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Online sexual activity includes viewing and downloading pornography, visiting sex shops for sexual aids and toys, advertising or hiring sex workers on the Internet, seeking sex education information, locating sex contacts, and interacting with sexual subcultures or communities Exposure to pornography results in reduced self-esteem and body image satisfaction, increased sense of vulnerability to violence, and an increased sense of defenselessness in women, and in men in reward for displays of hyper masculinity and trivializing or excusing violence against women Cybersex usually involves watching, downloading, and online trading of pornography or connecting to chat rooms using role plays and fantasy for men 21 and this space enables people to explore and investigate their sexual urges and private fantasies online Cybersex addicts tend to suffer from poor impulse control and often have a history of multiple addictions to alcohol, tobacco, drugs, gambling, food, or sex.

If an online user already suffers from a history of sexual addiction, cybersex serves as another outlet for gratification that feeds a previous problem. There are studies showing that cybersex negatively affects the patient, the spouse, and the family 24 , Other studies have found that males use cybersex for mood management 26 , Although cybersex can be used as an outlet for sexual activity there is therefore no evidence that those who use it are sexually addicted.

It is important to investigate the relationship between pornography and cybersex and to ascertain their effects on the ability to form intimate relationships in men and women.

My Girlfriend Is A World Famous Porn Star - EXTREME LOVE

Recent studies by Laier and Brand 28 , 29 explain the use of pornography and cybersex as means of sexual arousal and gratification. Furthermore, Laier and Brand 30 , described a model on the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction which is based on the model for Internet addiction introduced by Brand et al. These models support the arguments for the link between pornography and cybersex.

Consistent with previous studies and models on sex addiction 28 — 31 , we have investigated the frequency of cybersex use, craving for pornography and the ability to form intimate relationships among men and women who use pornography and cybersex on the Internet. In accordance with findings of previous research, we have predicted that frequency of using cybersex, craving for pornography would predict difficulty in intimacy in men and women who use cybersex.

Second, we have predicted that sex, craving for pornography and difficulties in intimacy would predict frequency of cybersex use. Third, we have predicted that there would be sex differences in the frequency of use of cybersex and craving for pornography. The participants of this study were recruited from forums on the Internet that are dedicated to pornography and cybersex in order to satisfy sexual curiosity and arousal. Men and women were approached on the websites and were asked to fill in questionnaires and send them by mail to the investigators.

Questionnaires were anonymous and there were no means for assessing deception by the participants. Inclusion criteria for compulsive sexual behavior were males and females who use the Internet for sex purpose. From the original sample of , five participants did not meet inclusion criteria and were removed from the sample and participants remained. Education attainments were 6.

Employment status of the participants included Marital status was Most of the participants lived in the city Demographic questionnaire including items on age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, type of living urban or rural , and religion. Cybersex addiction test 23 , which consists of 20 questions about cybersex addiction including pornography. For example, rate the frequency that you neglect your duties in order to spend more time in cybersex, the frequency that you prefer cybersex on intimacy with your partner, the frequency that you spend time in chat rooms and private conversations in order to find partners for cybersex, the frequency that people complain about the time that you spend online, etc.

Participants were divided into four groups non-addicted score 0—30 , moderately addicted 31—49 , medium addiction 50—79 , and severely addicted 80— Craving for pornography questionnaire 32 , which consists of 20 questions about perceived control in using pornography, changes in mood, psychophysiological activity, and intention for using pornography.

Scores vary from low levels of craving for pornography 0—20 and high craving for pornography — Questionnaire on difficulties in intimacy 33 , which consists of 12 questions including 4 questions on fear of abandonment, 4 on fear of exposure, and 4 on shame and fear of rejection. The questionnaire has been widely used for research on psychosocial intimacy and for couple treatment. The questionnaires were filled in online using a form that was created through Google Drive and was sent as a link on email messages to members in groups and forums on pornography and cybersex.

Those who responded filled in the questionnaires and informed consent forms while privacy and anonymity were maintained. Descriptive statistics of male and female participants on the questionnaires measuring frequency of cybersex, craving for pornography and difficulties in intimacy was performed. A stepwise regression analysis was performed with measures of intimacy as a dependent variable.

In the first step, craving for pornography was entered; in the second step, gender was entered; and in the third step, frequency of cybersex use entered as independent variables. Comparison of questionnaire measures according to gender and level of use of cybersex:. Male and female participants were compared on measures of the questionnaires measuring frequency of cybersex, craving for pornography, and difficulties in intimacy.

