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Four of the confessions were videotaped and shown at trial. The hours of interrogations that preceded these statements were not recorded. The tapes were dramatic, with each defendant describing in vivid though, in many ways, inaccurate detail how the jogger was attacked, when, where, and by whom, and the role that each played. Thirteen years later, Matias Reyes, in prison for three rapes and a murder committed after the jogger attack, stepped forward and confessed.

He said that he was the Central Park jogger rapist and that he acted alone. Investigating his claim, the district attorney's office questioned Reyes and discovered that he had accurate knowledge of the crime not previously known to police. In addition, DNA testing revealed that Reyes was the source of the semen samples recovered from the victim—which, early on, had excluded the boys. By exposing five false confessions, emanating from a single investigation, this case raises serious questions about the interrogation of juveniles.

Although merely suggestive, these criminal justice statistics are consistent with a large body of research. Overall, The link between youth and a vulnerability to false confessions under pressure is not hard to explain. Developmental psychologists had observed these tendencies long before the scientific study of confessions. Supreme Court in Roper v.

False confessions

Simmons , 57 the American Medical Association et al. When a suspect recants his or her confession, pleads not guilty, and goes to trial, a judge determines in a pretrial hearing if the confession was voluntary and hence admissible as evidence. If the confession is admitted, the jury must then determine the credibility of the confession and whether the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.


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In these cases, one might imagine that these fact finders provide an effective safety net. But mock jury experiments have instead demonstrated that confession evidence is potent and difficult to overcome. Over the years, mock jury studies have shown that confessions have more incriminating impact than other potent forms of evidence 59 —even when it is logically and legally appropriate to discount them.

In one study, mock jurors were heavily influenced by a defendant's confession, relative to the same case facts absent the confession—even when it was indisputably induced by an explicit promise of leniency. In an experiment that illustrates the potent impact of confessions, subjects were presented with one of three versions of a murder trial transcript. A control version contained no confession in evidence. They judged the statement to be involuntary and said it did not influence their decisions.

This increase occurred even when subjects were specifically admonished to disregard confessions they found to be coerced.

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This precise pattern of results—an increase in guilty verdicts from confessions perceived to be coerced—was later replicated in an experiment involving experienced judges. There are three reasons why judges and juries are easily overwhelmed by confession evidence. Most people believe that they would never confess to a heinous crime they did not commit. People are also not aware of the personal and situational risk factors that would make this happen. Time and again, research has shown that the psychology of false confessions is counterintuitive, not known to the average person as a matter of common sense.

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The second reason is that most confessions contain not just an admission of guilt but a full narrative that describes the crime. Basic cognitive research reveals a third reason for the power of confessions in court: Confessions taint the perceptions of witnesses, forensic examiners, and others who ultimately contribute evidence. This effect is consistent with psychological research on cognitive coherence, by which any probative item of evidence can color the appraisal of other evidence.

In the landmark case of Miranda v. Arizona , 74 the U. Although this ruling was presumed to protect people who stand accused, its benefits in the wake of 50 years of experience are unclear. One problem is that some suspects lack the capacity to understand and apply these rights. This is particularly problematic for young adolescents e. Even in normal adults, research shows that a suspect's capacity may be compromised by interrogation stress and other situational factors.

A second limitation stems from the fact that most people waive their rights, thereby allowing themselves to be interrogated. After viewing numerous interrogations, one researcher notes that detectives are adept at convincing suspects to waive their rights. In short, these two sets of limitations, exposed by 50 years of psychological research, suggests that the Court's assumptions concerning waiver decisions that are knowing, intelligent, and voluntary are problematic and not sufficiently protective of the accused.

Even well adjusted, intelligent adults are at risk of succumbing to police pressure—despite Miranda. Because most suspects fail to activate their Miranda rights, it is clear that other safeguards are needed. There are numerous advantages to a videotaping policy. To begin, the presence of a camera will deter interrogators from using highly coercive tactics—and it will also deter frivolous defense claims of coercion where none existed.

