The relationship of the bilingual non-canonical texts to the canonical versions is discussed separately 2. With regard to the basic text of the Tibetan translation it was necessary to also examine the evidence of the more important commentaries 2. Eventually one can differentiate between eight phases in the transmission of the Tibetan translation 2. As in the previous section, the foregoing discussion is shown in the form of a stemma — in this case inevitably a more elaborate one 2.
The third part of the book contains the critical edition itself 3. The preliminary notes concerning the technique of constitution of the Sanskrit and the Tibetan texts are followed by a list containing all the sigla used 3. Then the critical edition is presented 3. The Sanskrit and the Tibetan texts are given on facing pages with the critical apparatus supplied below each stanza.
At the beginning some explanatory notes are given 4. After a table of contents in German 4. My primary aim was to prepare a readable scholarly translation which reflects, as far as possible, the Sanskrit original as given now in the critical edition. In a number of cases besides the translation of a particular stanza, the Sanskrit text itself has also been given in analytical transliteration in order to facilitate a better understanding of the text exemplifying particular phonetic features in the Sanskrit language. The fifth part of the book contains two glossaries 5.
Both are made on the basis of the Sanskrit and the Tibetan texts as given now in the critical edition. All significant variants have also been included and mentioned where appropriate. In the glossaries all Sanskrit and Tibetan words are given in Roman transliteration.
In the sixth part seven appendices are supplied 6. Appendices : 1. A bibliography of the modern editions of the Sanskrit and the Tibetan basic texts together with the commentaries on them Appendix 2 ; more than eighty publications are listed, in a number of cases with detailed annotation; 3. A list of the variously written transliterations of Sanskrit words in the Tibetan sources Appendix 4 ; 5. When the sisters describe the serpent 5, ,16 f. Golding edited by Madeleine Forey, In this context the stelio is rather interesting. Here in Apuleius Venus sarcastically asks whether she needs the help of Sobrietas — her enemy and in a sense also the opposite of Aviditas.
The link with Apollo, the Greek, and indeed Ionian, god who is speaking Latin in Didyma near Miletus lies in the fact that the conditor Milesiae em- ————— 31 Cf. Ovid Met. Hill ; see D. Hill , ad loc. See GCA , ad loc. At 6,14—15 the dragons guarding the Stygian waters are described with phrase trisulca vibramina cf. It is not impossible that the conditor Milesiae, i. Apuleius, visited Asia Minor. Do we need such confirmation? Zimmerman et al. A collection of original papers, Groningen: Egbert Forsten. Beaujeu, J. Bitel, A. Clarke, K. Or Unde ille? Dowden, K. Fontenrose, J. GCA , on Met. Book IV 1— Metamorphoses IX.
Metamorphoses X. Golding, A. Hanson, J. Apuleius, Metamorphoses, 2 vols. Harrison, S. Helm, R. Hill, D. Jensson, G. The Recollections of Encolpius. Kahane, A. Mattiacci, S. Moreschini, C. Il mito di Amore e Psiche in Apuleio. Saggio, testo di Apuleio, traduzio- ne e commento, Napoli: M. Parke, H. Paschalis, M. Rowling, J. Skutsch, O. The Annals of Q. Smith, W. Van Mal-Maeder, D. Zazoff, P. Zimmerman, M. She has been a role-model for, and an avid supporter of, young scholars, and an inspiration to her colleagues all over the world. The combination of a keen mind, a warm heart, and a ready smile has won for her a legion of friends, among which I am delighted to number myself GS.
We wish to thank the editors of this volume for helpful sugges- tions. See also Murgatroyd Lucius praises hair as the main adornment for a woman, superior to robes, jewels, and even a perfect body. In this he would agree with St. In fact he does not even mention it. In light of his admiration for hair color in the ekphrasis, as well as of a literary stereotype going as far back as Homer for instance in the epithet in Il. That the beauty of hair or the lack thereof on men is discussed with some frequency in the early centuries A.