Post hoc comparisons of questionnaire measures in all groups were performed with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons. A Pearson correlational analysis between frequency of using cybersex, craving for pornography, and difficulties in forming intimate relationship scores was performed in all participants also separate in men and women.

The results of the regression analysis using intimacy ratings as a dependent variable, indicated that the three variables of pornography, gender, and cybersex were significant and they all accounted for Craving for pornography accounted for Questionnaire ratings of cybersex, porn and intimacy — a comparison between men and women. An ANOVA of the factors of frequency of cybersex, craving for pornography, ratings of difficulties intimacy, and gender was performed. Post hoc comparisons of questionnaire measures in all groups were performed.

The analysis showed that participants who had a high score on cybersex frequency had higher scores of craving for pornography and higher rates of difficulties in forming intimate relationship than those with low frequency of using cybersex. Questionnaire Ratings according to levels of use of cyberspace non-users, light users, moderate users, and heavy users.

Questionnaire ratings of frequency of use of cybersex, craving for pornography, and difficulties in intimacy in all participants.

Sexuality and cyberporn: Towards a new agenda for research

The results of this study showed that men had higher scores on measures of craving for pornography and frequency of using cybersex than women. These findings support previous evidence for sex differences in the use of pornography and online sexual behaviors between men and women see Ref. Previous research has found that both women and men use all types of online sexual activities but women were more interested in interactive online sexual activity while men were more interested in visual oriented online sexual activity 21 , 35 — In general, women found this use of sexual media acceptable or positive when associated with shared sexual activity.

Gender has been found to be an important indicator of sexual attitudes and behaviors related to sexual explicit material found online 21 , 41 — Males were more likely than females to view erotic material online and offline and males go online at an earlier age to view sexual materials 45 — Males most often report sexually explicit materials online to be arousing. While some females found these materials to be arousing, more reported the sexually explicit materials to be disturbing and disgusting Women reported that the primary reason they used sexual media is as part of lovemaking with their partners or in response to requests by their partner.

Juffer, Jane – | maliwahyca.cf

In general, women found this use of sexual media acceptable or positive when associated with a shared sexual activity. Females also reported feeling anger about online sexual materials 42 , negatively compare themselves with online images 22 , and often reported feelings of betrayal by their partners The difference in reported frequency of using cybersex between men and women in our study may be since women feel fear of disclosure and feeling uncomfortable about admitting such activity. Second, since intimacy is an essential ingredient in cybersex which unlike pornography in general it is also characterized by chatting with a partner, participants may be jealously keeping discretion about this activity from their partner.

There could be several reasons why craving for pornography was higher in men than women in this study. Women prefer romantic fantasies and also look for intimacy and connection that is not provided by pornography whereas men look for short-term visual and graphic triggers for sexual arousal and prefer pornography.

This pattern is supported by recent brain imaging studies that have demonstrated the differences between men and women in sexual arousal 50 , Hamann 51 examined brain activity with fMRI in men and women while they viewed sexually arousing photographs and neutral photographs. The primary finding was that the amygdala and hypothalamus exhibited substantially more activation in men than in women when viewing the same sexually arousing visual stimuli, presumably due to a stronger appetitive motivation or desire elicited by visual sexual stimuli.

Furthermore, sexual activity in men is strongly related to psychological problems in daily life Brand et al. Laier et al. Problematic cybersex users reported greater sexual arousal and craving reactions in response to pornographic cue presentation. However, the number and the quality with real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Finally, craving, sexual arousal rating of pictures, sensitivity to sexual excitation, problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms predicted tendencies toward cybersex addiction in Internet pornography users whereas being in a relationship, number of sexual contacts, satisfaction with sexual contacts, and use of interactive cybersex were not associated with cybersex addiction The finding of an association between craving for pornography and frequency of using cybersex is evident since those who started watching pornography have moved on to cybersex and vice versa and those websites advertise together both forms of sex media.

Juffer, Jane 1962–

The use of pornography is associated with difficulty in forming intimate relationship since pornography fills up a gap in the real world, and creates a virtual reality in which women always get satisfied and never complain. Cybersex enables those who have problems in attachment and avoid intimacy to form virtual relationships where warmth and affection and commitment are not required. An appealing feature of cybersex is that there is no requirement to perform the sexual act together so one does not fear performance anxiety.