In a mock crime and investigation experiment, 61 experienced police officers interrogated a guilty or innocent suspect. Before each interrogation, half the investigators were informed that their session would be surreptitiously recorded; the others were not informed. A second presumed advantage is that a videotaped record will provide an objective and accurate record of the process by which a statement was taken—which is a common source of dispute in courtrooms all over the country. Still, I decided to include my favorite one from the series in this list as an honorable mention.

Ranma is a boy who is cursed to turn into a girl when splashed with cold water. No worries though, hot water turns him back into a boy. Because of this, he has an endless stream of both male and female suitors, among them is Shampoo, a Chinese Amazon warrior who had a very different relationship with his two different bodies.

The Kiss of Death is a kiss given on the cheek to any female outsider who defeats a female Amazon warrior. A few months of being stalked and hunted later, Ranma runs into Shampoo as a guy, and she attacks him because she believes he is hiding female Ranma from her. And Shampoo is determined to get rid of anyone who is in the way of her revenge. Not wanting to have a crazy girl trying to kill both his forms, Ranma attempts to end the fight in a draw, but he accidentally defeats Shampoo for a second time.

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Surprise, surprise! Because a female Amazon defeated by a male outsider must give him the Kiss of Marriage. Their way is to marry a strong man and have strong babies. In a dystopic, dying world, childhood friends Safu and Shion live in the supposedly perfect utopia city No. When Shion broke some rules at age 12, his family was moved to a less desirable part of the city, and Safu was the only one of his old friends who has kept in contact with him since. Two days before she plans to leave, Shion and Safu are just hanging out when, out of the blue, Safu tells Shion she wants something from him.

What does she want? Let's see. If the player agrees "Love it" , they will look at each other lovingly and begin a relationship; if the player disagrees "Bad idea" , their faces will change from happy expressions to shocked ones and will sometimes faint, and the relationship is off. Unlike the love confession, they will neither be seen worried when entering their apartment, nor does the music play; instead, the regular problem music plays. When tapping their thought bubble, the Mii says "I think [Mii] likes me.

What do you think? If the player chooses "Go for it! The location will be chosen randomly and the confession way will automatically "Be showy". Like a normal confession, the confessed Mii will accept or reject the confessor, retaining the same consequences as a normal confession would. However, in this type of confession, no other Miis can interrupt the confession.

Sometimes, if the player chooses "Go for it! This outcome only happens when the Mii have "Getting along OK" relationship or lower with each other. They will not gain sadness however. This type of event plays almost the same as a normal confession, but with a few differences.

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As the name suggests, this type of love confession will usually fail if the dating Mii's relationship with their sweetheart is good enough. If a Mii confesses their love to someone in a relationship, another person interrupts their confession, and the target crush chooses the interrupting Mii; but if the player says that they can't date then the target crush will stay with their original sweetheart. This outcome is very rare and it only happens if the confessed Mii's relationship with the first confessor is lower than the interrupting Mii.

In Tomodachi Life , a Mii who has two friends of the opposite gender might try to set up a relationship between the two. Unlike the love confession, they will have an orange friendship icon on their apartment window instead of a pink icon. The player can say yes, no, or have the Mii choose a different partner to set up with. But, the female Miis available are limited, and consist mostly of those whom both the asking Mii is friends with.

1. Rejected.

Once the player has said yes or selected a different partner, a number of cut-scenes will ensue. The first scene is at the train station where the two Miis happily chat together or look around while waiting for a train. The other friend watches the two Miis through a newspaper with a hole in it.

The second scene is at the amusement park. The two Miis will be together riding the merry-go-round, sometimes talking, with the other friend watching them in a bear suit and trying to give out balloons to cover up their spying. The two Miis will talk to each other or stare out the window and drink coffee while the other friend peeks through the window. The final scene is at the fountain, where the outcome of their relationship is decided.

The Miis will be walking together on the way home, the friend Mii watching them from the fountain. They stop at the fountain and say their final words before parting. If the setup worked, the male Mii will say how much fun they had, prompting the other to suggest hanging out again.