Hair flowing with a natural waviness is considered a token of beauty in Greek and Roman antiquity. This preference is manifest in the ancient novels. Both Xenophon of Ephesus and Heliodorus picture their heroines as gifted with flowing locks. On this inscription see Horsfall Not only is inornatus used of loosely hanging hair [Ovid Met.
Further, inornatus makes a better antithesis with operosus sed in mea Photide non operosus, sed inornatus ornatus addebat gratiam. Apuleius often sets up an interplay of stylistic notions with concrete notions of ornament hair-style ; see Finkelpearl , 62—63 who, however, reads inordinatus.
Callebat , , who cites inordinatus ornatus as an example of oxymoron combined with antithesis. Moreover, the natural movement of their hair is only one aspect of its beauty. As Edgar Wind has finely noted,14 the three Graces, whom Vasari named from left to right Pleasure, Chastity and Beauty, alle- gorize contemporary Neoplatonic ideals by means of their demeanors, dresses, and hairdos: Pleasure leans forward, wears a richly draped and flow- ing robe and very luxuriant hair, a part of which is loosely bound in serpen- tine knots; Chastity stands discreetly and wears a suitably plain dress and neatly plaited hair; Beauty, who Neoplatonically represents the synthesis and the culmination of the triad, wears hair which is neither too loose nor too tight.
Xenophon and Heliodorus combine hair and clothes into dress. Lucius, on the other hand, in his ek- phrasis at 2,8—9 claims that hair is the only true dress for a woman. A woman might wish to take off her clothes to show her beauty, but should she remove her hair, not even as Venus would she appeal to Vulcan. Lucius is fantasizing about a naked woman adorned only by her hair. Photis will turn out to be just such a woman.
The dominant note in her movement is again undulation. She is wearing only a tunic, and Lucius, as it were, sees through it. His eye is entirely captured by the sinuous rotations and shaking of her limbs, hips, and spine; undabat, the last word in the description, sums up the scene. The effect on Lucius is so strongly erotic that in the end he imagines Photis stirring the pot no longer with her hands, as at the beginning 2,7,3 vasculum floridis palmulis rotabat in circulum , but with her buttocks: quam pulchre … ollulam istam cum natibus intorques 2,7,5.
For now Lucius is not suggesting full-blown sex, but just a little appetizer of the main course which he would taste by dipping his finger into it. Apuleius must have smiled at the use of vasculum and courses of food to indicate ever more serious sexual levels but then laughed out loud at post asellum diaria non sumo.
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To Petronius asellus is a person who like an ass has an uncommonly large sexual appetite: Priapea 52,9—10; Juvenal 9, When Quartilla mentions asellus, she is probably referring to a recent cou- pling with Ascyltus who is described Petron. At Met. Clitophon and Melite, who are sailing to Ephesus after their wedding, disagree on the suitability of a ship for sex. The stability of the wedding-bed signifies the stability of mar- riage. Melite, in contrast, argues that a ship is the ideal setting for sex, be- cause Aphrodite was born from the sea, and she even finds features of the ship to be emblems of marriage.
The Ship of Love of Lucius and Photis is about to sail on rolling waves. Photis herself is a creature of the sea, a Venus just rising from the waves quae marinos fluctus subit.
The adjective itself has an ob- scene meaning when applied to the membrum virile; see Adams , Jacobelli , Tav. II provides photographs from Pompei of just such a pendula Venus or oscillatio. The references to ————— 22 For the repetition, see van Mal-Maeder , Like Pho- tis, she is shaking her limbs 3,21,4 membra tremulo succussu quatit in fluctuating movements 3,21,5 fluctuantibus.
He had already identified these two appetites when he had begged Photis to intro- duce him into the secret world of magic. He swears, quite uncommonly, by her hair, and more precisely per dulcem istum capilli tui nodulum, quo meum vinxisti spiritum 3,23,2; see in summum verticem nodus astrinxerat, 2,9,7. The third woman who has the power to render Lucius defixus is Isis: after he recovers human shape, he stands stupore nimio defixus 11,14,1.