The use of sexual activity on the Internet affects sexual activity offline and there is evidence that some Internet users had abandoned or decreased their offline pornography consumption, while sexual compulsive users were found to increase their offline pornography consumption to a greater extent than did non-sexually compulsives Finally, sexual activity online negatively affected the relationship between men and women.

Many studies showed that the consumption of Internet pornography threatens the economic, emotional, and relational stability of marriages and families 40 , 53 — 61 see Ref. These studies indicated that pornography consumption, including cybersex, was significantly associated with decreased marital sexual satisfaction and sexual intimacy. Men and women perceived online sexual activity as threatening to a marriage as offline infidelity 56 , The discovery that one of the partners is involved in sexual activity online leads to a re-evaluation of the relationship.

They reported feeling as though their partners were not interested in making love to them, but during sexual intercourse were picturing the women they had seen in the pornography. They also felt their partners were less trustworthy, usually because he would keep the use a secret from them even when they did not object to it. Nearly three-quarters reported feeling that the use negatively affected their self-esteem.

Some felt they had failed their partners sexually; if they had been better sexual partners, their partners never would have had to turn to such material for sexual satisfaction. In this way sex on the Internet is quite often a mirror for dysfunctional sexual relationships at home and online as well Schneider 24 has described how sexual addiction and compulsivity affected the patients, the spouse and the whole family. The survey respondents 93 women and 3 men felt hurt, betrayal, rejection, abandonment, devastation, loneliness, shame, isolation, humiliation, jealousy, and anger, as well as loss of self-esteem.

Being lied to repeatedly was a major cause of distress. Furthermore, cybersex addiction was a major contributing factor to separation and divorce of couples in this survey. In view of this abundant evidence for the damage of online pornography and cyberspace to couple and family life further research merits investigation on how to treat this modern outlet for sexual behavior. Limitations, this study relied on ratings of subjective questionnaires which may result in variance of responses.

Despite the promise of anonymity and confidentiality it is plausible that some of the responders have not fully disclosed the full information. Second, there may be other factors that are important in determining the effects of pornography and sex on intimacy and cybersex addiction that have not been investigated in this study. Thirdly, there was an unequal number of men and women with age difference between samples and this could limit the generalizability of the results. Finally, the Questionnaire on difficulties in intimacy by Marenco 33 has been widely used for research on psychosocial intimacy and for couple treatment but it needs further validation of reliability and validity in larger studies.

In conclusion, the results of this study showed sex differences between men and women in their craving for pornography and frequency of using cybersex and that both craving for pornography and frequency of cybersex were associated with difficulty in forming intimate relationship. The reasons why people turn into cybersex are important, whether it is since passion has subsided over the years, or whether it is convenience, disappointment from past romantic relationships that lead into isolation and more.

It is also important to know the reasons why people switched from pornography to cybersex and vice versa, whether it is the need for a partner or a need for stronger stimulation and arousal. A following study could also look at sexual preferences of men and women that may explain why for example some men or women use cybersex to fulfill homosexual activity.

Finally, these studies have implications for treatment and sex therapy since a thorough understanding of the mechanisms and processes underlying compulsive sexual behavior are important for treating this disorder. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Assign a number that best describes how you feel concerning each of the following statements. Base your answers on what has been true for you for the greater part of your life.

What comes most quickly to your mind is usually the best answer. If you score higher than 10 on any of the three areas, this is a strong indication that this could be creating a block that prevents you from becoming more fully intimate with others. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

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Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online Apr Aviv M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders and Behavioral Dyscontrol, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Jan 11; Accepted Mar The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Sexual addiction otherwise known as compulsive sexual behavior is associated with serious psychosocial problems and risk-taking behavior. Keywords: sex addiction, pornography, cybersex, intimacy, craving. Introduction Sex addiction otherwise known as Compulsive sexual behavior, has been associated with serious psychosocial problems and risk-taking behaviors.

Procedure Participants The participants of this study were recruited from forums on the Internet that are dedicated to pornography and cybersex in order to satisfy sexual curiosity and arousal. Questionnaires 1. Procedure The questionnaires were filled in online using a form that was created through Google Drive and was sent as a link on email messages to members in groups and forums on pornography and cybersex. Statistical analysis 1. Regression analysis of all variables The results of the regression analysis using intimacy ratings as a dependent variable, indicated that the three variables of pornography, gender, and cybersex were significant and they all accounted for Open in a separate window.

