let us negotiate from strength. Our publics need to understand that Gorbachev's unilateral reductions do not correct asymmetries, and that the Soviet preponderance is still being maintained however it may ap-. We must negotiate this Soviet preponderance to lower levels. However, this will be very difficult fo r our negotiators if NATO members begin making unilateral and nationally-inspired reductions immediately.
I have said exactly this. Unfortunately, far too many people now have absolute faith in Gorbachev. Whatever he says, they believe and immediately accept. They feel that any announcement he makes can be immediately "wrapped up, put in a bag and taken home". It is "game, set and match" as far as they are concerned.
Bu t it is far more difficult than that. While I am quite sure that the economic situation is now the driving force in East-West relations, our security needs require that we take the greatest possible care in order to retain military stability in Europe. At such a critical phase in our developing relationship with the East,. I would like to warn again against reductions in Western defence budgets which may give entirely the wrong signals.
We must let our negotiators in Vienna reach a successful outcome on the conventional side before any such moves are made and we must help propagate the view. Its rpm fire power can cope with high density attack scenarios and counteract the long range, high payload, hi'gh terminal effectiveness of the present air launched weapons: OTOMATI C can achieve equivalent Cumulative Kill Probability at three times the range of any other point defence weapon system. The turret housing the elevating mass and the gun feeding mechanisms is a self - contained system of the armoured rotati ng casemate t ype and comprises: t he radar and opto- electron ic search and tracking system; the gun electro- hydrau lic servo - system; the ammunition automatic magazine and ammunition stowages; the data lin.
The f ire control system, integral with the gun sy stem, operates on the inputs from its own act ive and passive sensors. T hese are: the search an d tracking radars, the commander's search periscope, and the gunner's optical track ing sight. This latter includes a laser rangefinder and a DL TV camera, providing a stabi lized optical search and tracking capability.
The gun feeding system , fire control system computer and console and rad ar system transmitter, receiver and junction boxes are inside the turret ; the sensors and their associated elevating and retracting mechanisms are ar ranged in the rear of the turret, protected by an armoured shield when folded down. Only small modifications to the chassis are required for stowage of rounds and t he installation of the APU and navigator equipment.
T he ammunition feeding system, consisting of a translator on the basket base, two rocking arms feeding the gun at any elevation , and two transfer drums on the gun mount, is hydraulical ly operated and linked to t he gun recoi l movement. The spent case ejecti on system is hydrau lically operated. The crew consists of four men, the driver and th ree operators in the turret: the commander, who has t actical control of the system, t he gunner, performing target engagemen t and the loader.
The breechblock is the vertical falling wedge type with mechanical firing system. The gun loading system consists of a loading tray with vertical a lternating movement, actuated by the recoiling mass through a lever system. The forward movement is boosted by a hydraulic system. The load ing tray system also handles the ext racted spent cases which are ejected outside the vehicle, at all elevations, by a hydrau lically operated ejection system.
The feed ing system of. The translator is a vertical transfer magazine arranged on the turret basket, to the left of the gun. The two rocking arms, hydraulical ly actuated, carry the rounds onto a loader drum on the gun mount. The rocking arms have an alternating movement, synchronized with the rate of fire, and follow the gun elevation. The loader drum on the left side of the gun mount transfers the rounds from the rocking arms to the loading tray.
Electrical and mechanical interlocks synchronize the complete loading and feeding system. AT ammunition: an auxi liary loader drum for AT ammunition is fitted on the right side of the gun mount. The anti - armour ammunition is advanced to the ramming position by a step by step rotat ion after being manually loaded by the loader. Gun servos: the servosystem is two axes stabilized.
The traversing servo has an unlimited t raverse sector and drives the turret t hrough a hydraulic motor with reduction gear drive directly coupled to the turret crown gear. Hand operated mechanisms can be used for emergency operation. An automatic bra ke prevents undue movements of the turret when the traversing mechanism is off. British and American war correspondents with the Italian Army in the First World War reported the day to day events well and from time to time leading writers made short tours of the Front and gave their impressions.
One of these was Rudyard Kipling who spent two weeks in Italy in early May On his return he wrote five pieces which appeared in the Daily Telegraph, the New York Tribune and, in translation, in Milan 1. In Italy, these are regarded as being among the best accounts of Alpine warfare ever written. A reprint of a Italian translation H e was also concerned about the lack of understanding in Britain of the Italian war effort. Regrettably, it was never understood how the I talian war effort helped the British Army on the Western Front nor was it generally realized that the scale of the Italian.
Rodd's idea was that well-known writers should visit and write about the Front in the hope that the words of a favourite author would be read more widely, make greater impact and carry more conviction than material from the propaganda agencies. In exchange for a visit by Rudyard Kipling, he hoped that d'Annunzio could be persuaded to visit the British troops in Prance and write a series of articles for the Italian press.