In addition to leaving him spellbound, it has the long-lasting effect of alienating him from his home. Similarly Lucius finds it very difficult to break the bonds of his longing for the goddess and go back home 11,24 — where he ————— 26 Odyssey 10, See Montiglio , 58— The meaning of puerile corollarium is not clear, but doubt- lessly Photis is the one who takes the initiative. On the magic power of knots, see also Unnik , Like Photis, Isis is characterized by images of waviness.
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As she appears to Lucius in a dream, the first feature that he admires is her hair: iam primum crines … 11,3,4. Isis carries a boat-shaped object 11,4 , and she herself highlights her function as the protector of sail- ors when she orders Lucius to join the holy procession which opens the sail- ing season 11,5—6; see 11, The initiation stands in a relationship of continuity with, rather than of opposition to, his erotic passion for Photis leading to his dis- covery of magic. As we have seen, Photis is compared to Venus at 2,17,1.
It is not by chance that Venus makes a glam- orous appearance in the pantomime scene at 10,32,3, shortly before Isis ap- pears to Lucius. Probably not. It does not mean that Apuleius has renounced his passion for hair. Instead, we would like to suggest that the emphasis on baldness in the final scene indicates that the Metamorphoses is over. A narrative that has sprawled ivy-like from story to story, as luxuriant and undulating as the hair which Lucius so much admires, is cut off at the same time as his own hair.
Apuleius calls them castimonia 11,6,7; 11,19,3. Callebat, L. Englert, J. Finkelpearl, E. Metamorphosis of Language in Apuleius. Griffiths, J. Gross, W. Apuleius Metamorphoses, 2 vols. Hofmann, J. Lateinische Syntax und Stilistik, Munich: Beck. Horsfall, N. Hunink, V. Amsterdam: Gieben. Apuleius of Madauros. Florida, Edited with a Commentary, Amsterdam: Gieben. Hilton, J. Oxford: OUP, — Jacobelli, L.
Mal-Maeder, D. McClure, L. Courtesans at Table, New York: Routledge. McLaughlin, T. Montiglio, S. Murgatroyd, P. Nethercut, W. Nisbet, R. Apuleius Madaurensis. Reardon, B. Robertson, D. Schlam, C. Hijmans et al. Sullivan, J. Petronius Satyricon, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Unnik, W. Walsh, P. Wind, E. Zimmerman M. Cupid and Psyche. He did not, however, write this down, or in- deed any other part of his teaching. Nor did Socrates, a man himself more perfect than any other and to whose wisdom the god Apollo himself testified Soc. Once, then, Socrates had left mankind Plat. In the Seventh Letter, Plato if it is him is much concerned with the shortcomings of Dionysios.
It is out of the process of scrutiny and malice-free question-and-answer that the spark of understanding and intuition about each problem arises b. The opening of the novel may be regarded as being in dia- logue form: she highlights the use of at to begin apparently in mid- conversation, the use of the second person pronoun in the phrase ego tibi and of the second-person demonstrative isto, and the apparent intrusion of a dia- logue partner with quis ille de Jong , — She then considers how Platonic dialogues sometimes begin in mid-conversation and how the Symposium in particular provides a model for the repetition of a story al- ready told, just as Aristomenes will repeat a tale for Lucius 1,2 and, we may add, Lucius is rehearsing his own story, the previously existing story of the Ass, for the Apuleian reader.
It is maybe a larger mat- ter, however, that the Metamorphoses is initially marked as dialogue. The dialogue form, as was observed long ago by Leo see de Jong , and in modern times by Jim Tatum , 26 , is reminiscent of the manner of some Roman satire, which in turn has its own links to the serio- comic communication strategy of some Hellenistic philosophers, notably Menippos. He too challenges the reader by bringing a world to life, registering its words and conflicts, sometimes expressly in dialogue form and always with an awareness of other, discordant, voices.