Comparison of questionnaire measures according to gender 1. Table 2 Means and SD of males and females on all questionnaires. Figure 1. Table 3 Questionnaire Ratings according to levels of use of cyberspace non-users, light users, moderate users, and heavy users. Figure 2. Discussion The results of this study showed that men had higher scores on measures of craving for pornography and frequency of using cybersex than women.

Limitations Limitations, this study relied on ratings of subjective questionnaires which may result in variance of responses. Conclusion In conclusion, the results of this study showed sex differences between men and women in their craving for pornography and frequency of using cybersex and that both craving for pornography and frequency of cybersex were associated with difficulty in forming intimate relationship.

Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Appendix Intimacy questionnaire Assign a number that best describes how you feel concerning each of the following statements. You have an uneasy feeling that people will smother you if you get too close 4. A parent physically or emotionally abandoned you in your childhood 5. You were teased or shamed for your feelings or needs when you were younger 6. You feel that one of your parents or significant caretakers was overly involved in your life 7.

You would want to hide if your partner did a background check on you that was really on the mark 9. You are comfortable showing your checkbook to your partner You feel smothered when in the first few weeks of a relationship your partner wants you to call every day. Scoring Fear of abandonment add your scores for questions 1, 4, 7, and 10 Total Fear of exposure add your scores for questions 2, 5, 8, and 11 Total Fear of engulfment add your scores for questions 3, 6, 9, and 12 If you score higher than 10 on any of the three areas, this is a strong indication that this could be creating a block that prevents you from becoming more fully intimate with others.

References 1. Quadland MC. Compulsive sexual behavior: definition of a problem and an approach to treatment. J Sex Marital Ther 11 2 — Garcia FD, Thibaut F.

Sexual addictions. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 36 5 — Employing researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, English, psychology, and sociology, this unique resource provides a revealing look at what really goes on in the clubs, on the streets, on the Internet, and behind the scenes of the gay porn industry. The book includes extensive references. Areas studied in Male Sex Work: A Business Doing Pleasure include: interpersonal relationships among male street prostitutes gay sex tourism strippers and the performance of sexuality the environmental context of male street prostitution racism and the male sex industry escorts and professional self-identity performers in pornography and the retrogressive dynamic the personal and community needs of Internet escorts the fluidity of power dynamics between stripper and customer Male Sex Work: A Business Doing Pleasure is an insightful resource valuable for educators and students in psychology, sociology, social work, men's studies, sexology, anthropology, and gay and lesbian studies.

Seller Inventory AA Annotated edition. A survey of the changing and charged relationship between pornography and legislation in 20th century America. Perhaps nothing evokes more universal disgust as child pornography. The world of its makers and users is so abhorrent that it is rarely discussed much less studied. Child pornographers have taken advantage of this and are successfully using the new electronic media to exchange their wares without detection or significant sanction. What are the implications of this threat for free speech and a free exchange of ideas on the internet?

And how can we stop this illegal activity, which is so repugnant that even the most laissez-faire cyberlibertarians want it stamped out, if we know nothing about it? Philip Jenkins takes a leap onto the lower tiers of electronic media in this first book on the business of child pornography online. He tells the story of how the advent of the internet caused this deviant subculture to become highly organized and go global. We learn how the trade which operates on clandestine websites from Budapest or Singapore to the U.

Jenkins details how the most sophisticated transactions are done through a proxy, a "false flag" address, rendering the host computer, and participants, virtually unidentifiable. And these sites exist for only a few minutes or hours allowing on-line child pornographers to stay one step ahead of the law.

This is truly a globalized criminal network which knows no names or boundaries, and thus challenges both international and U. Beyond Tolerance delves into the myths and realities of child pornography and the complex process to stamp out criminal activity over the web, including the timely debates over trade regulation, users' privacy, and individual rights. This sobering look and a criminal community contains lessons about human behavior and the law that none interested in media and the new technology can afford to ignore. Seller Inventory AAC A unique and important book.

I have never read any work which analyzes the subject in such a manner. This book is more thorough and has a more liberated point of view than others which attempt to tackle this 'hot potato' of the s. Men should read this book. Women should read this book. Karen DeCrow, former President, NOW This study slices like a laser through all the fog of rhetoric, disinformation, bias, and fear that has long enveloped all discussions of the subject of pornography in the US.

