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Leda Tassopoulou… towards the ultimate light… [in Greek]. Highet, Gilbert Oxford University Press: Oxford. Ephimerida ton syntakton In: C. Ioannidou eds. Epidaurus Encounters. Parodos Verlag: Berlin, Kakleas, Y. Eleftheria on line. In: Aristophanes Lysistrata. Epikerotita: Athens, Lord, Louis E. His P lays and his Influence. Cooper Square Publishers Inc.

Greek Comedy and Ideology | David Konstan

In: V. Popa eds. Studies in Political Humour: In between political critique and public entertainment. John Benjamins Publishing, Manteli, V. New Voices in Classical Reception Studies , 9, Mavrogeni, M. Aristophanes on Modern Greek Stage [in Greek]. Phd diss. In idem ed. Karolos Koun — The Performances. Benaki Museum: Athens, Pappas, Th.

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Seller Inventory Greek Comedy and Ideology. David Konstan. Publisher: Oxford University Press , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title In comedy, happy endings resolve real-world conflicts. From the Back Cover : Comedy, with its happy endings, attempts to resolve conflicts that arise in the real world. Buy New View Book. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Greek Comedy and Ideology Konstan, David.

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Published by Oxford University Press. New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1. New Hardcover Quantity Available: To name a few differences, Greek plays were performed in an outdoor theater, used masks, and were almost always performed by a chorus and three actors no matter how many speaking characters there were in the play, only three actors were used; the actors would go back stage after playing one character, switch masks and costumes, and reappear as another character.

Greek plays were performed as part of religious festivals in honor of the god Dionysus, and unless later revived, were performed only once. Plays were funded by the polis, and always presented in competition with other plays, and were voted either the first, second, or third last place. Tragedies almost exclusively dealt with stories from the mythic past there was no "contemporary" tragedy , comedies almost exclusively with contemporary figures and problems. In what follows, we will run through an imaginary but as far a possible, accurate outline of the production of a Greek tragedy in 5th century BC Athens from beginning to end.

The outline will bring out some of the features of creating and watching a Greek tragedy that made it a different process than it is today. Staging a play. Greek tragedies and comedies were always performed in outdoor theaters. Early Greek theaters were probably little more than open areas in city centers or next to hillsides where the audience, standing or sitting, could watch and listen to the chorus singing about the exploits of a god or hero.

From the late 6th century BC to the 4th and 3rd centuries BC there was a gradual evolution towards more elaborate theater structures, but the basic layout of the Greek theater remained the same. The major components of Greek theater are labled on the diagram above.

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Orchestra : The orchestra literally, "dancing space" was normally circular. It was a level space where the chorus would dance, sing, and interact with the actors who were on the stage near the skene. The earliest orchestras were simply made of hard earth, but in the Classical period some orchestras began to be paved with marble and other materials. In the center of the orchestra there was often a thymele, or altar. The orchestra of the theater of Dionysus in Athens was about 60 feet in diameter. Theatron : The theatron literally, "viewing-place" is where the spectators sat. The theatron was usually part of hillside overlooking the orchestra, and often wrapped around a large portion of the orchestra see the diagram above.

Greek Comedy and Ideology

Spectators in the fifth century BC probably sat on cushions or boards, but by the fourth century the theatron of many Greek theaters had marble seats. Skene : The skene literally, "tent" was the building directly behind the stage. During the 5th century, the stage of the theater of Dionysus in Athens was probably raised only two or three steps above the level of the orchestra, and was perhaps 25 feet wide and 10 feet deep.

The skene was directly in back of the stage, and was usually decorated as a palace, temple, or other building, depending on the needs of the play. It had at least one set of doors, and actors could make entrances and exits through them. There was also access to the roof of the skene from behind, so that actors playing gods and other characters such as the Watchman at the beginning of Aeschylus' Agamemnon could appear on the roof, if needed.

Parodos : The parodoi literally, "passageways" are the paths by which the chorus and some actors such as those representing messengers or people returning from abroad made their entrances and exits. The audience also used them to enter and exit the theater before and after the performance. Greek Theaters Click here to explore more about Greek theaters in Perseus, with descriptions, plans, and images of eleven ancient theaters, including the Theater of Dionysus in Athens, and the theater at Epidaurus.

The basic structure of a Greek tragedy is fairly simple. After a prologue spoken by one or more characters, the chorus enters, singing and dancing. Scenes then alternate between spoken sections dialogue between characters, and between characters and chorus and sung sections during which the chorus danced.

Here are the basic parts of a Greek Tragedy:. Prologue : Spoken by one or two characters before the chorus appears. The prologue usually gives the mythological background necessary for understanding the events of the play. Parodos : This is the song sung by the chorus as it first enters the orchestra and dances.

First Episode : This is the first of many "episodes", when the characters and chorus talk. First Stasimon : At the end of each episode, the other characters usually leave the stage and the chorus dances and sings a stasimon, or choral ode. The ode usually reflects on the things said and done in the episodes, and puts it into some kind of larger mythological framework.

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For the rest of the play, there is alternation between episodes and stasima, until the final scene, called the Exodos : At the end of play, the chorus exits singing a processional song which usually offers words of wisdom related to the actions and outcome of the play. Click here to see an analysis of the structure of the plays read in Humanities This page allows you to find passages in the any of the plays in either Greek or English.

In sections H and I there are links which allow you to search for particular English or Greek words in the text of any of the plays. Search for English word in any of the plays. To search for the occurance s an English word in one of the plays, click on the above, and type in the English word in the box marked "Look for:"; then type in the name of the author of the play Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, or Aristophanes in the box marked "Show results for".

The search will turn up the occurance of the word you have requested in all of the plays of the author you have typed in. Search for Greek word in any of the plays. You do not have to know ancient Greek to use this helpful resource. The Greek word search program allows you to type in an English word, and then gives you all of the Greek words that have that English word as part of the definition. You can then search for those Greek words in the Greek texts you are interested in.

This is very helpful, because it allows you to be less dependent on the English translation when you are searching for a word or concept in the Greek text. For example, if you are exploring the issue of "justice" in one of the plays, you can find out what the Greek words are that have "justice" as part of their definition, and then search for those words directly in the Greek text of the play. Goldhill, S. Reading Greek Tragedy Heath, M.

Word and Action Lesky, A. Greek Tragic Poetry Rehm, R.

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