Culture and values, whether moral or aesthetic, philosophical or rhetorical, attract dialogic presentation. Narrative structure and prologue It is not only the dialogic opening of the Metamorphoses but its whole struc- ture that leads us back to Plato and to the Symposium. The method of frame and insertion4 in Apuleius has elicited comment over the years, whether on the basis of meaningfulness or of entertaining episodicity. However, on the middle ground, perhaps few would have diffi- culty with the idea that there is sufficient unity for the novel to function well for readers and there is a sense of theme and variations.
In Merkelbach lan- guage,5 we might say, Den irdischen Erlebnissen des Lucius und der Charite entsprechen die mythischen der Psyche. Es ist ein einziges Grundthema, das uns in ver- schiedenen Variationen entgegentritt. What other texts suggested this structure? The ————— 3 See Arrowsmith Dowden As for the Vorlage, we may argue over the extent to which it pos- sessed inserted tales. Perhaps he was aware of some Greek novels, depending on how you date the Metamorphoses and the novels, but it is unlikely they provided him with this method. However, though there are many in- stances of subordinate narration in Antonius Diogenes, they seem to result from re-ordering the plot, telling what is not yet known, rather than from insertion of separate stories.
The clearest and most sustained precedent in the immediate literary tradi- tion is the Milesiae of Sisenna or the Greek original of Aristeides. As first light approached, the enticing and lovely persuasion of your un- restrained narratives utterly gladdened me, with the result that I almost thought I was Aristeides being enchanted by the Milesian stories logoi.
This is a discus- sion of two varieties of love, male and female, perhaps somehow connected with the similar discussion at the end of Book 2 of the novel of Achilles Tatius, maybe an older contemporary of Apuleius. And both present a sense of dialogue, together with the internal narration of stories. The Amores also displays striking intertextuality with Platonic dialogues and above all with the Symposium.
Thematically the Amores is united by its discussion of the theme of eros and it reflects Plato throughout, constantly mentioning Socrates quite apart from anything else. It also engages with the model provided by the Symposium of a sequence of logoi trying to cast light on the nature of eros. The novel of Apuleius, philosophus Platonicus, be- longs in the same network — dialogue, internal narration, Milesiaka, certain works of Plato. He has picked up the Vorlage, and increased its scale and ambition with considerably more inserted stories, in the manner of Aristei- des-Sisenna.
We cannot know how the Milesian Tales were organised, but Apuleius has certainly used them to produce a sequence of related stories, many of them on the theme of love or passion, many of them I-narrated. And in so doing his structure takes on overtones of the Symposium. It would make sense if he had seen the Amores first.
Bowie , 60—61, though I continue to doubt the late dating of the Metamorphoses. But the discourse, logos or sermo, will be in a particular register — the Milesius, not the satiric or the Menippeus. This is, structurally, the Sym- posium metamorphosed into the manner of Sisenna-Aristeides. This sermo not only invites the reader into dialogue but requires chal- lenge by the reader. As de Jong has observed , , the opening of the Symposium plunges us into the prospect of repeating a story in the same way as Met.
Apollodoros, then, is to give a better account, the one in front of the reader. It is however, itself, an indirect ac- count. The narratology of this opening of the Symposium poses as many questions about the authenticity and reliability of a narration as does Met. After Winkler it has been harder to be- lieve in true narratives , , but on the other hand Plato probably believed there was something beyond aporia, though he preferred to suggest rather than dictate, as we have seen.
A Platonic Metamorphoses would not be a techne, but a dialogue to help the reader towards their own insights — not a huge distance from the world of Jack Winkler. Socrates and symposium The Socrates of the Symposium is in a sense present at the outset of our novel. We find this one at evening in the baths vespera oriente ad balneas processeram. Lo and behold, I caught sight of my companion Socrates! This beginning has strange echoes of the ending of the Symposium d.