No argument in favor of the censorship of such material can be considered valid unless the basic arguments of this study are answered. This is a valuable resource for all academic libraries and could well become a fundamental weapon in the war to preserve the First Amendment. This book should be purchased by all but the smallest libraries; it may well be the most honest discussion of the subject ever written. Choice In the continuing debate over pornography, two arguments stand out: that it is evil and should be censored, or that it is evil but censorship is a greater evil. Christensen presents the other side of this debate in what will surely be one of the most controversial books on the subject.

Pornography: The Other Side convincingly argues that anti-pornography campaigns are themselves morally evil. The author defends this startling claim with a scientific persuasiveness. He successfully opens the pornography debate to include the whole picture, allowing the reader to grasp another side to this ongoing debate with concise, practical arguments.

Students and scholars of all the social sciences, as well as the informed general reader, will find Pornography: The Other Side a source of stimulating ideas. Christensen concludes that pornography itself is not the fundamental issue for those who oppose it. Vehement opposition to pornography, according to this book, is a symptom of tragically mistaken beliefs about sex.

What this book is really about, writes the author, is sex--and the evil effects on the lives of all of us which irrational attitudes toward that subject continue to have. Commercial sex is the occupation of a significant portion of the women of the world, providing economic support for millions of people and their families. Working at the Bar is the first-ever, long-term, longitudinal, in-depth study of a large sex work industry-and Thailand, the most prominent nation in the rapidly growing sex tourism industry, makes for an excellent case study.

While previous works have provided brief glimpses of one group of workers studied from a particular point of view, author Thomas Steinfatt examines considerations of health, behavior, economics, morality, religion, and worker safety. The result of data gathered from thousands of workers and customers in Thailand over a period of twelve years, Working at the Bar covers all aspects of an industry that, although it does not conform to various Western ideals, is nevertheless enormously significant.

Among the most provocative of Steinfatt's arguments is that sex work is not itself immoral, and that far from being the exploitation industry we might imagine, sex work in Thailand is beneficial to everyone involved-especially given that education in this nation has proven not to be a viable alternative. Providing an opportunity for economic progress unavailable through other means, and providing working conditions far safer than those of the average Thai factory, sex work is ripe for a study that explores all aspects and perceptions associated with it.

Working at the Bar is that long overdue study. Twenty-five years after the start of the feminist sex wars, pornography remains a flashpoint issue, with feminists locked in a familiar argument: Are women victims or agents?

The effects of pornography on children and young people

In At Home with Pornography, Jane Juffer exposes the fruitlessness of this debate and suggests that it has prevented us from realizing women's changing relationship to erotica and porn. Over the course of these same twenty-five years, there has been a proliferation of sexually explicit materials geared toward women, made available in increasingly mainstream venues.

In asking "what is the relationship of women to pornography? Where, she asks, do women routinely find it, for how much, and how is it circulated and consumed within the home? How is this circulation and consumption shaped by the different marketing categories that attempt to distinguish erotica from porn, such as women's literary erotica and sexual self-help videos for couples? At Home with Pornography responds to these questions by viewing women's erotica within the context of governmental regulation that attempts to counterpose a "dangerous" pornography with the sanctity of the home.

Juffer explorers how women's consumption of erotica and porn for their own pleasure can be empowering, while still acting to reinforce conservative ideals. She shows how, for instance, the Victoria's Secret catalog is able to function as a kind of pornography whose circulation is facilitated both by its reliance on Victorian themes of secrecy and privacy and on its appeals to the selfish pleasures of modern career women. In her pursuit to understand what women like and how they get it, Juffer delves into adult cable channels, erotic literary anthologies, sex therapy guides, cyberporn, masturbation, and sex toys, showing the varying degrees to which these materials have been domesticated for home consumption.

Representing the next generation of scholarship on pornography, At Home with Pornography will transform our understanding of women's everyday sexuality. Pornification presents an international overview of how pornography - from softcore to hardcore, gay to straight, female to male, black to white - infiltrates and proliferates through our media. Porn is everywhere; from the suggestiveness of music videos to the explicit discussions of popular magazines; from the erotica of advertising to the refashioning of sex acts into art works; from a small garage industry to an internet empire.