Kipling stalled until mid-April. Army Quarterly is the world's longest established military Journal. Renamed United Service. The Journal has published articles by many famous soldiers of the last hundred years. Sir Winston Churchill, T.. Over the past.! With over 21, readers, Army Quarterly go. They were written within a few hours of the events they describe and have an attractive freshness and spontaneity; what is more, they were sent by diplomatic bag and so avoided censorship. By linking extracts from the letters and articles with some explanations and narrative, we get a vivid, informa-.
Recent issues have covemJ such wbiects as the need for Huropean cooperation, simulators and training, military airlift evolution and helicopters in the Huropean battlefield. The Journal also publishes research on campaigns, battles and leaders ofthe past. Apart from the article "f rinted below other historical S11b;ects covered in recent issues are The Tlritish Invasion ofCrimea , Normandy and Finland's Three Wars, J news wert in the issues.
Jay basis so providing a continuing perspective on world affairs. Universities feed these sections into their computer data base. J developments, as Wt! For further information about the Army Quarterly and Defence Journal please write to:. Kipling and Landon arrived in Rome on May 5th to be given a highly organized welcome. However, the highly charged political atmosphere and the equivocal attitude to the war 3 was not to Kipling's.
There was a fatted ease about our progress in the wagon-lit which more or less prepared me for the two cars one shut t' other open which greeted us. I expect that was its walk in life before the war. If faces an immense circle of roughly pebbled ground from which roads and avenues radiate. There are railway lines down the roads and occasionally a friendly train-load of low trucks goes roaring along or an officer on a spitting motor bike flees to some job or other.
All the rest is cultivation, stone-pines and mounds on mounds of flowering chestnuts, with roofs of deep fluted tiles emerging, and here and there a factory chimney. I have to see the King and Cadorna but whether to-day or to-morrow I know not. I resign myself into the hands of the Military which is a damn sight better than trying to fuss. Moreover, there are no hosts in the world like soldiery. Think of the pure boredom of having to meet civils of all kinds and temperaments, to take them around and to try to put some idea into their opinionated heads.
I can't give you any idea of the excellence, or the amplitude or the smoothness of the arrangements.
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It appears that we are - very much so - the guests of the Italian Government who have a breadth of vision as to the duties of a host which fairly takes the breath away. Kipling's description of the town at night may bring back some memories to those readers who knew Udine in the closing stages of the Second World War and afterwards: It was on the edge of moonrise just before ten when we walked back to the quarters here.
Udine at night is lit - for obvious reasons - with. It's a beautiful city in itself - with a main square, a Cathedral and a few other old buildings all grouped together which are extraordinarily beautiful. The effect under the moonlight in the great square, dotted here and there with the blue light was lovely beyond words. The town was silent; the moonlight slashed the fronts of the old buildings and the arcades and loggi as showed like pits of blackness However, Kipling was there to write about the war, not to report an exchange of pleasantries with the.
King and the General. He was faced with the problem of devising an approach which would make an impact on war-weary readers. Although the inevitable descriptions of the hardships, the bravery, the squalor, the casualties, the cemeteries could not be avoided, it was vital to identify and highlight the special characteristics of the Italian front which made it different from France.
In essence, he had to create in the minds of a lowland audience a picture of a war between European armies in the hostile environment of the high mountains. Time and again, the plans of the generals were constrained or defeated not by the enemy who faced identical problems but by weather, terrain, the amount of water which could be pumped, the speed of road making and maintnance, bridging, rail capacity and the like.
The engineers and logisticians held the key to all operations and their influence deserves better treatment from military historians than it has received so far. And so the tour began. He pointed south-east and east across the heat haze to some evillooking ridges a long way off where there was a sound of guns debating ponderously. Then to the west of them come the Dolomites, where tourists use to climb and write books. There we fight, also. The Dolomites join on to the Trentino and the Asiago Plateau, and there we fight.
And from there we go round north till we meet the Swiss border. Having got the geography clear, Kipling describes a visit to the battle lines along the lower Ison In both the letters and the articles the road building and the constantly motor transport getting men and materials from the railheads to the line drew his attention: Every road was flanked by a little flashing water channel and lined with piles of limestone pebbles from which every few hundred yards a couple of men or a man and boy spread spadefuls of pebbles in every tiniest depression and worn spot, and poured water out of a tin can at the end of a pole atop.
The incessant traffic of motor-cars, tractors and carts ground the stuff down almost at once and the water made it bind: so that, the heavier the traffic the better the road. It was a miracle to watch. The Italian are Princes among Roadmakers. Altogether we have about four thousand miles of new roads - and old roads improved - on a front of about six hundred kilometres.
The amazing, motor-lorries were thicker on the more amazing road that they had been. Our companion apologised for them. Just outside Gradisca they crossed.