And if we now look at the early part of the Symposium a 17 we find Socrates once again having washed i. Echoes are of course not exclusively of the Sympo- sium: he bathes at Phaedo a, and he covers his face — 1,6 faciem suam ————— 17 Fick , Aristo- menes bathes him and takes him to a hotel, where he sleeps a while.
This is a sort of symposium where the narrative action of the novel — stories and enchanting the ears, as announced in the opening two lines of the novel — takes place in microcosm. Not all Apuleian stories are set at dinner-parties, but some are, particularly in the earlier part of the novel, which we shall see is the more Symposium-based.
This is the setting for the story about the Chaldaean astrologer Diophanes. At 2,19 Lucius is at the banquet of Byrrhena, the scene for the story of Thelyphron. At 4,7—8, the robbers bathe and preen themselves, when suddenly there is the arrival of further brigands who also bathe, join the banquet and then tell their stories.
Stephen Harrison has identified other possible echoes of the Symposium too in 4,8— The same motif is of course more visibly reprised in the arrival of Habinnas the monumental mason in the Cena Trimalchionis, a text which is modelled relatively closely on the Symposium. A fragment of the Metiochos and Parthenope novel, ————— 18 Thibau , ; van der Paardt , 82; Fick , See also Cameron The episodes embrace a number of issues, of which love or lust, the subject of the narratives in the Symposium, is an important one; even tales of magic are made to revolve around love.
There are more themes, obviously, than just love in these books: witchcraft, religion, the pursuit of wealth and fame as goals, failed individuals and failed societies, individual choice and social compulsion, and an overall theme of direction and loss of direction, seen as a dependency on the untrustworthi- ness of Fortune 1,6; 11, Cupid and Psyche, like the discourse of Diotime in the Symposium is set in a different, more mythic, register and they both deal with the Soul and Love. The story of Charite and Tlepolemus, the link between the two halves of the book culminates in a barbarism that the wild and uncontrolled behaviour of Charite 4,24—27 , little remarked upon, has foreshadowed.
SITUATION OF THE ESKER RIADA IN THE CO. GALWAY
There is a metamorphosis not only of the tone of the narrative, but also of its structure. Now we do not learn even the names of those who tell these stories in authorial mode. This happens quite abruptly from the end of ————— lead up to, the aspirations of the Cupid and Psyche story. This also relates to attempts cf. Riefstahl , 95— to convert the Metamorphoses into an Entwicklungsroman. Maaike Zimmerman has drawn attention to the key and disproportion- ate role of Venus at this turning point in the narrative, commenting — with her customary mixture of conciseness, acuity and energy — on 10,31 as fol- lows In this passage, there are some verbal references back to Fotis and Psy- che as impersonations of Venus, and to Venus herself in the Amor and Psyche episode … It is significant that this last Venus figure, who kalei- doscopically combines all earlier Venus figures in the Met.
She captures well the way in which threads are being pulled together and the figure of Venus, assembled from the preceding parts of the novel and evi- dently pandemic, is collapsed. Cupid and Psyche itself is beginning to look imperfect and limited: it is reaching the end of its shelf-life. The novel is now ready for the ass to escape, presently to reach a higher and purer relationship with the feminine, that with Isis in the eleventh book.
The second sequence has reached a new climax, its own equivalent to the Cupid and Psyche story. Krabbe , Ultimately a triadic relationship, which Peirce would have recognised, is at issue. The first member of the triad is the interpreter, the fictional person who is seeking to enter into the relationship. The third member of the triad is the object, that to which the subject is seeking to relate. The real Socrates of the Symposium seeks to un- derstand Eros; Diotime is the authentic mediator against whom others should be tested, is this one a Diotime, or this one?