The media immerses us in the pornographic aesthetic. Now integral to popular culture, porn is part of our everyday lives. Sexual desire is commodified, pornified and the media leads the way. Marketing such controversial products as cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, gambling casinos, firearms, and pornography entails a host of issues not faced by marketers working in industries that do not stir political or social opposition. Davidson discusses the reasons for antagonism within each industry, suggests ways for marketers to counter such criticism or to work around it given the restraints imposed, and explains how specific marketing practices can actually lead to increased hostility in the marketplace.

This second edition features a new chapter on specific problems that each industry faces in online marketing, which has exploded in certain cases, especially in gambling and pornography. In addition, the new edition updates the legal environment in which each industry operates. A powerful indictment of contemporary attacks on free speech, this book argues for a vigorous First Amendment jurisprudence protecting even offensive types of speech. In recent years, political activists, academics, and legal specialists have attacked traditional notions of free speech protection as they concern hate speech, obscenity, and pornography.

They have called for changes in Supreme Court doctrine in defining the First Amendment and have argued that the traditional view of free speech actually creates and perpetuates a society in which the weak-women, minorities, the poor-have no voice. While recognizing their fears, Nicholas Wolfson argues that it is impossible to separate bad speech from good speech without fatally compromising the uniquely American concept of free speech, and that efforts to modify our concept of free speech for a greater egalitarian good can only result in undue state influence over private speech.

In a keenly argued analysis, he finds that, in the end, the preservation of free and vigorous speech requires a strong First Amendment protection for even the most hateful of speech. With the floodgates of the Web wide open, pornography is now readily available, literally at one's fingertips. While there have been studies conducted on internet pornography users, there have none until now on those that are exposed to the "second-hand" impact. This unprecedented book is daring study that provides a psychodynamic understanding of women's experiences of husbands who use Internet pornography.

It examines the relationship between wives' issues of self-esteem and their lack of efficacy; it also explores the female psychosexual development and its impact on wives' experiences with their husbands. This book is the first to explore the impact on women married to Internet pornography users. As one of the first studies daring enough to address and explore this darker side of society, this book should be on the shelves of all scholars in cultural anthropology, psychology, sociology, and women's studies.

Rae Langton here draws together her ground-breaking work on pornography and objectification. On pornography she argues from uncontroversial liberal premises to the controversial feminist conclusions that pornography subordinates and silences women, and that women have rights against pornography. On objectification she begins with the traditional idea that objectification involves treating a person as a thing, but then shows that it is through a kind ofself-fulfilling projection of beliefs and perceptions of women as subordinate that women are made subordinate and treated as things.

These controversial essays in feminist philosophy will be stimulating reading for anyone interested in the status of women in society. Book Description: Springer, Netherlands, In the essays that follow, Fred Berger argues for freedom of expression, civil disobedience, affirmative action and what he calls liberal judicial activism and against sex-role stereotyping, paternalism and the censorship of pornography. Underlying his liberalism is a unified theory.

That theory consists of a conception of rights, a theory of value and a theory of government. The conception of a right that Berger defends derives from J ohn Stuart Mill and is captured by what he calls "the rights- formula": to have a right is to have important interests that society ought to protect as a matter of general rule pp. Since rights are to be protected by general rule, case-by-case consideration of consequences is ruled out pp.

Berger combines this view of the nature of a right with an objective theory of value according to which the important interests that ought to be protected are ones that people have "whether they know them or not, whether they desire that in which they have an interest or not" p. Seller Inventory LIB Imagining Sex is a study of pornographic writing in seventeenth-century England.

It explores a wide variety of written material from the period to argue that, unlike today, pornography was not a discrete genre, nor was it one that was usually subject at this time to suppression. Pornographic writing was a widespread feature of a range of texts, including both popular literature ballads, news-sheets, court reports, small books, and pamphlets as well aspoetry, drama and more specialised medical books. The book analyses representations of sex, sexuality and eroticism in historical context to explore contemporary thinking about these issues, but also about broader cultural concerns and shifts in attitudes.

It questions both modern feminist and psychoanalyticalinterpretations of pornography, arguing that these approaches are neither appropriate nor helpful to an understanding of seventeenth-century material. Through discussions of sex and reproduction, homosexuality, flagellation, voyeurism, and humour, the book explores the nature of early modern sexual desire and arousal and explores their relationship to contemporary understandings about how the body worked.