But she is concerned in turn to interpret Eros as a mediator. The reader is the first term, the interpreter, in a new triad, for whom the mediator is the text. Divine Eros Socrates Diotime Reader Text The false Socrates, dead and in Thessaly, selects a false Diotime, whose objects are lust and a power that can only be demonstrated by overturning of the natural order 1,8. The reader, Aristomenes, who chooses that story is drawn into it and destroyed by it — just as Lucius will become a fabula in- credunda, and Thelyphron will turn out to be a player not just a watcher.
In the light of this triadic structure, we can also begin to see an important difference between Cupid and Psyche and the Eleventh Book. It has never been wholly clear how these two sit together if they are seriously meant. Cupid and Psyche is obviously Platonic and philosophical, whereas Book 11 is obviously religious.
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If you date the Metamorphoses early, as Rohde did and I do , then you might hold that the religious mentality of the Metamorphoses was juvenile and the phi- losophica reveal a mature Apuleius. Rohde believed this and it is of a piece with 19th-century rationalism. Alternatively, you might follow the theory that Moreschini sketched, with a late Metamorphoses and an implicit recognition that philosophy was no longer enough for the later Apuleius.
Both theories, however, come to grief when one sees in the Metamorphoses that both views, platonic and religious, are presented, though if we follow Moreschini , 30 , the address of the priest 11,15 amounts to a statement that phi- losophy doctrina? Cupid and Psyche, it seems, was an interim stage in the novel.
Nam, ut idem Plato ait, nullus deus miscetur hominibus Apuleius, Soc. Froidefond , n. Jupiter does not play that role and Venus is a hostile and predominantly pan- demic force,33 not yet metamorphosed into Isis. It is this limitation of Cupid and Psyche that demands the problematisation of Venus at the end of Book Only then can the next story at our banquet be told, the story of another divine woman, Isis.
Book 11 is the myth that closes the novel, though it is unclear how it should be nuanced and whether it can be completely understood. Lucius achieves breakthrough to divinity itself and a number of the themes of the novel e. At the same time, the preludes continue, as the novel finds difficulty in ending is Isis herself an intermediary to something further?
Thus the novel, in terms of its two sequences, is dynamic, even progressive. Its first, Symposium, sequence reaches whatever statement is inherent in Cupid and Psyche, but that statement, though modelled on the Symposium itself, has only reached the intermediary, demonic, level. It is the second sequence that leads to a new statement, maybe in turn only provisional, of the divine. For at 11,30 Osiris himself, the ultimate god according to Lucius and according to Plutarch, appears in a dream to Lucius, in surprisingly little detail but detail that may matter.
He is greatest and more important than great gods deum magnorum potior — such as Cupid? He does not metamorphose into another person unlike Lucius and therefore specifically exhibits the stabil- ity of the Platonic god who does not appear sometimes in one form, some- times in another Republic d. We should perhaps take Osiris more seriously: he does allow the novel to close, and to close on a note of success.
At the end, we leave the novel in the same way as we entered it, in mid- stream, as we see a Lucius going about his business timelessly in the imper- fect tense , but now with shaven head reproducing the baldness of Socra- tes? Our last picture is of Aristodemos accompanying Socrates as he always does, and of Socrates going to the Ly- ————— 33 See the detailed discussion of Keulen , esp. Life goes on, whatever we have learnt. Bibliography Arrowsmith, W.
Bodel, J. Hofmann ed. Bowie, E. Cameron, A. Hof- mann ed. Tatum ed. Harrison, M. Frangoulidis edd. Fick, N. Froidefond, C. Plutarque, Oeuvres morales, t. V, 2e partie, Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Apuleius, a Latin sophist, Oxford. Hijmans, B. Holzberg, N. Jong, I. Keulen, W. Krabbe, J. Mason, H. Haase ed.
Merkelbach, R. Apuleio e il platonismo, Firenze: Olschi. Morgan, J. Paardt, R. Panayotakis, S. Riefstahl, H. The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, London: Duckworth. Scobie, A.
Tatum, J. Thibau, R. Winkler, J. Whitmarsh, T. Nauta ed. She and I are both agreed that the most recent critical edition of the Metamorphoses Martos , though admirable in many ways, follows the text of the chief eleventh-century manuscript F too closely;1 in this piece I want to present a number of conjectural solutions to the problems clearly presented by the readings of F.
Though F is good for its time, it has plenty of the minor flaws which medieval copyists import into classical texts, and there is often a case for improving its readings by conjec- ture. My thanks to the editors for helpful comments. I am most grateful to Michael Winterbot- tom for helpful discussion of the textual issues in this paper.
In all these cases I would agree with the supplement. GCA ad loc. Robertson conjectured mortem denique illam lentam de fame, but violence seems appropriate here; Hildebrand read mortem uiolentam ac nefantem; ————— 10 F in fact has neclegese, rightly corrected by most later MSS and all editors. Finally, for an element of control we may compare the large number of simi- lar phrases where the connective in such pairings is indubitably transmitted, which show that such syndetic pairs especially alliterative or assonant ones are a frequent feature of Apuleian style in the Metamorphoses: cf.
The contrast with the preced- ing sic, which Van der Paardt rightly identifies as important here, is also better expressed by nunc than tunc. The reading iter inuium is defended by GCA ad loc. TLL 6,1,,67ff. Cura is problematic here see GCA ad loc. For a similar phrase cf. Bibliography Adams, J. Bernhard, M.
Review of J. Hofman, J. Martos, Juan. Paardt, van der, R. Reinhardt, T. Winterbottom, M. Martos, Apuleyo. To a certain extent, turning words into flesh is a feature of all fiction; if strictly formalized, it becomes a description of alle- gory. However, I wish to argue that in the Metamorphoses, the move is suf- ficiently specialized to become a distinct narrative device, while being broader and more varied than mere allegory. A very special instance of this kind of narrative instantiation is the story about how Lucius got his white horse back, because there the device itself is explicitly described and the description made part of the tale.
The episode takes place in the mysterious eleventh book, after the narrator and protago- nist Lucius has already changed his asinine shape back to a human one and become a devotee of the goddess Isis. Learning from a prophetic dream that ————— 1 A reading informed by much the same spirit as the present paper is Panayotakis There, Panayotakis argues that the three dangerous encounters awaiting Psyche in the underworld — a lame ass with his lame driver, a dead man, and some old crones — func- tion as abstract notions of Old Age, and of Mortality turned into flesh.
Since the like- ness between that article and the present one lies in the overall conception rather than in any details, I generally state my sympathetic outlook here.
The Works of Lord Byron (ed. Coleridge, Prothero)/Poetry/Volume 1
Sic anxius et in prouentum prospe- riorem attonitus templi matutinas apertiones opperiebar. When I asked the meaning of this, he replied that they had been sent to me as my belongings from Thessaly, and that there had also arrived from the same region a slave of mine by the name of Can- didus.
On awakening I pondered this vision long and repeatedly, wonder- ing what it meant, especially as I was convinced that I had never had a slave of that name. But whatever the prophetic dream portended, I thought that in any case this offering of belongings gave promise of un- doubted gain. So I was on tenterhooks, beguiled by this prospect of greater profit as I awaited the morning opening of the temple. The priest made his rounds of the altars posi- tioned there, performing the liturgy with the customary prayers, and pouring from a sacred vessel the libation-water obtained from the sanc- tuary of the goddess.
With the ceremony duly completed, the initiates greeted the dawning of the day, and loudly proclaimed the hour of Prime. Then suddenly the slaves whom I had left at Hypata, when Photis had involved me in those notorious wanderings, appeared on the scene. I suppose that they had heard the stories about me; they also brought back that horse of mine which had been sold to various owners, but which they had recovered after recognizing the mark on its back.
This caused me to marvel more than anything else at the perspicacity of my dream, for quite apart from getting confirmation of its promise of profit, by its mention of a slave Candidus it had restored to me my white horse. The new believer eagerly interprets the gifts offered as a promise of gain, but is at a loss when it comes to understanding the words about Candidus, since on the straightforward reading they have no referent.
The move from words to novelistic reality here takes the form of a riddle. As ancient prophecies go, this is certainly nothing un- usual, and what is important for the present argument is rather the narrative pattern: the words arrive on the scene first, and the thing is made to follow — as Lucius puts it, the cleverness of the dream sollertia somni has given him his horse back reddidisset. While it is common for form to imitate theme in a literary work, what we have here seems to be an inversion of that phenomenon. A remarkable trait about this particular instance is that both ingredients — the verbal expression and its thematic materialization — are spelled out, and so is the riddle-like relation between them: argumento serui Candidi equum mihi reddidisset ————— 3 Unless otherwise stated, all English translations of the Metamorphoses are from Walsh I hope to discuss this at greater length in an article which is in preparation.
The paleographic features suggest that the manuscript was produced in the 10 th century in the scriptorium of Touton, located in the Fayyum oasis.
As I said above, this fragment has neither been published, nor identified, before. However, a key to the identification of the text is supplied by its Christological tone. The fragment discusses the relationship between the human nature and the divine nature of Christ, a topic which caused problems during the Nestorian controversy. The extract from the homily about Mary is followed by another fragment from Proclus, this time from his third homily, in which the patriarch of Constantinople discusses the Incarnation of the Lord CPG Both quotations are so much altered that they are often hard to recognize.
What is more, I find it absolutely strange that the two Proclian quotations are not separated by any marker in the manuscript. They are combined in such a way that they seem to form a continuous textual unit. He who is impassible by his nature endured many sufferings on account of his compassion for us. For our Lord Jesus did not become man through accretion procope , but through his compassion for us, in the way we worship it and in our confessing God who bore holy flesh for us from the Virgin. This which he himself had made became for him mother. He who is motherless according to his essence, he who is fatherless according to his dispensation oikonomia.
If he is a man like us, then he is not motherless for he has a mother. If he is God, then he is not fatherless, for he has his Father in heaven. But now, he is one and the same and not two, motherless because he is the Creator, but he is also fatherless, as he became man. He to whom shape was not given at all had incarnated.
For it is a birth and a beginning of the one who had no beginning. On the one hand it was the beginning of his humanity, on the other hand the divinity had neither beginning nor ending. He who was formless took form and there was no increasing in the Trinity so as to become Tetrad, which means that 3 did not become 4. A single union, a single bringing in? A few words are required regarding the two texts of Proclus from which the citations were extracted.
The first quotation comes from a homily abundantly attested in virtually all languages of the Christian East, Coptic included. The only manuscript witnesses mentioned by Constas are two Greek codices, namely Vaticanus graecus 9 th th century and Vaticanus Barberinus 17 th century , but the latter is only a late copy of the former. These scanty testimonies are completed by a couple of extracts from the same homily, which occur in two different Greek florilegia. One of them is included in a Patristic anti-Chalcedonian florilegium , which is preserved in a Greek manuscript in Vatican Vaticanus graecus The text was published a long time ago by Eduard Schwartz.
Unfortunately, I have been unable to check whether the other extract also occurs in the anti-Chalcedonian collection, as the only edition of the Greek text is unavailable in the libraries to which I have access. Returning now to the fragment in Louvre, one could ask what kind of text this is. Was the leaf detached from a Christological anthology? Or perhaps it simply comes from the work of another author in which Proclus is extensively quoted? Either way, I find it very strange that the two extracts are not separated in the manuscript but they rather give the impression that they were intended to form a whole.
All these questions would probably be answered easily if someone would find other fragments from the same manuscript. So far, I have not been able to discover other related fragments, even if the hand that has copied the Louvre leaf looks familiar to me. But who knows: saepe dat una dies, quod non evenit in anno. Brill,